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CLASS OF 1889 


^ ^ A v-^^^ ^'^^ ^ 










Mary Anna Jackson 

with an introduction 
By henry M. field, D.D. 





Copyright, 1891, by Harper & Brothers. 
All rights reserved. 



^\)\5 Book is mebicateb 









For many years after the death of my husband the 
shadow over my hfe Avas so deep, and all that con- 
cerned him Avas so sacred, that I could not consent to 
lift the veil to the public gaze. But time softens, if it 
does not heal, the bitterest sorrow ; and the pleadings 
of his only child, after reaching Avomanhood, finally 
prevailed upon me to Avrite out for her and her chil- 
dren my memories of the father she had never known 
on earth. She was m\^ inspiration, encouraging me, 
and delighting in every page that Avas Avritten ; but 
the Avork Avas not more than half completed Avhen 
God took her to be Avith him Avhose memory she cher- 
ished Avith a reverence and devotion Avhich became 
more intense Avith the development of her own pure 
and noble character. After her departure, Avhich Avas 
truly '• sorrow's crown of sorroAvs," I had no heart to 
continue the Avork ; but, remembering hoAV earnestly 
she Avished me to Avrite it for her and her children, I 
renewed the effort to finish it, for the sake of the pre- 
cious little ones she left. In forcing my mind and pen 
to do their task, I found some '' surcease of sorrow " 
in carrvmo; out her Avishes; and, as I AA^ent on, the 


grand lessons of submission and fortitude of nw hus- 
band's life gave me strength and courage to ])ersevere 
to the end. 

If it be thought that I have been too free in my 
revelations of what was so purely personal, in that it 
pertained to his home circle, it must be remembered 
that this Avas written expressly for his grandchildren, 
who in no other way could ever know that tender and 
exquisite ])hase of his inner life, wJiich was never re- 
vealed to the world. 

Maky An^^a Jackson. 






in. FOUR YEARS AT WEST POINT— 1842-1846 .... 30 

lY. THE WAR WITH MEXICO— 1846-1848 40 

TUTE— 1851-1861 51 



IX. WAR CLOUDS— 1860-1861 133 

X. HARPER'S FERRY— 1861 148 







NASSAS 3-22 




SPONDENCE— 1862-3 395 




General Thomas J. Jackson Frontispiece. 

Father of Stonewall Jackson Facing page 8 

Birthplace of General Jackson, Clarksburg, 

West Virginia 15 

Stonewall Jackson at the Age op Twenty- 
four Facing page 48 

View Near Lexington " 53 

The Virginia Military Institute 54 

The Jackson Dwelling, Lexington 107 

"Old Sorrel" 173 

Monument AVhere Jackson Fell, at Chancellorsville . 446 
The Jackson Statue by Foley, Kichmond . . Facing page 478 
Jackson's Tomb, Lexington, Virginia 479 


The time has come when we can do justice to 
those who were once in arms against us. Our heroes, 
on the one side and on the other, are nearly all gone 
to the grave. As they drew near the end, those who 
had been separated in unnatural strife felt the old 
love come back again, and yearned for mutual recog- 
nition. General Grant, on his death-bed, opened his 
heart to General Buckner, speaking with the utmost 
tenderness of the South, which had suffered so much. 
It was his dying wish that all her wounds might 
be healed ; and that henceforth the North and the 
South should stand together, equal partners in one 
glorious Union. It is only a few months since Gen- 
eral Sherman was borne through our streets, and 
among those who followed at his bier was his great 
adversary, General Johnston, who, by a singular co- 
incidence, survived him but a few weeks. Thus the 
warriors who once "to battle rode" at the head of 
hostile armies, now fall into line in the great proces- 
sion to that realm of silence in which all enmities are 

In this bearing of our great soldiers towards each 


Other, they Avho were "first in war" were also '"first 
in peace;" and it were well if they should remain 
''first in the hearts of their countrymen," as the 
leaders whom we are to follow in the work of re- 
union. '- ^Vhy, then, do we recall the memories of a 
war that is ended, and that had better be forgotten ? 
Let the dead past bury its dead." But out of that 
dead past comes the living present. A great Avar 
cannot be forgotten. If it were only as a terrific 
explosion of human passion, a tragedy of which all 
the world are spectators — it would have a terrible 
fascination. Civil war has a still more tragic interest, 
as it is a war between brothers, and, though family 
quarrels are proverbially bitter, yet all the while, deep 
down in our hearts, there is a lingering tenderness 
that other times and other scenes may awaken again. 
To rekindle this feeling, if it be not the design of 
the present volume, cannot fail to be one result of it. 
It is a poor reconciliation which is obtained only by 
agreeing never to speak of the past. It is the very 
thing of which we should speak, kindly indeed, but 
Avithout reserve. Men Avho are honest and braA^e 
have nothing to be ashamed of and nothing to con- 
ceal ; and the better they know each other, the more 
Avill they be draAvn together by the mutual attraction 
of noble characters. Besides, the four years of our Civil 
AVar Avere in some respects the grandest since the 
nation Avas born. AAvful, terrible, it is true, but mag- 
nificent and sublime. Then for the first time tlie 
American people learned Avhat stuff they Avere made 


of. For the development of character those four 
years were better than a hundred years of unbroken 
prosperity. Better than all the summer sunshine on 
ripening harvests were the thunders and lightnings 
that woke a nation to life, and gave it the full con- 
sciousness of its power. Never did our countrymen 
rise to such heights of courage and devotion. Never 
did they perform such deeds, or make such sacrifices. 
We must be sunk low indeed if we are capable of 
forgetting the most splendid period of American 

Nor would we have our annals limited to those 
who fought on the side that was victorious. A na- 
tion's life is counted not by years, but by genera- 
tions. A generation that was distinguished by its 
w^ars is followed by one that is devoted to the arts 
of peace; and sons may be proud of the deeds of 
their fathers, and yet not think it a part of loyalty 
to keep alive their hatreds. Indeed, there comes a 
time when the great figures that pass before us on 
the canvas of history are so blended that we hard- 
ly distinguish friends from foes, but recognize them 
all as actors in a time that is forever past. And 
so we can read the story of Lee and of Jackson 
with no wish to depreciate their greatness, but 
claimino: it as belono^in^" to us, since, if thev were 

O 7 7^. 

Southerners, they were also Americans, and their 
illustrious names are a part of our common inheri- 
tance of glory. Therefore it is that we welcome a 
tale of war which niav be said to be told in the in- 


terest of peace, as it describes a career that illustrates 
some of the noblest qualities of human character. 
Believing that a generous recognition of ^vhat was 
true and brave on both sides is the surest pledge of 
complete reconciliation, I count it a privilege to 
have a part, however slight, in this tribute to a 
Christian soldier, who, if he were ''not with us but 
against us,'' showed such high qualities, such power 
of command, such fortitude, and such true moral 
greatness, as to be worthy of the honor of us all. 

Stonewall Jackson was the most picturesque figure 
in the war. Xot so high in command as General 
Lee on the one side, or General Grant on the other, 
neither had a personality so unique. In Jackson 
there were two men in one : he united qualities that 
are not only alien to each other, but that seem almost 
incompatible — mihtary genius of the highest order 
with a religious fervor that bordered on fanaticism ; a 
union of the soldier and the saint for which we must 
go back to the time of Cromwell. A thunderbolt in 
war, he was in society so modest and unassuming as 
to appear even shy and timid. A character in wliich 
such contradictions are combined is one of the most 
fascinating studies to be found in American history. 

One view of this extraordinary man has already 
been given to the world. In the great o})erations of 
w^ar he was a character apart; a man of myster}^; 
silent and uncommunicative ; wrapping himself in his 
reserve as in a military cloak; asking no advice; form- 
ing his own plans, which those nearest to him could 


not penetrate and hardly dared to conjecture, and 
which were disclosed even to his military family only 
when he gave his orders for the march and the battle. 
Such is Stonewall Jackson as his martial figure passes 
before us on the canvas of history. 

But such is not the figure which it is the purpose of 
this volume to portray. The author has no thought of 
adding one more to the histories of the military career 
of General Jackson. That has been written by his old 
companions in arms, and by military critics at home 
and abroad who have made a study of his campaigns, 
following on the map those rapid marches in which he 
was not surpassed by I^apoleon in his first campaigns 
in Italy ; and finding in his peculiar strategy enough 
to give him a place among the great captains of the 

But with Jackson, as with others who have acted a 
great part in pubhc affairs, there was another side to 
the man — an inner life, known but to few, and fully 
known only to her who was united to him in the 
closest of all human relations. Of the war itself she 
has but little to tell us ; for he did not confide his 
plans even to her. It Avas not that he distrusted her 
womanly discretion ; but, in the midst of thousands of 
watchful eyes, had he disclosed to her the dangers into 
which he was going, her cheek might have blanched 
with fear, or a shade of anxiety passed over her 
countenance that would have set all to wondering 
what it meant. Only when he signified that she 
should retire to a place of safety had she a forebod- 


ing of what was to come ; though she knew not in 
Avhat direction he was to move, nor how, nor when, 
nor where he was to strike. Diit, ^vith a Avoman's loy- 
alty to her husband and her faith in God, she was 
content not to know, and prayed only for tlie gift 
of patience as she waited for the event. 

But when the battle was over, then the tidings 
came ! Now we expect to know everything from the 
chief actor. But again we are disappointed, for in his 
letters, even when written from a field of battle, there 
is no attempt to describe it, and hardly an allusion to 
it, except in a general way, in the expression that often 
recurs in his letters, that "by the blessing of Almighty 
God their arms have been crowned with victory." 

But this extreme reticence, which at first is a disap- 
pointment, when looked at a little more closely is a 
revelation of tlie man, as it shows the supreme self- 
command, which could turn at once from the terrible 
excitement of war and direct his thoughts into a 
channel so remote that it carried him quite away in 
an opposite direction. While the battle raged he sat 
on his horse unmoved in the very front of danger ; but 
when the crisis was past, and he could be spared from 
the field, even though the thunders were still rolling 
in the distance, he rode back with the tension of his 
mind relaxed, and entering his tent, " shut to the 
door," and calmed his spirit in the presence of God. 

Next to the acknowledgment of his Maker was the 
thouirht of home, and of the vouno: mother Avitli his 
child in her arms ! The man of war was at the same 


time the most domestic of men. All his heart was 
centred in one spot. Many who read these pages will 
be surprised at the revelation of his passionate love of 
home, to which he was eager to return, though he Avas 
never to cross its threshold again. While the world 
saw only the soldier with a coat of mail over his 
breast, those who knew him best saw under it a great 
human heart. Above all, to her who looked up in his 
face with perfect trust and confidence, that face was 
open as the day. To her this man of iron was the 
gentlest and tenderest of human beings ; whose first 
thought was always for her ; whose strong arm guard- 
ed her from harm ; Avho would not ^' that even the 
winds of summer should visit her too roughly." 

Such devotion cannot be forgotten even after the 
lapse of a quarter of a century. Still the yearning 
heart turns fondly to the past. Still the faithful 
bosom carries within it a great memory and a great 
affection. As she looks bacE through the mist of 
years, she sees not the military hero, the idol of the 
army, riding down the line of battle, but the husband 
of her youth, still the same. In her quiet hours, as 
she sits by her desolate fireside, the old days come 
again, and they are once more in the home that was 
always made bright by the sunshine of his presence. 
They sit round the old hearthstone, and kneel to- 
gether in prayer, and walk to the house of God in 

Filled with such memories, it is but the impulse of 
loyalty to the dead that she should Avish that others 


should know liim whose name she bears as she knew 
him ; that the world should appreciate not only the 
soldier, but the man ; that they should know all the 
irentleness and the tenderness that were in that lion 
heart. This is revealed nowhere so fully as in his 
letters to her during the war, which those who have 
been permitted to see them privately have earnestly 
requested to have given to the public. If to anv they 
seem too personal, I answer, that they are not to be 
judged coldly and critically, but with the sympathetic 
feeling of those who are themselves cajmble of such 
tenderness ; and I have met the womanly shyness and 
timidity that shrank from this " unveiling," by saying, 
" Yes, you can leave it all out, and in every case you 
can replace the word of endearment by a blank ; but 
every time you do this you leave out a touch of 
Stonewall Jackson, for this fond devotion, this ex- 
quisite tenderness, was a part of the man as truly as 
his military genius. Sacred, indeed, are these words 
of the dead, but nothing is too sacred to be devoted 
to such a memory." Knowing, as she only can know, 
all his w-orth— that he was not only strong and brave, 
but tender and true, with a heart as soft as her own, 
and that the nearer men came to him the more they 
loved him— she is right to let him speak for himself 
in these gentle words that are whispered from the 
dust. And sure we are that those who have read all the 
erreat histories of the Avar Avill turn with fresh interest 
to this simple story, written out of a woman's heart. 

IIeNKY ]\r. FlKLI). 






In the year IT'lS a ship sailed from the coast of 
EDgland, bearing a number of passengers who were 
seeking new homes in the British colonies of Amer- 
ica. In this vessel were a young man and a young 
woman, both from the city of London, but who were 
probably unknown to each other when they embarked 
for the strange land to which they were bound. 

The young man, John Jackson, was about twenty- 
three years of age, and was endowed with many of 
the qualities which insure success in life — being true 
and upright, active and energetic, of quiet but deter- 
mined character ; and he needed only the help of the 
noble woman whom God gave him as a wife to make 
his home in the forest a happy and prosperous one. 
He was small of stature, but of good mind and sound 
judgment, and left the impress upon his generation of 
great goodness, industry, and tranquil courage. He 
was of Scotch -Irish descent, and when, fifty years 
after he left England, his eldest son, George Jackson, 


was a member of Congress at the same time that 
Andrew Jackson was Senator from Tennessee, they 
found, on comparing notes, that their ancestors came 
from the same parish near Londonderry. 

Ehzabeth Cummins, the young woman wlio Avas the 
fellow - passenger of John Jackson, was a handsome 
blonde, with the stature of a man, six feet in height, 
and as remarkable for strength of intellect as for 
beauty and physical vigor. She Avas well educated, 
her father having been in sufficiently easy circum- 
stances to own and rent out a public-house in Lon- 
don called '' The Bold Dragoon," from which he de- 
rived a good income, and he was supposed to own 
landed estates in Ireland. After his death, his widow 
married her brother-in-law — a marriage which was so 
repulsive to her daughter that she could not become 
reconciled to it. Her step-father, who was also her 
uncle, one day aroused her indignation to such a 
pitch that with her powerful arm she hurled a silver 
tankard at his head, and then fled from her home. 
She scarcely missed her aim, it is supposed, for, young 
as she Avas — not more than fifteen or sixteen — she was 
not of a nature to do things by halves. However, the 
unfortunate man must have recovered from the broken 
head, or family tradition would have recorded his 
death. It Avas the custom at that time for emigrants 
Avho had not the means of paying for their passage 
across the Atlantic to bind themselves for a certain 
term of service on reaching the colonies. As the cir- 
cumstances of Elizabeth's flight made it impossible 
for her to procure money for her journey, she proA^ed 
her heroism by adopting this mode of escaping from 
a life Avhich had become intolerable to her. 


John Jackson Avas so captivated with this stately 
Saxon beauty, that he eagerly offered her his heart, 
his hand, and his purse, but she proudly refused his 
assistance. During the voyage she formed the friend- 
ship of a famil}^ bound for Maryland, and accepted 
their offer of a home and employment, and thus earned 
the money to pay her passage. John Jackson's devo- 
tion, however, made an impression upon her heart, 
and a year or two later they were married in Calvert 
County, Maryland, he also having settled in the pos- 
sessions of Lord Baltimore upon his arrival in the 
New World. It is natural to suppose that Elizabeth 
was the magnet that kept him from wandering farther 
until he succeeded in winning her for his wife. The 
young couple, in their desire to find new and cheaper 
lands, moved at once to Western Virginia, and made 
their first home upon the south branch of the Poto- 
mac, at the place now known as Moorfields, the county 
seat of Hardy County. But after a short residence in 
this beautiful valley, the enterprising spirit of the pair 
led them to seek broader lands, and they crossed the 
Alleghany ridge, and settled upon the Buckhannon 
Eiver, at a place which was long known as Jackson's 
Fort, but is now the little village of Buckhannon. 
Here, surrounded by the Indian tribes, who were still 
contending with the whites for the possession of the 
lands, the settlers were often attacked by these treach- 
erous foes. For their protection the whites were com- 
pelled to build stockade forts, to which they fled with 
their families in times of danger. Tradition has pre- 
served many instances of the intrepid spirit which 
Elizabeth Jackson displayed on these occasions. She 
never quailed at the sound of the war-whoop, and her 


voice was heard, not only in sootliing and .cheering 
the women and children, bnt in inspiring the men to 
heroic resistance. 

When the American Eevolution broke out in 1775, 
John Jackson and his older sons bore their part in it 
as soldiers, and at its close returned to their homes 
and devoted themselves to the improvement of their 
fortunes. The patriarch, John, and his true help- 
meet, Elizabeth, by their sagacity and industry ac- 
quired the most valuable lands of the country, and 
were enabled to endow each one of their eight chil- 
dren with a farm. Indeed, it is said that several 
patents are still in existence, transmitted to Elizabeth 
Jackson, in her own name — lands which proved valu- 
able property to her descendants. Their eldest son 
was Colonel George Jackson, who lived at Clarks- 
burg, Harrison County, and who received his title 
in the Eevolutionar}^ war. He represented his State in 
the General Assembly of Virginia, and also in Congress. 
After the death of his father he removed to Zanesville, 
Ohio, where he spent the remainder of his life. 

The second son was Edward, the grandfather of the 
subject of this memoir. He made his home in Lewis 
County, about four miles from the village of Weston, 
and was a vigorous and energetic man, esteemed and 
beloved, and for a long time was surveyor of that 
region of country — a business that was very lucrative 
in those early days, and he acquired a large estate. 
He first married a Miss Hadden, by whom he had three 
sons, George, David, and Jonathan, and three daugh- 
ters, of whom one married a man named White, and 
the other two married brothers of the name of Brake. 

A second marriage added to his family nine more 


sons and daughters, among whom was Cummins, the 
kind half-uncle who befriended Thomas J. Jackson in 
his youth, and the only one, so far as we know, that 
had much to do with his early life. 

In their declining years the old couple, John and 
Elizabeth Jackson, removed to the town of Clarks- 
burg, to be near their eldest son, George, and the death 
of the aged sire is thus described by his grandson, 
John G. Jackson, in a letter to Mrs. President Madi- 
son, whose sister he had married in 1801 : 

" Death, on the 25th of September, put a period to 
the existence of my aged grandfather, John Jackson, 
in the eighty-sixth year of his age. The long life of 
this good man was spent in those noble and virtuous 
pursuits which endear men to their acquaintance, and 
make their decease sincerely regretted by all the good 
and virtuous. He was a native of England, and mi- 
grated hither in the year 1748. He took an active 
part in the Revolutionary war in favor of indepen- 
dence, and, upon the establishment of it, returned to 
his farming, which he laboriously pursued until the 
marriage of his youngest son, when he w^as prevailed 
upon by my father to come and reside near him ; there 
he lived several years Avith his wife, enjoying all his 
mental faculties and great corporeal strength, until a 
few days before his death. I saw him breathe his last 
in the arms of my aged grandmother, and can truly 
add, that to live and die as he did would be the ex- 
cess of happiness. He left a valuable estate at the en- 
tire disposal of the widow, with the concurrence of all 
the natural heirs, as his liberality had been amply ex- 
perienced by them all in his lifetime." 


The stout-hearted wife of his youth survived him 
until 1825, living to the extreme age of o?ie hu7idred 
atidjive years! A great-granddaughter describes her 
at the age of a centur}^ as being well preserved and 
verv interesting, and greatly beloved and revered by 
her long line of descendants. 

Bv her rare physical and intellectual stamina, this 
remarkable woman was fitted to be the mother of a 
strong and noble race ; and those of her descendants 
who have met with any success in life have shown the 
same clear intellect, sterling integrity, and force of 
will. The house of Jackson has much to be thankful 
for in both of these pioneer progenitors, for John Jack- 
son himself, according to tradition, was the equal of 
his wife in uprightness, energy, and courage. General 
Jackson always had a pride in his ancestry, and wished 
that the high character of the fathers should be per- 
petuated in their descendants. Before the war, when 
one of his relatives was a candidate for some political 
office, he took the liveliest interest in his election, and 
wrote several letters in his behalf, one to his cousin, 
Judge William L. Jackson (at that time Lieutenant- 
Governor of Virginia), urging his support, and saying : 
"I am most anxious to see our family enjoying that 
high standard and influence which it possessed in days 
of yore." He always said his Jackson relations were 
very clannish, and he himself was warm in his family 
attachments, taking an interest in eve?y worthy person 
who had a drop of his blood in his veins. 

One of the most distinguished sons of the house was 
John G. Jackson, of Clarksburg, the eldest son of 
Colonel George Jackson. He Avas an eminent lawyer, 
succeeded his father in Congress, and was appointed 


the first Federal Judge of the AYestern District of 
Virginia. He married Miss Payne, sister of " pretty 
Dolly Madison," the much-admired wife of President 
James Madison.- A second wife was the only daugh- 
ter of Governor Meigs, of Ohio. He died in the prime 
of life in the same year with his venerable grand- 
mother, 1825, aged forty-eight years. 

* The folloAving letter from Mrs. President Madison to Judge 
Jackson, expressing herself in regard to the illness of her sister 
(his wife), will be of interest : 

"Washington, D. C, January 12th, 1807. 

" Oh, my dear brother, your letter has plunged me in the deepest 
distress ! What can I do for that beloved sister whose image and 
whose suflferings, I can say w^itli truth, have never for an hour 
been absent from my mind ? Week after week have I looked and 
prepared to receive and to nurse my dear Polly, and now, alas I she 
is too ill [for me] to expect at all. I have consulted everybody, my 
dear Jackson, w'hose judgment I could trust, and have been flattered 
witli the hope, from them and my owm opinion, that she would get 
well. Oh that Heaven may spare her to you and to us, my brother ! 

"I send you Doctor Jones's letter, whom I have seen and con- 
versed with a great deal. — You cannot doubt your sister's love for 
you, and her soul-felt sympathy. 

"Hasten to tell me your hopes are revived, and that I may yet 
see you leading to us my precious sister and your children. How 
dreary, how forlorn, does this w^orld appear without you all ! I 
cannot express to you the desolation that seems to surround me 
since I received yours of the 7th. 

" All here is bustle and confusion, on account of Rose's arrival, 
the quarrels in Congress, and the multitude of strangers j but it 
falls upon my senses like the gloom of death I 

"I hope 'My. Madison will get time to write to you. I feel 
scarcely able to hold my pen. Prepare for the next jDost, and 
tell me of your sweet little Mary also. 

" Ever your affectionate sister, Dolly P. Madison. 

"Anna is well, and feels for you as she ought. Adieu." 


The other sons of Colonel George were Echvard, a 
•physician; William L., a lawyer, and father of the 
judge of the same name (now living in Louisville, 
Ky.) ; and George "Washington, the father of Colonel 
Alfred H. Jackson, who was a staff-officer of General 
Jackson, was mortally wounded at the battle of Cedar 
Run, and lies buried near his beloved commander in 
the cemetery at Lexington, Virginia. 

Jonathan Jackson, son of Edward, and the father of 
Thomas Jonathan, like his grandfather, John, was a 
man of short stature. There is a beautiful miniature 
of him, representing an open, pleasing face, blue e3^es, 
and handsome mouth. He was a lawver, having 
studied his profession with his distinguished cousin, 
Judge John G. Jackson, whose patronage induced him 
to settle at Clarksburg, and soon afterwards he mar- 
ried Juha Beck with Xeale, the daughter of a merchant 
of Parkersburg. 

The following facts relative to the Neale family and 
also to Jonathan Jackson wei^e furnished by Dr. David 
Creel, a connection of the Xeales ; and as they were 
written in his ninety-first year, this, together with his 
quaint style, will add to their interest. He died at 
Chillicothe, Ohio, only a few years ago. It appears 
that General Robert E. Lee had had some correspond- 
ence with him about the history of General Jackson. 
He wrote : 

" The Clarksburg Male Academy was conducted 
solely by George Tor vis, an old Englishman, a thor- 
ough scholar with long experience as a teacher. 
Among the pupils we found two noble and highly 
promising young men — Edward, son of George Jack- 


(From a paiiited miniature.) 


son, and Jonathan, son of Edward Jackson, senior. 
These fathers were brothers, and among the pioneers 
of the country some time before the Indians had re- 
tired, so as to give assurance of peace and freedom 
from danger, and soon became wealthy and indepen- 
dent farmers of high standing and respectability. 
While at school with these young men, a mutual at- 
tachment was created, which was warmly cherished, 
and became stronger and more endearing while they 
lived, and sincerely lamented when they both died in 
the prime of life. Edward Jackson, after leaving 
school, studied medicine, and Jonathan Jackson read 
law. Both attained to some degree of eminence in 
their respective professions, with the esteem, confi- 
dence, and good wishes of all who knew them." 

It is said that these young cousins, who were as 
brothers at school, in manhood became rival suitors 
for the hand of Julia JS'eale, Jonathan carrying off 
the prize. 

*' In paying the soldiers of the county of Harrison 
in the war of 1812, one or two of them, in consequence 
of sickness, did not receive their pay ; but soon after- 
Avards their friend, Jonathan Jackson, presented their 
claims and got from us the money for them. This 
was about the fall of 1813, at which time he was suc- 
cessfully engaged in the practice of law. He was also 
excise master, or United States revenue officer of the 

Dr. Creel continues his account of the jN'eale 
family : 


" In the early part of the nineteenth century, George 
Lewis and two brothers, George and Thomas Xeale, 
removed from the county of Loudon to Wood Coun- 
ty, in AVestern Virginia. George Lewis purchased a 
large tract of land lying on the Ohio River, six miles 
from Parkersburg, which had been located by Gen- 
eral Washington, and left by his will to one of his 
leiratees. Georo:e Neale, who had married one of his 
daughters, purchased several hundred acres of land 
from his father-in-law, and in a few ye-a-vs became a 
wealthy and independent farmer, respected and be- 
loved for his noble attributes of character. Thomas 
Xeale (the maternal grandfather of General Jackson) 
married Margaret Winn, the daughter of Minor Winn, 
who resided on the west side of Bull Run Mountain, 
only a few miles from where the first battle was 
fought in the late war. He located in Parkersburg 
and engaged in the mercantile business, and had a 
family of five children— two daughters, Harriet and 
Julia, and three sons, Alfred, Minor, and William. 
After our return home from the Academy at Clarks- 
burg, we commenced teaching school in the village of 
Parkersburg, and among the pupils were three of 
Thomas Xeale's children— Harriet, Julia, and his old- 
est son, Alfred. Of Julia we desire to speak particu- 
larl^^ not only because she was our great favorite, but 
especially because of her connection with the history 
of Jonathan Jackson, who became her husband, and 
the father of Thomas Jonathan Jackson. 

'• When Julia Xeale became our pupil, she was about 
thirteen years old, endowed with a good natural mind, 
soon acquired the habit of close application, and gave 
us no trouble in her recitations. She was rather a bru- 


nette, with dark -brown hair, dark -gray eyes, hand- 
some face, and, when at maturity, of medium height 
and symmetrical form. And now, at the close of our 
ninety-first year, we still in memory behold her as 
standing before us reciting her lessons with a pleas- 
ant smile ; and also in the maturity of womanhood, 
when her affianced lord came to pay her that hom- 
age which soon terminated in a matrimonial alliance. 
. . . General Lee, in his kind letter to us, was pleased to 
express the belief that this extraordinary man, ' Stone- 
wall ' Jackson, was indebted to us, more or less, as the 
instructor of his mother." 

Jonathan Jackson began housekeeping with his 
young wife in a neat brick cottage of three rooms, 
which he built for a law office, intending in the future 
to erect a more commodious dwelling for his family 
on the front of the large, grassy lot. But his pecun- 
iary misfortunes and untimely death prevented the 
reahzation of this hope. His four children were all 
born in the cottage, and it was preserved as the birth- 
place of General Jackson until a few years since, 
when the lot became so valuable with the growth of 
the town that the owner tore down the Httle cottage, 
and built a business house upon the ground. 

Jonathan was a successful lawyer, especially as a 
pleader in the chancery courts, and with the comfort- 
able patrimony which he had inherited from his 
father he had a promising future ; but, being of a 
free, generous, and incautious nature, he became deep- 
ly involved by giving security for others, and when 
he was cut down in the meridian of life every vestige 
of his property was swept away. He was an affec- 


tionate and devoted husband and father, and lost his 
life by a malignant fever which he contracted in nurs- 
ing his eldest child, Elizabeth, who died of the same 
disease two weeks before her father. The three 
children that survived him were Warren, Thomas 
Jonathan, and Laura. His son Thomas, after reach- 
ing the age of manhood, erected monuments over the 
graves of his father and little sister in the cemetery 
at Clarksburg. 

Clarksburg is a pretty and thriving town, situated 
in a picturesque country, and some of the Jackson 
family still live there and keep up the name with 
credit and honor. At Parkersburg also are found 
many of General Jackson's kindred on both sides of 
the house, who are noted for their enterprise, cultiva- 
tion, and warm-hearted hospitality. 

Several members of Edward Jackson's large family, 
in physical stature, showed what they inherited from 
their grandmother, Elizabeth Cummins. 

One of her descendants, who bore the singtilar name 
of Eeturn Meigs, was six feet and seven inches in 
height, and was proportionately strong and powerful. 
There is a little romance in the family about the way 
he got his name. When his father was engaged to 
be married, an unfortunate misunderstanding led to 
a temporary separation, which weighed so hard on the 
disconsolate lover that when the object of his devo- 
tion relented and said, " Return, Meigs," he declared 
those were the sweetest words that ever fell upon his 
ears, and he therefore commemorated his crowning- 
happiness by giving his first son this unique name. 

Cummins Jackson was also of lofty stature, and was 
noted for his herculean strength, which it is said he 


proved by lifting a barrel of cider and taking a drink 
from the bung-hole ; and, more marvellous still, that 
he could take up a barrel of flour under each one of 
his arms and carry them out of his mill ! 

One of his sisters, Mrs. AYhite, known in the fam- 
ily as "Aunt Katie," was as remarkable as were the 
brothers, for her size, physical strength, and wonder- 
ful industry. In her old age, when she thought her 
natural force was much abated, she was known to 
spin upon her spinning-wheel twenty-eight "cuts" of 
flax a day, in addition to milking her cows ! Twelve 
cuts a day was the usual task for servants. 



Thomas Jonathan Jackson, the subject of this me- 
moir, was born in the town of Clarksburg, Virginia, 
on the 21st of January, 1S24:; at least, that was»the 
supposed date of his birth, for in consequence of the 
early breaking-up of his father's family no record of 
the event was ever found, and he did not remember 
dates with accurac}^ Clarksburg is now in the State 
of TTest Virginia ; but as he did not live to see the 
Old Dominion so cruelly sundered in twain, he died 
as he was born, a Virginian. 

He was only in his third year when his father died 
(of whom he was too young to have an}^ remem- 
brance), and his mother was left a widow with three 
helpless children, without a home or means of sup- 
port. But her own and her husband's relations assist- 
ed her ; and as he had been an officer in the order of 
Freemasons (who had presented him with a gold medal 
in token of their respect), they now gave her a small 
house of only one room ; and in this huilible abode, 
with her fatherless children, she spent the greater part 
of the few years of her widowhood. Here she taught 
a little school, and also added to her support l)y sew- 
ing. The weight of the cares and struggles must have 
been very trying to her delicate frame ; but she found 
relief in spending a good deal of her time with her 



father in Wood County ; and in the heat of summer 
she went to a place called ^'The Ridge," where her 
brother, Minor W. Neale, always accompanied and 
remained with her. A friend wrote : " I met her in 
the summer of 1827, in Wood County. She was look- 





ing as cheerful and ani- 
mated as usual, her easy, 
graceful manners and pleasant cun- 
versation always making her a wel- 
come guest." 

In the year 1830 Mrs. Jackson was married a sec- 
ond time, against the wishes of her friends, to Captain 
Blake B. Woodson, of Cumberland County, a lawyer 
of good education, and of social, popular manners ; but 
he was much her senior, and a widower without fort- 
une. The relatives of her first husband oflPered to 


help her if she would remain a widow, while warning 
her that if she married again they should have to take 
her children from her to support them. But all Avas 
of no avail, and the result was what they had pre- 
dicted. Though Captain Woodson was always kind 
to the children, his slender means were inadequate to 
the support of a family, and necessity soon compelled 
the poor mother to give up her two boys to the care 
of their father's relations. The youngest child, Laura, 
she kept wath her, and after the marriage Captain 
"Woodson removed to Fayette County, where he had 
received the appointment of clerk of the county. 

So Thomas, at the age of six years, had to take 
leave of his mother, to be sent to the house of his 
uncle. It was a heart-breaking separation. He was 
at this time a rosy-cheeked, blue-eyed boy, with wav- 
ing brown hair, to whom she clung with all a moth- 
er s devotion. She had him mounted on horseback, 
behind one of his father's former slaves, good " Uncle 
Kobinson," of whom he was very fond, and after pro- 
viding him with every comfort, and bidding him good- 
by, her yearning heart called him back once more, 
and, clasping him to her bosom, she gave vent to her 
feelings in a flood of tears. That parting he never 
forgot ; nor could he speak of it in after-years but 
with the utmost tenderness. Warren had been sent 
some time before to the home of his aunt, Mrs. Isaac 
Brake, who wished to relieve the mother of his sup- 
port, and she had consented on account of the greater 
temptations to the boy in town. Their mother lived 
only a little over a year after lier second marriage, 
her delicate health completely giving way after the 
birth of a son, wlio was named Wirt. As she lingered 


several weeks, she sent for her two fatherless boys, to 
receive her farewell and blessing; and her prayers, 
counsels, and triumphant death made an indelible im- 
pression upon the mind of Thomas, who was then 
seven ^^ears of age. In a letter announcing her death, 
Captain Woodson says : " No Christian on earth, no 
matter what evidence he might have had of a happy 
hereafter, could have died with more fortitude. Per- 
fectly in her senses, calm and deliberate, she met her 
fate without a murmur or a struggle. Death for her 
had no sting; the grave could claim no victory. I 
have known few women of equal, none of superior, 
merit." Her remains were buried near the famous 
" Hawk's JN'est " of New Kiver, w^hich her son visited 
in after-years, to find her grave and erect a mon- 
ument over it ; but nearly all who had known her 
during her brief residence there had passed away, 
and no one could be found who could point out the 
spot with certainty. After his return to his home 
in Lexington, he wrote to his aunt, Mrs. Neale, at 
Parkersburg : 

" Sept. 4th, 1855. 
" Though I have reached home, yet the pleasures 
enjoyed under jonr hospitable roof, and in your fam- 
ily circle, have not been dissipated. ... I stopped to 
see the Hawk's Nest, and the gentleman with whom I 
put up was at my mother's burial, and accompanied 
me to the cemetery for the purpose of pointing out 
her grave to me ; but I am not certain that he found 
it. There was no stone to mark the spot. Another 
gentleman, who had the kindness to go with us, stated 
that a wooden head or foot board with her name on 


it had been put up, but it was no longer there. A 
depression in the earth only markKl her resting-place. 
When standing by her grave, I experienced feelings 
to which I was until then a stranger. I was seeking 
the spot partly for the purpose of erecting something 
to her precious memory. On Saturday last I lost my 
porte-monnaie, and in it was the date of my mother's 
birth. Please give me the date in your next letter."' 

It was left to the generous impulse of a Confederate 
soldier to do, after General Jackson's death, what he 
was so anxious to do himself, in preserving his mother s 
grave from oblivion. One who visited the spot writes : 

" On the top of a beautiful wooded hill, near the 
mining village of Anstead, Fayette County, West Vir- 
ginia, is an old graveyard, still used as a burying- 
place by the dwellers in this mountain region. It is 
greatly neglected, and man}^ graves are scarcely to be 
found, though a few are protected by little pens of 
fence-rails. The location is so beautiful, and the view^ 
it commands so extensive and exquisite, that it is 
w^orthy of being well cared for. Among those who 
lie buried here is the mother of that noble Christian 
soldier, General Stonewall Jackson. This grave, or 
spot— for the grave is scarcely to be recognized — has 
been kindly cared for by Mr. Stevens M. Taylor, for- 
merly of Albemarle County. But no stone was erected 
until a gentleman of Staunton, Captain Thomas D. 
Kansom, one of his old soldiers, seeing the neglected 
condition of the grave, had prepared a simple but 
suitable monument — a tall slab of marble with an 
inscription, giving the dates of her birth and death, 


and adding that it is 'a tribute to the mother of 
Stonewall Jackson, by one of his old brigade.' " 

Such a mother could not but leave a deep impres- 
sion upon the heart of such a son. To the latest hour 
of his life he cherished her memory. His recollections 
of her were of the sweetest and tenderest character. 
To his childhood's fancy she was the embodiment of 
beauty, grace, and loveliness ; and when, a few months 
before his death, while he was in the midst of the 
army, a little daughter was born to him, he wrote that 
he wished her to be called " Julia," saying, " My moth- 
er was mindful of me when I was a helpless, father- 
less child, and I wish to commemorate her now." 

After the death of their mother, the children were 
sent back to their Jackson relatives— AYarren return- 
ing to Mrs. Brake, and Thomas and Laura finding a 
home for a time with their aunt, Mrs. White, and later 
with their step-grandmother Jackson, who was always 
kind to them. Laura, who is still living, does not re- 
member that Thomas ever lived with either of their 
uncles-in-law Brake, and says that it was their broth- 
er Warren, and not Thomas, who ran away when a 
little boy from his " uncle Brake, because they couldn't 
asrree" — a statement which accords with the charac- 
ter of the bo}^ Thomas and Laura lived with their 
step-grandmother until her death ; and after the mar- 
riage of her two daughters, w^hich left no ladies in the 
household, Laura was sent to find a home among her 
I^^eale relatives, and lived with them until she was 
married to Mr. Jonathan Arnold, of Beverly, West 
Yirs-inia. Her two sons, Thomas Jackson and Stark 
W. Arnold, were the only nephews of General Jackson. 


The grandmother lived at the old Jackson home- 
stead, in Lewis County, and at her death her son 
Cummins became the head of the house; and being a 
large-hearted, generous man, he not only kept Thom- 
as with him to rear and educate, but he also gave AVar- 
ren a home after he ran away from his uncle Brake. 
The story runs that this boy, Warren, when only nine 
or ten years old, left the house of Mr. Brake, Avho had 
offended him by sternness, and walked four or five 
miles into the town of Clarksburg to the house of 
Judo^e Jackson, his fathers cousin, and asked Mrs. 
Jackson to give him his dinner. While eating at the 
table he very quietly said : " Uncle Brake and I don't 
agree ; I have quit him, and shall not go back any 
more." Mrs. Jackson was surprised and, disapprov- 
ing of such independence in so young a lad, tried to 
persuade him to return, but his unvarying answer was : 
'' Xo, he and I don't agree ; I have quit him, and shall 
not go back any more." He then went to the house 
of another cousin, asked if he could spend the night, 
and told her the same story. The next day he walked 
eighteen miles all alone, to the home of his uncle Cum- 
mins, who received him with great kindness, and the 
two orphan boys were very happy at being together 
under the same roof. Here the three children went 
to school, when there were any schools in the neigh- 
borhood, and Thomas and Laura spent much time 
in play, he always having a care over his little sister. 
He was a cheerful bo3^ and, his sister says, sang a great 
deal ; but in after-years he did not show any musical 
talent, though very fond of hearing music. 

The boyhood of Jackson showed that, truly. 
" The child is father of the man/' 


for it was marked by the same energy, determination, 
and perseverance that were to distinguish him in his 
future career. No matter what he undertook, whether 
of work or play, he " never gave up." At school, one 
day, during recess, he became absorbed in making a 
cornstalk jfiddle, and when the bell rang for resuming 
study he worked away as if he did not hear it, totally 
oblivious of his duty to return to his lessons. Laura was 
sent to call him, but his reply was, " Wait till I finish 
this fiddle !" and not until the teacher went out and 
compelled obedience did he relinquish his task. 

The children wandered all over the farm, and en- 
gaged in many youthful enterprises, one of which was 
the making of maple sugar. The trees stood on the 
other side of a creek which had no bridge over it, but. 
nothing daunted, our young hero went to work and 
framed a little raft, upon which he and Laura would 
cross daily, and busy themselves in drawing the sap 
and boiling down the sugar. In after -years, when 
he became the leader of armies, he often had occa- 
sion to build bridges across streams for his troops, in 
which he showed the same indomitable perseverance 
in overcoming obstacles that he had shown when a 

Laura followed him everywhere, even in his rabbit 
hunts, in which he was quite an expert. After run- 
ning a rabbit into a hollow log, he would place Laura 
at one end and himself at the other, and in this way 
they often caught the little creatures w^ith their hands. 
He busied himself in making rabbit-snares, bird-traps, 
and in other rustic diversions. In his childhood he 
was extravagantly fond of the violin, and after com- 
ing into possession of one of his own he made faithful 


efforts to learn to play upon it, but, not being endowed 
with the gift of music, this was one of the few things 
he attempted in which he did not succeed. AVhen a 
boy, he did learn a few songs, among them a military 
one, called '' Xapoleon's Ketreat.'' 

This united, happy life of the little brother and sis- 
ter did not continue more than a year or two, when 
they were separated, never to have the same home 
airain. Bat he cherished a warm attachment for her, 
and kept up the most affectionate relations with her 
as lono' as he lived. With monev he saved from his 
pay at West Point he bought her a silk dress as a pres- 
ent upon his return home during his first vacation. 

Cummins Jackson was a bachelor of middle age, 
and being a man of independent fortune and a kind 
heart, he was disposed to do all in his power for War- 
ren and Thomas. The latter, it is said, was his favor 
ite, and lie could not have been treated with more kind- 
ness if he had been his own son. He gave the lads 
all the advantages of education his county afforded, 
though these were not great in that new and unim- 
proved region. It was the custom to have schools for 
only about three months during the winter season, so 
the boys were engaged during the remainder of the 
year in assisting their uncle in the operations of the 
farm and mills. 

At school Thomas was studious and persevering, 
showing a great desire to make the best of his advan- 
tages ; but Warren was the reverse, and as he grew 
up his strong will, which liad never been controlled, 
and his independent and restless spirit impelled iiim 
to launch out for himself and seek his own fortune. 
His uncle thought it best not to thwart him in this. 


and so the boy left this kind uncle and good home 
when he was about fourteen years of age. But the 
saddest part of this exodus was, that he persuaded his 
young brother, of only twelve, to accompany him. 
Thomas was very reluctant to go, for he loved his un- 
cle, and was happy in his free and, bountiful home ; 
but his affection for Warren, and perhaps the latter's 
authority over him as an elder brother, were too great 
to be resisted. Thev went first to the home of their 
uncle Alfred Neale, who lived on James Island, in the 
Ohio, and were most kindly received by him and his 
good wife ; but as this uncle prescribed for tliem the 
same excellent discipline as their uncle Cummins — 
that they should work on the farm and go to school — 
AVarren again rebelled, and spread his unfledged wings 
for a flight farther down the Ohio, taking Thomas 
with him. 

Several months passed, and their friends heard noth- 
ing of the young wanderers ; but in the autumn they 
came back, like repentant prodigals, glad enough to 
return to kindred and friends, but in such a sad phght 
that it was touching to see them. Their clothes were 
worn and soiled from travel, and their faces bore the 
marks of sickness and suffering. Their story was that, 
after floating down the Ohio, and earning their living 
as best they could, they landed on a small island in 
the Mississippi, near the southwestern corner of Ken- 
tucky. Here they spent the summer alone, and sup- 
ported themselves by cutting wood for the passing 

Their lodging-place was a miserable cabin, and the 
island being exceedingly malarious, they contracted 
chills and fever, which made such ravages upon their 


teDcler frames that they could stand it no longer ; so 
by the kindness of a captain, who gave them passage 
on his boat, they were enabled to reach home — no 
doubt wiser, if not better, for their escapade. 

Thomas determined at once to return to his uncle 
Cummins, where the comforts of home and the fine air 
of his native climate soon restored him to his wonted 
health and strength, and here he remained until he re- 
ceived an appointment as a cadet at AVest Point, 

But Warren was too proud or ashamed to seek 
asrain the shelter of a roof Avhicli he had so rashly 
left, so he went to the house of his aunt, Mrs. Isaac 
Brake, which had been his home after his separation 
from his mother, where he received the kindest treat- 
ment ; but he never recovered from the effects of the 
exposure and hardships encountered during that disas- 
trous trip, and after hngering a few years he died of 
consumption at the age of nineteen. Before his death 
he sent for Thomas and Laura to come and see him 
once more, and, mounted on horseback, they rode 
across the country to pay this last visit to their dying 
brother. They found that this long illness, with the 
influence of his sainted mother, had changed the un- 
governed boy to such gentleness and submission that 
he no longer wished to live, but was able to depart in 
perfect peace. 

After the wholesome experience of his adventurous 
trip down the Ohio, and the recovery of his health, 
Thomas showed a greater desire than ever for self- 
improvement, and he became a valuable assistant to 
his uncle in the management of his farm and mills. 
Classical academies had not then been introduced into 
that part of the country, but there were good English 


schools ; and he was a diligent, plodding scholar, hav- 
ing a strong mind, though it was slow in development. 
In arithmetic he was quick, and found no difficulty in 
excelling his classmates; but in his other studies he 
had to work hard, yet he ahvays " stuck to it '' with a 
tenacity that would not ''let go." He never left a 
lesson unmastered, and if he had not been able to 
finish a task with his class, he would, when his time 
came to recite, acknowledge frankly that he knew^ 
nothing of that lesson, not having yet perfected the 
previous one. In this way he sometimes fell behind 
his class ; but as he had a retentive memory, the knowl- 
edge that he gained w^ith so much labor was indelibly 
impressed upon his mind. 

His temper as a boy was cheerful and generous, and 
his truthfulness was proverbial. There was an in- 
stinctive courtesy in his conduct; his sense of justice 
was very strong, and as long as he met with fair treat- 
ment from his associates, he w^as gentle and peace- 
able; but he was quick to resent an insult, and in 
a boyish combat would never yield to defeat. He 
was a ringleader in boyish sports, an expert in 
climbing and jumping ; and whenever he was captain 
in any game his side was pretty sure to come off 

In the management of his uncle's farm and mills, 
Thomas early learned to put his young shoulders to 
the wheel, and he soon proved so capable that he was 
intrusted with the duties of overseer of the laborers in 
getting the largest trees out of the forest, and convey- 
ing them to the mill to be sawed into lumber, in all 
which he showed great intelligence as well as endur- 
ance and efficiency. 


This free aii<l active life was well adapted to both 
his physical and moral development, and as his uncle 
treated liim as a companion, trusting and relying upon 
him. lie grew very manly and independent for a youth 
in his te(Mis. His bachelor uncles, it appears, were 
fond of sport, of fox hunts and horse racing. His 
uncle kept a number of blooded horses, and had a four- 
mile race-track on his farm, and "Thomas,'' as he 
always called him, was his trainer, and so well taught 
was he to ride that he was never thrown. Naturally 
he came to share in the pleasures of the chase, and to 
ride his uncle's racers as soon as he was old enough. 
AVitli his determination to succeed in everything he 
undertook, he did not fail in. this accomplishment, for 
his neighbors said, '' If a horse had any winning quali- 
ties whatever in him, Tom Jackson never failed to 
bring them out on the turf!" But though he won 
races for his uncle, and won a good deal of money, he 
never had the least propensity to the vices that belong 
to s])orting characters. 

AVhen riding home late one night, he was startled 
at beholding a tall white spectre flitting across the road. 
The lu^rse became frightened and plunged backward ; 
and Thomas confessed that at first he, too, was some- 
what dismayed at such a ghostly apparition, but, deter- 
mining to conquer all fear, he put whip and spurs to 
liis lioi*se and forced him to gallop past the object of 
tvri'or, which he soon discovered, from the shouts of 
lau":hter from the roadside, was one of his uncles, who 
Iiad tried to ])lay a joke upon him by wrapping him- 
self in a sheet and taking his stand at the foot of a 
hill he was to pass. 

^J'his free life he could enjoy without l)(Mng at all 


spoiled by it ; and tliougli he spoke of himself as hav- 
ing been " a Avild boy," he was always noted for his 
uprightness, honesty, industry, and truth. In his after- 
years he was not disposed to talk much of his child- 
hood and youth, for the reason that it was the saddest 
period of his life. He had been very early left an or- 
phan. Losing first his father and then his mother, he 
had no home life, but grew up among remoter kin- 
dred. All this made the memory so sad that he sel- 
dom referred to it. 

One who knew him at this time says : " He was a 
youth of exem^Dlary habits, of indomitable will and 
undoubted courage. He possessed in an eminent de- 
gree a talent for mathematics, and was unwilling, while 
at school, to acknowledge his incapacity — 'give him 
time' — to solve an}" proposition. He was not what 
is nowadays termed brilliant, but he was one of those 
untiring, matter-of-fact persons Avho would never give 
up when he engaged in an undertaking until he ac- 
complished his object. He learned slowly, but when 
he got learning into his head, he never forgot it. He 
was not quick to decide, except when excited, and 
then when he made up his mind to do a thing, he did 
it on short notice and in quick time. Thus, while on 
his way to school, an overgrown rustic behaved rudely 
to one of the school-girls. Jackson was fired at his 
cowardly conduct, and told him he must apologize at 
once, or he would ' thrash him.' The big fellow, sup- 
posing that he was an overmatch for him, refused, 
whereupon Jackson pitched into him, and gave him a 
severe pounding." 

This manly and independent spirit impelled him at 
an early age to seek a support for himself, and his 


friends procured for him the position of constable of 
Lewis County, lie was but eighteen years old, and it 
was contrary to law that a minor should hold this 
olfice, but the influence and guarantee of his uncle, 
with his own good character, overcame this objection. 
At this time his health was somewhat impaired, and 
it was hoped that the out-door life and horseback ex- 
ercise would invigorate him. The duties of the office 
required both courage and determination, qualities 
that he soon showed that he possessed. Pronq^t in 
meeting his own engagements, he enforced the same 
upon otliei's. Collecting debts is always a thankless 
task, but it had to be done; and Jackson did it kindly, 
but iirndy. In one case a man had made repeated 
promises to pay, but would never keep an appoint- 
ment for the purpose. After exacting one more 
promise that he would pay, without fail, upon a cer- 
tain day, the young constable pledged himself to the 
creditor that on that day he should have his money. 
The day came, and the constable and creditor were on 
hand, but the debtor was again missing, and w^as not 
seen in the village all day. The young deputy, how- 
ever, had given his word, and 'kept it by paj^ing the 
money out of his own pocket. The next morning the 
delincjuent appeared upon the scene, riding a fine 
horse, but as tlie custom of the country did not per- 
mit a man's horse to be taken from him while he was 
i)\\ his back, the young officer waited until he saw the 
man dismount, and then reproaching him for his 
breach of faith, he seized the horse. The man re- 
sisted, and a furious struggle followed, during Avhich 
he succeeded in remounting. This at first disc<jn- 
certed Jackson, Ijut, not to be outwitted bv this 


manoeuvre, he held on to the bridle, and seeing near 
b}' a stable door standing open, he led the horse up 
to it, and quietly told the man he must " get off or 
be knocked off," the door being too low for him to 
go tlirough on horseback. Thus the fugitive was fairly 
caught, and after resisting and begging, he finally 
slipped off and left the horse in the possession of the 
young representative of the law. 

But this business was distasteful to Jackson, and 
he gladly resigned it on receiving an appointment to 
the Military Academy at West Point. 

Before closing this chapter, it may be of interest, 
although it will be anticipating a few years, to know 
the end of the good Uncle Cummins, who was a 
second father to Thomas in his boyhood. After 
the close of the^ Mexican war and the annexation of 
California, the discovery of gold created great excite- 
ment throughout the country, and caused a tide of 
emigration to the Far West. Catching the popular 
enthusiasm, and inflamed, perhaps, with a spirit of 
adventure, this uncle, though in his fiftieth year, 
left- his Virginia home and travelled by wagon-train 
across the plains, but lived only a few months after 
reaching the Pacific coast. His nephew, Thomas, 
inherited a few hundred dollars from his estate, which 
he gave to his aunt, Mrs. White, who was then in 
straitened circumstances, in gratitude for having given 
him a home when he was first separated from his 



AVhii.e the vouno^ Viro^inian was ridino- over the 
hills of his native countv, enforcing the law, he was 
dreaming of other things. A desire for knowl- 
edge had been the passion of his youth. AYith the 
pride of descent from a family that had stood high in 
the country round, he felt deeply the disadvantages 
which his early orphanage and poverty had entailed 
upon him, and was ambitious to make a position for 
himself, and keep up the prestige of his name. He 
had determined to earn the means to procure a liberal 
education, when the opportunity came in a way he 
had not anticipated. A young man from the Con- 
gressional district in which he lived had received 
an appointment to the Military Academy at West 
Point, but after entering had found that the disci- 
pline and the hard study were too severe to suit his 
self-indulgent tastes, and resigned in disgust and re- 
turned home. Of course, this was the talk of the 
neighborhood ; and one day that Uncle Cummins was 
having his horse shod, the blacksmith looked up and 
said : '• Xow here is a good chance for Tom Jackson, 
as he is so anxious to get an education." His uncle 
caught at the suggestion, and going home told his 
nephew of the opportunity to get a cadetship at AVest 
Puint, which lired his heart with such eager hope that 


he began at once his efforts to secure tJie vacant posi- 
tion. He had many friends who had observed his manly 
spirit, and were ready to help him ; and all joined in a 
letter to the Hon. Samuel Hays, member of Congress 
from the district, asking him to use his influence to have 
him appointed. Of a prominent law^yer connected with 
his own family, the 3^oung applicant felt at liberty to 
request a more confidential testimonial, but he was 
asked " if he did not fear that his education was not 
sufficient to enable him to enter and sustain himself at 
West Point." For a moment his countenance fell, but, 
looking up, he replied : " I know that I shall have the 
application necessary to succeed ; I hope that I have 
the capacity ; at least, I am determined to try, and I 
want you to help me." This friend did help him, and 
wrote a letter of hearty commendation, in w^hich he 
dwelt especially upon his courage and resolution. As 
soon as the letters were despatched to AYashington, he 
began to review his studies, in which he was assisted 
by a lawyer in Weston, who made it a labor of love. 
In due time the answer came from Mr. Hays, promis- 
ing to do all in his power to secure the appointment, 
and Jackson resolved at once to go to Washington, to 
be ready to proceed to West Point without a mo- 
ment's delay. So eager was he to start that he did 
not wait for any preparations, but, packing his plain 
wardrobe into a pair of saddle-bags, he mounted a 
horse near sundown, and, accompanied by a servant 
who w^as to bring the horse home, hurried off to 
Clarksburg to catch the stage-coach. Upon his arrival 
he found that the coach had already passed, but, 
nothing daunted, he galloped on and overtook it at 
the next stopping-place, and continued his journey. 


Arrived at AVasliington. lie went straight to Mr. 
Havs, who showed his interest and kindness by taking 
him iinniechately to the Secretary of War; and in pre- 
senting him, ex])hiined the disadvantages of his educa- 
tion, hilt begged for him favor on account of his manly 
(kHermination. The Secretary pHed him with ques- 
tions, and an eye-witness describes the parley between 
them as being "gruff and heroic, but, with the grit of 
Old Hickory, this young Jackson was neither to be 
l)luired nor driven from his purpose," and so much 
pleased was the Secretary with his manliness and 
resolution that he gave him the apppointment and 
said to him: ''Sir, you have a good name. Go to 
West Point, and the first man who insults you knock 
him down, and have it charged to my account I" 

Mr. Hays kindly invited him to spend a few days 
with him in Washington to see the city, but with the 
one all-absorbing thought now in his mind of that 
long-desired education coming within his grasp, he de- 
clined, saying that one view from the top of the Capi- 
tol would be all that he could treat himself to at that 
time. Accordingly he ascended the dome, and took a 
view of the magnificent panorama before him, and 
then immediately proceeded on his journey. 

Mr. Ilavs crave him a letter of introduction to the 
faculty, bearing testimony to his excellent character 
and courageous spirit, and asking that due allowance 
be made for his limited education : and his letter had 
such weight that the authorities were very lenient in 
their examination, and he was admitted. Here then, 
in June, 18-12, at the age of eighteen, Ave find him 
where he had so longed to be, a cadet in the Military 
Academv at West Point. His friends had done for 


him all they could ; henceforth his career was to de- 
pend upon himself. 

When he entered upon his studies, he was made at 
once to feel his deficiency in preparation. An old 
friend and fellow-classmate says : " He had a rough 
time in the Academy at first, for his want of previous 
training placed him at a great disadvantage, and it 
was all he could do to pass his first examination. We 
Avere studying algebra, and maybe analytical geome- 
try, that winter, and Jackson was very low in his class 
standing. All lights were put out at ' taps,' and just 
before the signal he would pile up his grate with an- 
thracite coal, and, lying prone before it on the floor, 
would work away at his lessons by the glare of the 
fire, which scorched his very brain, till a late hour of 
the night. This evident determination to succeed not 
only aided his own efforts directly, but impressed his 
instructors in his favor, and he rose steadily year by 
3"ear, till we used to say : 'If we had to stay here 
another 3^ear, "old Jack" would be at the head of 
the class.' ... I believe he went through the very 
trying ordeal of the four years at West Point without 
ever having a hard word or a bad feeling from cadet 
or professor ; and while there were many who seemed 
to surpass him in the graces of intellect, in geniality, 
and in good-fellowship, there was no one of our class 
who more absolutely possessed the respect and confi- 
dence of all." 

He himself said that he " studied very hard for what 
he got at West Point," and after entering and seeing 
the amount of study he had to do, and the large num- 
ber of cadets who failed annually, he fully expected 
to be dismissed at the close of his first year, and in 


anticipation he endurrd all the mortification of going 
honu' and l)eing laughed at ; and he even prepared 
what he would say to his young friends, intending to 
tell them, " If they had been there, and found it as 
hard as he did, they would have failed too." He was 
always amused when speaking of this period of his 
life, and of the importance he then attached to the 
opinions of his young friends and companions. But 
to his surprise he passed his first year, and from that 
time he made steady progress until at the end of four 
years he graduated, seventeenth in a large and distin- 
guished class of over seventy. Among his classmates 
were Generals McClellan, Foster, Reno, Stoneman, 
Couch, and Gibbon, of the Federal army ; and Generals 
A. P. Hill. Pickett, Maury, D. R. Jones, W. D. Smith, 
and AVilcox, of the Confederate army. 

When he went to AY est Point he was fresh and 
ruddy in complexion, but had not yet attained his full 
height, and is described as being a slender lad, who 
walked rapidly, with his head bent forward. He had 
a grave, thoughtful face ; but when anything interested 
or excited him his form became erect, his eyes flashed 
like steel, and a smile, as sweet as a woman's, would 
illumine his whole face." The life he led there, and 
the constant exercise of drilling, soon developed his 
frame, and he became very erect, grew rapidly, and 
presented a fine, soldierly appearance. The habits of 
neatness and system wdiich are taught at West Point 
clung to him through life, and punctuality was ever 
regarded by him as a virtue. In his intercourse with 
his associates he was not sociable, except Avith a few 
congenial friends; but he was invariably kind and 
courteous to all, and alwavs readv to aid in nursinsr 


the sick and in helping those who were in trouble. 
During his second year he was known to receive some 
demerits, which he had not incurred himself, but he 
chose rather to bear the blame silently than to expose 
those who had unjustly cast it upon him. He said he 
did not remember to have spoken to a lady during the 
whole time he was at West Point, but he devoted him- 
self with all his mind and soul to his studies, giving 
but little time or thought to anything else. After his 
arduous daily studies, he found recreation in walking, 
and with a companion or alone he wandered over the 
beautiful hills and valleys around West Point, and de- 
lighted in climbing Fort Putnam, or "Old Put,'- as 
the cadets called this great cliff, which is a very strik- 
ing feature in the scener}^, and from which he greatly 
enjo3^ed the fine view of the majestic river, and the 
varied and lovely landscape. 

While at West Point he compiled in a private blank- 
book, for his own use, a set of rules and maxims re- 
lating to morals, manners, dress, choice of friends, and 
the aims of life. Perhaps the most characteristic of 
these maxims was, " You may he whatever you resolve 
to he ;'^ but others will show the standards by which 
he shaped his own conduct and character : 

"Through life let your principal object be the dis- 
charge of duty. — Disregard public opinion when it 
interferes with your duty. — Endeavor to be at peace 
with all men.— Sacrifice your life rather than your 
word. — Endeavor to do well everything which you 
undertake. — Xever speak disrespectfully of any one 
without a cause. — Spare no effort to suppress selfish- 
ness, unless that effort would entail sorrow. — Let your 

36 LItK OF (;eneral tuomas j. jacksox. 

conduct towaids men have some uniformity. — Temper- 
ance : Eiit not to dulness, drink not to elevation.— Si- 
lence : Speak but what may benefit others or your- 
self; avoid trifling conversation.— Resolve to perform 
what you ought ; perform without fail what you re- 
solve.— Frugality : Make no expense but to do good 
to others or yourself ; waste nothing. — Industry : Lose 
no time; be always employed in something useful; cut- 
off unnecessary actions. — Sincerity: Use no hurtful 
deceit ; think innocently and justly, and if you speak, 
si)eak accordingly.— Justice : Wrong no man by doing 
injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty. 
— Moderation: Avoid extremes; forbear resenting in- 
juries as much as you think tliey deserve. Cleanli- 
ness: Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, clothes, or 
habitation. Tranquillity : Be not disturbed at trifles. 
nor at accidents, common or unavoidable. 

'• Motives to action : 1. Regard to your own happi- 
ness. 2. Regard for the family to which you belong. 
3. Strive to attain a very great elevation of charac- 
ter. 4. Fix upon a high standard of action and char- 

** It is man's highest interest not to violate, or attempt 
to violate, the rules which Infinite Wisdom has laid 
down. The means by which men are to attain great 
elevation may be classed in three divisions — physical, 
mental, and moral. Whatever relates to health, be- 
longs to the first ; whatever relates to the improve- 
ment of tlic mind, belongs to the second. The for- 
mation of go(jd manners and vii'tuous habits consti- 
tutes the third. 


"Choice of Friends. 1. A man is known by the 
company he keeps. 2. Be cautious in your selection. 
3. There is danger of catching the habits of your as- 

" 4. Seek those who are intelligent and virtuous ; 
and, if possible, those who are a little above you, es- 
pecially in moral excellence. 

" 5. It is not desirable to have a large number of 
intimate friends ; you may have many acquaintances, 
but few intimate friends. If you have one who is 
what he should be, you are comparatively happy. 

" That friendship may be at once fond and lasting, 
there must not only be equal virtue in each, but virtue 
of the same kind : not only the same end must be pro- 
posed, but the same means must be approved." 

He had also copied the following rules from a 
book of etiquette on Politeness and Good-breeding : 

''Good-breeding, or true politeness, is the art of 
showing men by external signs the internal regard 
Ave have for them. It arises from good sense, im- 
proved by good company. It must be acquired by 
practice and not by books. 

" Be kind, condescending, and affable. Any one who 
has anything to say to a fellow-being, to say it with 
kind feelings and sincere desire to please ; and this, 
whenever it is done, will atone for much awkwardness 
in the manner of expression. 

" Good-breeding is opposed to selfishness, vanity, or 
pride. Never weary your company by talking too 
long or too frequently. Always look people in the 
face Avhen addressing them, and generally when they 


address you. Never engross the whole conversation 
to yourself. Say as little of yourself and friends as 

•' Make it a rule never to accuse without due con- 
sideration any body or association of men. Xever try 
to appear more wise or learned than the rest of the 
com})any. Xot that you should affect ignorance, but 
endeavor to remain within your own proper sphere." 

Dui'ing these four years at the Military Academy 
he had but one personal difficulty. This was caused 
by another cadet changing his uncleaned musket for 
Jackson's, which was alwa3's kept in perfect order. 
The trick was very soon discovered by the latter, 
whose suspicion fell at once upon the real culprit; but 
as his gun fortunately had a private mark upon it, he 
knew it couid be identified ; so after telling the cap- 
tain of the circumstances, he quietly bided his time 
until that evening at the inspection of arms, when his 
clean, shining musket was found in the hands of the 
man whom he had suspected, wha, when he was ac- 
cused of the dishonorable deed, attempted to shield^ 
liimself by telling a falsehood. Jackson, who was 
disgusted with the indolence and meanness of the ca- 
det, declaimed that he was a disgrace to the Academy, 
and that he would have him court-martialled and dis- 
missed. It was only by the urgent remonstrance of 
both cadets and professors that he could be induced 
to give up his determination. The disgrace of the 
young man overtook him, however, in a short time 
after, when he was ex])elled from the Academy for 
violating his ])arole of honor. 

Jackson graduated on the 30tli ul" June, ISiO, at the 


age of twentv-two years, and received the brevet rank 
of second lientenant of artillery. His attachment to 
his Alma Mater was very strong, and upon revisitmg 
the place, on a bridal tour, in the summer of 1857, his 
delio-ht was unbounded. The reunion with his old 
professors and brother-officers was most cordial and 
gratifying, and with the latter he had long talks and 
manv hearty laughs over old barrack reminiscences. 
At the dawn of day he was off to climb the heights 
of Fort Putnam, and once more to enjoy the view 
of the Hudson, Avinding among the hills and dales of 
that enchanting region. There was scarcely a spot 
that he did not visit in and around West Point. 



"When young Jackson graduated at AVest Point, the 
war with ^lexico had begun, and his whole class was 
ordered to proceed at once to the scene of action. Our 
lieutenant had orders to report innnediately for dut\^ 
with the First Regiment of Artillery, and went direct- 
ly to New Orleans, from w^hich he sailed for Mexico. 
General Winfield Scott was the commander-in-chief 
of the army of the United States. The w^ar contin- 
ued two years, and Jackson was in most of the battles 
that were fought from Yera Cruz to the fall of the 
capital, which ended hostilities. 

On the 0th of March, 1847, thirteen thousand five 
hundred men landed in one day upon the open beach 
near Vera Cruz; and as they disembarked from the 
manv vessels of the squadron, under a cloudless sky, 
and marched in perfect order, w4th martial music 
and colors flying, amid the cheers of the enthusiastic 
soldiers, and took their positions by sunset, it was a 
sj)ectacle that impressed Lieutenant Jackson as ex- 
ceeding in brilliance and animation any that he had 
ever witnessed. The city was taken in a few days, 
and in the battle Captain John Hankhead Magruder 
greatlv distinguished himself as commander of his bat- 
tery of light field artillery. He was a very strict dis- 
ci])linarian, and the position of second lieutenant being 


vacant in his battery, there were not many young oifi- 
cers w ho desired the place. But Jackson, who saw that 
its dangers and hardships offered advantages for quick 
promotion, apphed for and received the appointment. 
Mao-ruder was a darin^: officer, alwavs in the thickest 
of the light, where his dash and heroism won him great 
distinction, in which his subordinates were bound to 
share, and, of course, had the opportunity of winning 
glory for themselves. 

In the battle of Cherubusco Captain Magruder lost 
his first heutenant, Mr. Johnstone, early in the action ; 
and as Jackson had to take his place, he was advanced 
next in command to the captain, whom we will leave 
to describe the manner in which his young lieutenant 
acquitted himself. In his official report, Captain Ma- 
gruder says: "In a few moments, Lieutenant Jack- 
son, commanding the second section of the battery, 
who had opened fire upon the enemy's works from a 
position on the right, hearing our fire still further in 
front, advanced in handsome style, and being assigned 
by me to the post so gallantly filled by Lieutenant 
Johnstone, kept up the fire with great briskness and 
effect. His conduct was equally conspicuous during 
the whole day, and I cannot too highly commend him 
to the major-general's favorable consideration." For 
his gallantry in this battle he was promoted to the 
brevet rank of captain. 

In storming the Castle of Chapultepec, Captain Ma- 
gruder again compliments him highly, and recom- 
mends him for promotion thus : " I beg leave to call 
the attention of the major-general commanding to the 
conduct of Lieutenant Jackson of the First Artillery. 
If devotion, industry, talent, and gallantry are the 


highest qiuUities of a soldier, then is he entitled to 
the distinction which their i)ossession confers. I have 
been al)ly seconded in all the operations of the bat- 
terv by him; and upon this occasion, when circum- 
stances placed him in command, for a short time, of 
an inde])endent section, he proved himself eminently 
worthy of it." 

General Scott, in his official report, makes honora- 
ble mention of the part young Jackson bore in this 
assault, and (rcnerals Pillow and Worth both add their 
testimony to his meritorious conduct. General Pillow 
says : '' The advanced section of the battery, under 
command of the brave Lieutenant Jackson, was dread- 
fully cut up, and almost disabled. . . . Captain Ma- 
crruder's batterv, one section of which was served 
with great gallantry by himself and the other by his 
brave lieutenant, Jackson, in face of a galling fire 
from the enemy's position, did invaluable service." 

General Worth speaks of him as '' the gallant Jack- 
son, who, although he had lost most of his horses and 
manv of his men, continued chivalrously at his post, 
combating with noble courage." 

A brother officer, who was not only an eye-witness, 
but an actor in the storming of Chapultepec, gives 
the following details of Jackson's part in the as- 
sault •. 

•* hieutenant Jackson's section of Magruder's battery 
was sul)jecte(l to a plunging fire from the Castle of Cha- 
])uhcj)ec. The little six-pounders could effect nothing 
against tlie guns of the Mexicans, of mucli heavier cali- 
bre, firing- from an elevation. The horses were killed 
or disabled, and the men became so demoralized that 


they deserted the guns and sought shelter behind a 
wall or embankment. Lieutenant Jackson remained 
at the guns, walking back and forth, and kept saying, 
' See, there is no danger ; I am not hit !' While stand- 
ing with his legs wide apart, a cannon-ball passed be- 
tween them; and this fact probably prevented him 
from having any confidence in what the soldiers 
playfully called being ' stung by a bomb.' The assault- 
ing columns for the storming of Chapultepec consisted 
of 250 regulars from Twiggs's Division and 250 regu- 
lars from Worth's. These were all volunteers for the 
forlorn hope. The ofiicers and non-commissioned offi- 
cers were induced to volunteer by the promise of pro- 
motion, and the men by the promise of pecuniary re- 
ward. The rifle regiment under Colonel Persifer F. 
Smith, the Palmetto Regiment, and the Marine Bat- 
talion under Major Twiggs (brother of the general) 
supported the storming party from Twiggs's Division. 
When the castle was captured, many of the stormers 
dispersed in search of plunder and liquor. A few pur- 
sued promptly the retreating column of Mexicans. 
Lieutenants D. H. Hill and Barnard Bee followed 
down the causeway towards the Garita of San Cosme. 
Every shot told on the huddled and demoralized thou- 
sands of Mexicans, but their fire back upon the thirsty, 
pursuing Americans was harmless. After the chase 
had been continued over a mile, Lieutenant Jackson 
came up with two pieces of artillery, and joined the 
two young officers. They now pressed on vigorously. 
Captain Magruder himself soon appeared with cais- 
sons and men, but no additional guns. He expressed 
a fear of losing the two guns, as the division of Gen- 
eral AYorth was far in the rear, but he yielded to the 


solicitations of the young men, and continued the 
march. Shoi-tly after the ariival of Captain Magru- 
der a cohimn of two thousand cavah'y, under General 
Amjuidia. made a demonstration of charging upon the 
guns. Thev were unlimbered, and a rapid fire was 
opened ui)on the ^Mexicans, who retreated without at- 
tacking the artillery. It was not judged prudent to 
proceed farther, and the command halted until Gen- 
eral Worth came up. The part played later in the 
day by the battery at the Garita of San Cosme is men- 
tioned in the official reports. For gallantry in the 
battles of Contreras and Cherubusco, on the 20th of 
August, Lieutenant Jackson had been bre vetted a cap- 
tain ; and now this storming of Chapultepec, on the 
13th of September, won him the brevet of major. In 
the first batch of brevetted promotions there Avere only 
five or six who received double brevets, and these 
were the first who were promoted on recommenda- 
tions from the field." Jackson Avas among this num- 
ber, and was the only one of his class who rose to this 
distinction. " Xo other officer in the whole army in 
^lexico was promoted so often for meritorious conduct 
or made so great a stride in rank." 

In the storming of Chapultepec, when at the mo- 
ment of greatest danger he was almost deserted by his 
men. lie refused to retire without orders from his com- 
mander. However, lie was soon relieved by reinforce- 
ments. Years afterwards, when his pupils at Lexing- 
ton were asking him for the particulars of the scene, 
he modestly described it, when one of them exclaimed, 
in astonisliment, " Major, why didn't you run when 
your command was so disabled T' With a quiet smile 


he replied, " I was not ordered to do so. If I had 
been ordered to run, I should have done so; but I was 
directed to hold ray position, and I had no right to 
abandon it." In after-years he confessed that the 
part he played in stepping out and assuring his men 
that there was no danger, when the cannon-ball passed 
between his legs, was the only Avilful falsehood he 
ever told in his life ! In speaking of the storming of 
Chapultepec to a friend, he described one of those 
awful casualties of war when, in consequence of some 
misunderstanding on the part of the besieged in ob- 
serving directions to clear the streets of the city of 
non-combatants, the guns of his battery were ordered 
to sweep a street which was filled by a panic-stricken 
crowd, and after the smoke of the charge had cleared 
away he could trace distinctly the track of destruc- 
tion his own guns had made. IS'o one felt more than 
he the horrors of war ; but, with his high sense of a 
soldier's duty, he felt that he had no right to " ask the 
reason why," or to stop to consider the consequences. 
As he often said, "My duty is to obey orders T 

After the occupation of the city of Mexico by 
the United States troops, there was a season of 
rest for several months, which was very refreshing 
and delightful to Major Jackson; and as he, with a 
number of other officers, had their quarters in the 
national palace, he used to say jocularly that no one 
came nearer to realizing the boast of the politicians 
of the day, that "their soldiers should lodge in the 
halls of the Montezumas 1" 

Here his life of ease and luxury was quite a contrast 
to the stormy period through which he had passed ; 
and when we hear of his adopting the Spanish cus- 


toms — taking his morning cup of coffee before rising, 
his hue dinner, in which Spanish art ahnost rivalled the 
delicious fruits of that semi-tropical climate — it does not 
surprise us that, for the mere delight of Uving, he con- 
sidered the city of Mexico to surpass all others he had 
ever known. But notwithstanding his luxurious and 
attractive surroundings, the young soldier never neg- 
lected his duties, which he performed with the utmost 

After the cessation of hostilities and the peaceful 
possession of the capital by the United States army, 
the peo]5le began to yield kindly to the advances of 
the conquerors, and there was soon a friendly com- 
mingling of the two nations which had so lately been 
in deadly conflict. The homes of the old noUesse, 
whose pride Avas their pure Castilian blood, were 
opened in cordial welcome to the American officers ; 
and the charms of society never had greater fascina- 
tion for Major Jackson than when in the presence of 
the beautiful and graceful Mexican women. However, 
there was one drawback to his perfect enjoyment, for, 
much as he could feast his eyes, he could not have the 
pleasure of conversing with these charmers, as he was 
ignorant of their language. But to a go-ahead young 
man this was a trifle easily overcome ; so he went to 
work and studied under a Spanish gentleman, until 
he soon learned both to speak and read Spanish flu- 
ently. His admiration for the language Avas great, 
and he always said it was meant for lovers, the terms 
of endearment being so musical and abundant. He 
adopted them for his own use, and delighted in lav- 
ishing them upon those dearest to him. Indeed, he 
acknowledged that he came very near losing his heart 


in Mexico, the fascinations of at least one dark-eyed 
senorita proving almost too great for his resistance ; 
but he found safety in compelling himself to discon- 
tinue his visits, and thus escaped capture. " Discre- 
tion is the better part of valor " was a maxim that he 
often quoted. He formed some warm attachments for 
his " fine Spanish friends," as he called them, and 
brouo^ht home a number of interestino^ little souvenirs 
with which they presented him : among them a hand- 
some paper-knife, card-cases, gold pencil, and a mas- 
sive silver spoon that might have been designed for 
royalty, it having a curious little compartment in the 
centre, for the purpose of testing poison ! Those who 
knew him afterwards as so strict and rigid in his ab- 
stinence from worldly pleasures may be surprised to 
know that as a young man he was very fond of danc- 
ing, and participated with great zest in the balls of 
the pleasure -loving Mexicans. Years later, in the 
privacy and freedom of his own home in Lexington, 
he used frequently to dance the polka for exercise, 
but no eye but that of his wife was ever permitted to 
witness this recreation. The delicious climate and 
beautiful scenery of Mexico, with its wealth of flow- 
ers and tropical fruits, so charmed him that he often 
said that if the people had been equal to their climate, 
and the civil and religious privileges had been as great 
as those of his own country, he would have preferred 
a home there to any other part of the world. Yet in 
the midst of all this gayety he had his sober thoughts, 
and it was while still in Mexico that he began that 
religious life which was so marked in all his future 

The commanding officer of his regiment, the First 


Artillery, was Colonel Francis Taylor, an earnest 
Christian, who labored much for the spiritual welfare 
of liis soldiers. He was the first man to speak to Jack- 
son on the subject of personal religion, with whom the 
sense of duty was so strong that once convinced that 
a thing was right and that he ought to do it, he im- 
mediately undertook it ; and so he resolved to study 
the ]>i])le and seek all the light within his reach. At 
that time he had but little knowledge of creeds, and 
no special preference for any denomination. His 
mother, it is supjwsed, had been a member of the 
Metliodist Church, but after his separation from her 
at an early age it is not likely that he received any 
religious instruction. One statement is that his mother 
htul him baptized in infancy b}^ a Presbyterian clergy- 
man, the Rev. Asa Brooks ; but if this be so, it is 
probable that he did not know it himself, or he would 
not have had the rite administered to him after he 
was grown to manhood, for he believed in infant bap- 
tism, lie had been more accustomed to the Episcopal 
service than an}^ other, as the chaplains at West Point 
and in the army had been chiefly of that denomina- 
tion, and his friend Colonel Taylor was a devout 
Episcopalian ; but he determined to examine all the 
religious creeds, and decide for himself which came 
nearest to his ideas of the Bible standard of faith and 
practice. Being then in the midst of educated Roman 
Catholics, he resolved to investigate their system, and 
for this purpose he sought the acquaintance of the 
Archbishop of Mexico, with whom he had several 
interviews. lie believed him to be a sincere and de- 
vout man, and was impressed with his learning and 
affability ; but the venerable prelate failed to convince 


(From a daguerreotype.) 


him of the truth of his tenets of belief. His prefer- 
ence for a simpler form of faith and worship led him 
to wait until he could have the opportunity of learn- 
ing more of other churches. 

The United States troops returned from Mexico in 
the summer of ISJrS, and Major Jackson's command 
was stationed for two years at Fort Hamilton, on 
Long Island. Here he led a quiet, uneventful life, 
forming some pleasant friendships among the resi- 
dents, and especially with the ladies of the garrison. 
He attended with more diligence than ever to his re- 
ligious duties, but acknowledged that he went through 
his Bible reading and prayers with no feeling stronger 
than having performed a duty. Colonel Taylor was 
residing near him, and their intercourse was delight- 
ful and instructive to the junior officer, wdio always 
spoke of his colonel with gratitude and reverence. 
The chaplain of the garrison at that time is said to 
have been a Eev. Mr. Parks, to whom Major Jackson 
became much attached, and at whose hands it has 
been reported that he received the sacrament of bap- 
tism. That he had such a friend and spiritual ad- 
viser is doubtless true, but that he was baptized by 
him is a mistake. I visited Fort Hamilton a few 
years ago, and sought out the little chapel in which 
he worshipped while there (St. John's Episcopal), and 
with the aid of one of the wardens, a friend of Major 
Jackson, examined the records of the church, where 
appeared the following entry : 

" On Sunday, 29th day of April, 1849, I baptized 
Thomas Jefferson Jackson, major in the U. S. Army. 
Sponsors, Colonels Dimick and Taylor. 




The minister very naturally made the mistake of 
sup]^osing his second name was Jefferson, instead of 
Jonathan, the illustrious President of that name hav- 
ing had so many namesakes. Upon the church rec- 
ords it was also interesting to find the name of Robert 
E. Lee, Captain Corps Engineers, as a vestryman in 
1S42. The names of the rectors of the parish np to 
that time were given, but that of Mr. Parks does not 
appear among them. It is my impression that Mr. 
Parks had chai'ge of a church in the city of Kew 
York, as I have heard Major Jackson speak warmly 
and gratefully of a ministerial friend in that city; and 
as Mr. Parks was an alumnus of AVest Point, this is 
most probable. 

Although he had applied for and received the sacra- 
ment of baptism in the Episcopal Church, his mind 
was not yet made up on the subject of churches, and 
he chose to wait for further opportunities of acquaint- 
ing himself with the creeds. But having accepted 
Jesus Christ as his Saviour and Redeemer, he wished 
to avow his faith before men, and became a member 
of that "Holy Catholic Church" whose creed is em- 
braced by all evangelical denominations. Baptism 
in the Episcopal Church gave him the right to be- 
come a communicant, and with this privilege he was 
content, and he did not apply for the rite of con- 

One of the pleasant experiences of his garrison life 
at Fort Hamilton was the horseback exercise he daily 
indulged in; and, mounted on a favorite little horse, 
•' Fancy," he rode all over the country, and along the 
shores of the beautiful bav. 



At the close of his two years' terra of service at 
Fort Harailton, Major Jackson was ordered to Fort 
Meade, near Tampa Bay, in Florida, where he re- 
mained about six months. The warm climate he 
found enervating and injurious to his health ; but a 
delightful change soon came, removing him to the 
bracing air of the Yalley of Virginia. This great 
valley, which lies between the two ranges of the Blue 
Ridge and Alleghany Mountains, is justly celebrated 
as the most beautiful, picturesque, and fertile part of 
the State. The county of Rockbridge derives its 
name from the Xatural Bridge, where a massive and 
sohd arch of rock spans a chasm, into whose depths the 
beholder looks down with awe. At the bottom of the 
ravine a little stream ripples along, adding a tender 
grace and beauty to the surrounding sublimity and 

Of this famous county, Lexington is the capital 
town. If, in describing this little gem of a place, I 
seem extravagant, the reader will pardon me, since 
here was centred all the romance of my life ; here 
were spent my happiest days ; and it is still to me 
the most sacred of all places, as here the mountains 
keep watch and guard around the home and the 
tombs of those who were dearest to me on earth. 


The scenery around Lexington is exquisitely beauti- 
ful, being varied by ranges of mountains, hills, and 
valleys, with fine forests and fertile fields of fruit 
and grain. The wealth of green in spring and sum- 
mer, the resplendent tints of autumn, and the snow- 
cap})ed peaks of winter present a perpetual feast to the 
eye. Some of the mountains take their names from 
the objects which they are supposed to resemble. The 
most distinctive one, as seen from the town, suggests 
the form of a large building: hence it is called the 
*' House Mountain." It is a very striking feature in 
the western horizon, and is most beautiful when light- 
ed up by the setting sun. Another ridge, from some 
fancied resemblance, is called the " Hog's Back." It 
is a fine mountain ridge, in s])ite of its unromantic 

Lexington has long been noted for its two grand 
institutions, one of which ^vas founded before the 
Revolutionary War, and received a large endowment 
from the father of his country, from which it was 
called AYashington College — a name that it continued 
to bear until after the late war, when General Lee be- 
came its president, upon which his name was also 
given to it, so that what was before Washington Col- 
lege is now Washington and Lee University. Gen- 
eral Lee, and his son. General G. W. Custis Lee, who 
succeeded him in the presidency, have improved the 
spacious grounds till they are as attractive as a city 
park. The former built the chapel, which, after his 
death, was made a memorial chapel and a mausoleum, 
in which is placed Valentine's exquisite recumbent 
statue of the great soldier. This is to the visitor the 
chief attraction of Lexinoton. 


A few hundred yards beyond the University, upon 
the same elevated ridge, but farther out of town, 
stands the Virginia Mihtary Institute, with its castel- 
lated buildings and extensive grounds. The barracks 
command a magnificent view of the country for miles 
around. This school was founded upon the model of 
the United States Military Academy, and is called the 
" West Point of the South." 

The society of Lexington, as is usual in seats of 
learning, is so cultivated and intelligent that it ri- 
vals that gathered round the State University of 
Virginia. But apart from the professors' families, 
others, attracted bv these opportunities of education, 
have made Lexington their home ; so that it has be- 
come known in all the count rj^ not only as a seat of 
learning, but of general cultivation, refinement, and 

In the Military Institute Major Jackson was elected 
Professor of JSTatural and Experimental Philosophy 
and Artiller}^ Tactics on the 2Tth of March, 1851, and 
thus Lexington became his home for ten years. Of 
his election his friend, and subsequently his brother- 
in-law, General D. H. Hill (then major), gives the fol- 
lowing account : 

" The circumstances attending the election of Major 
Jackson to a chair in the Virginia Military Institute 
will be of interest to those who believe in the special 
providence of God. It will be remembered that Gen- 
eral Scott withdrew from General Taylor the greater 
portion of his regular troops for the invasion of Mex- 
ico by the Vera Cruz line. The troops withdrawn 
marched to Camargo, where the}^ took river steamers 



to Point Isabel, at the mouth of the Rio Grande, and 
waited there for ocean transports to take them to 
Vera Cruz. A young officer who had served with 
General Taylor, and was waiting with his regiment 
on the beach at Point Isabel, strolled over one after- 
n(jun to see Captain Taylor, of the artillery. While 
in conversation. Captain Taylor said: 'Here comes 
Lieutenant Jackson. I w^ant you to know him. He 
was constantly rising in the class at West Point, and 
if the course had been a year longer he would have 
irraduated at the head of his class. He will make his 
mark in this war.' The young men were introduced, 
and soon after took a walk on the beach, Lieutenant 
Jackson admiring the grandeur of the ocean. He 
said, among other things : ' I envy you men who have 
been ill liattlc. II(jw I would like to be in ofie battle!' 
and expressed the fear that the war might come to an 
end b^.'loi'e his wish could be gratilied. Little did he 
then know liow many scores of battles he would direct, 


and how breathlessly the two divided sections of the 
nation would watch his terrible movements! The 
two young officers parted to meet under the walls of 
Yera Cruz. After a night of toil they sought shelter 
under a sand-bank to snatch a few hours' sleep, when 
an enormous shell from the Castle of San Juan de 
Ulloa came crashing through their shelter, and nearly 
ended their earthly career. They were side by side 
in the pursuit of the Mexicans after the fall of Cha- 
pultepec, and they met again some time after the capt- 
ure of the city of Mexico. The war closed. Major 
Jackson remained in the service." 

Major Hill himself resigned, and accepted a profess- 
orship in the " College " at Lexington, not the Mili- 
tar}^ Institute. A few years after he had been here 
he went one morning to see Colonel F. II. Smith, 
superintendent of the Institute, and found him much 
perplexed in consequence of a difference between him- 
self and the Board of Yisitors. They wished to elect 
as a professor R. E. Rodes (afterwards major-general 
in the Confederate army), and he preferred a gradu- 
ate of West Point. There was a good deal of feeling 
among them, but a compromise was finally effected, 
and the chair was offered to Professor A. P. Stewart, 
a graduate of West Point, but at that time in Cum- 
berland University. Professor Stewart had declined, 
and Colonel Smith apprehended a renewal of the old 
trouble. He handed an Army Catalogue to his vis- 
itor, and asked him to suggest a suitable officer to fill 
the chair. As he glanced over the catalogue, his eye 
fell upon the name of Jackson, and the conversation 
with Captain Taylor instantly occurred to him — - If 


the course had been one year longer, Jackson would 
have irraduated at the head of his class." Colonel 
Smith was pleased with the name suggested. In a 
few days he started for Eichmond, wliere there was 
an adjourned meeting of the Board. The Hon. John 
S. Carlisle, representative in Congress from Western 
\'irginia, and a connection of Major Jackson, was a 
member of the Board, and heartily endorsed the nom- 
ination. It was thought desirable, too, to elect a pro- 
fessor from Western Virginia to secure patronage from 
that quarter, most of the cadets then coming from the 
East. So Major Jackson was elected unanimously to 
the chair of Natural Philosophy, Professor Gilham 
retaining that of Chemistry. 

It was Major Jackson's connection with the Virginia 
Military Institute which opened for him his career 
in the war. It identified him with the Valley, and 
gave him Valley men for his soldiers. It made him 
familiar with the ground upon Avhich his earliest vic- 
tories were won. But by what a chain of apparently 
fortuitous circumstances was he led to Lexington I 
The conversation at Point Isabel was the first link — 
the intercourse betw^een the young men in Mexico; 
the disagreement between Colonel Smith and the 
Board ; Professor Stewart's declining ; the chance 
visit to Colonel Smith's office — these were the sub- 
sequent links. 

At the time of Major Jackson's acceptance of this 
professorshij) his health was not good, and his eyes, 
especially, were so weak that he had to exercise great 
cauti(jn in using them, never doing so at night. Thus 
crippled foi' his work, a friend asked him if it was not 
[)resumptioii in him to accept the place when he was 


physically incapacitated to fill it. " Xot in the least," 
was his prompt answer; "the appointment came un- 
sought, and w^as therefore providential ; and I knew 
that if Providence set me a task, he would give me the 
power to perform it. So I resolved to get well, and 
you see I have. As to the rest, I knew that Avhat 
/ loilled to do. I could doT In order to regain his 
strength for his new work, he spent a part of July 
and August of 1851 on Lake Ontario, and the rest of 
the summer in charge of the corps of cadets at the 
Warm Springs of Virginia, from which he wrote to 
his uncle Alfred Xeale : '' I have reported at Lexing- 
ton, and am delighted with my duties, the place, and 
the people. At present I am with the corps of cadets 
at this place, where we may remain until the company 
shall leave, which may be some time hence. I recruit- 
ed very rapidly at Lake Ontario, where I passed part 
of July and August. It would have given me much 
pleasure to have visited yoti during the past summer, 
but I am anxious to devote myself to study until I 
shall become master of my profession." 

In removing to Lexington, he found there a number 
of churches, and attended one and another to see which 
he liked best. Up to this time he knew scarcely any- 
thing of Presbyterianism. Here he found that church 
the largest and most influential, embracing many of 
the most intelligent families, although the professors 
of the Institute to which he belonged were mostly 
Episcopalians. The pastor of the Presbyterian church. 
Dr. William S. White, w^as a devout and earnest man 
of God, w^hose kindness and aifability made him very 
winning to the young and to strangers. His impres- 
sive and persuasive style of preaching attracted and 


interested the new professor, who soon sought his ac- 
quaintance, and then his counsel in rehgious matters. 
The simplicity of the Presbyterian form of worship 
and the preaching of her well-educated ministry im- 
pressed him most favorably, and after a careful study 
of her stan(Uirds of faith and practice he gave his pref- 
erence to that church. It has been said that he be- 
came a Presbyterian by marriage, but this is incorrect, 
for he had made his choice of a churcli before he 
made choice of a wife, and he was of too independent 
and inflexible a nature to be influenced even by a wife 
in so important a decision. 

In his frequent interviews with Dr. White, the latter 
became more and more interested in the earnest, can- 
did inquirer; and although some of his theories Avere 
not in strict accord with Presbyterianism, yet his pas- 
tor was so impressed with the genuineness of his faith 
and his extreme conscientiousness that he did not hes- 
itate to receive him to the communion. He made a 
j)ubhc profession of his faith on the 22d of November, 
1851, and became more and more attached to the 
church of his choice with the lapse of time ; his diffi- 
culties of doctrinal belief all vanished, and he was a 
most loyal and devoted member and officer. But he 
was the furthest possible remove from being a bigot. 
His views of each denomination had been obtained 
from itself, not from its opponents. Hence he could 
see excellences in all.. Even of the Poman Catholic 
Church he had a much more favorable impression 
than most Protestants, and he fraternized with all 
evangelical denominations. During a visit to New 
York City, one Sabbath morning, we chanced to find 
<jurselves at the door of an Episcopal church at the 


hour for worship. He proposed that we should enter ; 
and as it was a day for the celebration of the com- 
munion, he remained for that service, of which he par- 
took in the most devout manner. It was with the 
utmost reverence and solemnity that he walked up 
the chancel and knelt to receive the elements. In his 
church at Lexington it has been said that he was an 
elder, but he never rose higher than a deacon, whose 
duties are purely temporal, to collect the alms of the 
church and to distribute to the destitute. These hum- 
ble duties Major Jackson discharged with scrupulous 
fidelity. His pastor said he was the best deacon in 
the church. With a soldier's training of obedience to 
superior command, he followed out the same principle 
in his church duties, going to his pastor, as his chief, 
for his '' orders," and " reporting " his performance of 
them in a military way. He never permitted anything 
to interfere with his attendance upon the monthly 
meetings of deacons; and to a brother-deacon, who 
excused his absence by pleading that he had not the 
time to attend, he said : " I do not see how, at that 
hour, we can possibly lack time for this meeting, or 
can have time for anything else, seeing it is set apart 
for this business." 

Between his pastor and himself existed the most 
confidential relations, and he consulted him as he 
would a father, regarding him as a man of great 
worldly wisdom and discretion, as well as a faithful 
leader of his flock. " He always acted on the princi- 
ple that he was as really bound to ^report' the condi- 
tion of himself and family to his pastor as the latter 
was to minister to their spiritual wants." 

Few men had such reverence for ministers of the 


gospel, and he often said that, had his education fitted 
him for it, and had he more of the gift of speaking, 
he would liave entered the pulpit. In a letter to his 
aunt, Mrs. Neale, he said: ''The subject of becoming 
a herald of the cross has often serioush^ engaged my 
attention, and I regard it as the most noble of all pro- 
fessions. It was the profession of our divine Eedeem- 
er. and I should not be surprised were I to die upon a 
foreign field, clad in ministerial armor, fighting under 
the banner of Jesus. What could be more glorious? 
But my conviction is that I am doing good here, and 
that for the present I am where God would have me 
be. AVithin the last few days I have felt an unusual 
religious ioy. I do rejoice to walk in the love of God. 
. . . My Heavenly Father has condescended to use me 
as an instrument in getting up a large Sabbath-school 
for the negroes here. He has greatly blessed it, and, 
I trust, all who are connected with it." So scrupulous 
was he in the performance of his duties that he would 
not neglect even the smallest, saying, " One instance 
would he a precedent for another, and thus my rules 
would be broken down." After his conscience decided 
u})on questions of right and wrong, his resolution and 
independence enabled him to carry out his principles 
with a total disregard of the ojiinions of the world. 
He thought it was a great weakness in others to care 
what impression their conduct made upon public opin- 
ion, if their consciences were only clear. The fear of 
the Lord was the only fear he knew\ After he be- 
came a (■hristian he set his face against all worldly 
confoi'mity, giving up dancing, theatre-going, and ev- 
ery amusement that had a tendency to lead his thoughts 
antl heart away from holy things. When a question 


was raised as to the right or Avrong of indulgences that 
many consider innocent, he would say pleasantly : 
" Well, I know it is not wrong not to do it, so I'm go- 
ing to be on the safe side." His rule was never to 
make any compromise with his principles. But there 
was not a particle of asceticism or gloom in his relig- 
ion. It shed perpetual sunshine upon his life, and his 
cheerful serenity was like the full-flowing of a placid 
stream. His faith and trust led him to feel that noth- 
ing could happen to him but what was sent in wisdom 
and love by his Heavenly Father. One of his favorite 
texts of Scripture was : " We know that all things work 
together for good to them that love God." 

Soon after he united with the church, his pastor, in 
a public discourse, urged his flock to more faithfulness 
in attending the weekly prayer-meeting, and enjoined 
upon the church officers and members especially their 
duty to lead in prayer. Hearing this, Major Jackson 
called to inquire if he was among those who were ad- 
monished not to be deterred from their duty by mod- 
esty or false shame. He said he had not been used 
to public speaking; he was naturally diffident, and 
feared an effort might prove anything but edifying to 
the assembly ; " but," he continued, " you are my pas- 
tor, and the spiritual guide of the church ; and if ?/ou 
think it my duty, then I shall waive my reluctance and 
make the effort to lead in prayer, however painful it 
may be." Thus authorized to call upon him if he thought 
proper, after a time the pastor did so. In responding 
to the request, his embarrassment Avas so great that 
the service was almost as painful to the audience as it 
was to himself. The call Avas not repeated, and after 
waiting some weeks, the major again called upon Doc- 


tor White to know if he had refrained from a second 
call from unwillingness to inflict distress upon him 
through his extreme diffidence. The good pastor was 
obliged to admit that he did shrink from requiring a 
d^ity of him which was rendered at such a sacrifice, 
lest his own enjoyment of the meeting be destroyed. 
His reply was: ''Yes, but my comfort or discomfort 
is not the question ; if it is my duty to lead in prayer, 
then I must persevere in it until I learn to do it aright ; 
and I wish you to discard all consideration for my 
feelings." The next time he was called upon he suc- 
ceeded better in repressing his agitation, and in the 
course of time he was able to pour out his heart be- 
fore God with as much freedom in the public meeting 
as at his own family prayers. 

To improve himself in public speaking, he joined a 
debating society in Lexington, called " The Franklin," 
and his first efforts there were on a par with those in 
the Presbyterian lecture-room ; but his perseverance 
and determination overcame his difficulties to a great 
extent, and he acquired considerable ease and fluency 
as a speaker. 

A cong-res-ational meetino: of the church was held 
to determine the best method of increasing the rev- 
enue of the church. After several speeches, in which 
there was a good deal of diversity of opinion, ]\Iajor 
Jackson rose quietly, and in a short but stirring ad- 
dress recalled the old command, not " to rob God in 
tithes and offerings," emphasizing the point that {f 
they did their duty as church members all their diffi- 
culties would come to an end, with such earnest per- 
suasion as led an eminent divine who was present to re- 
mark, " Why, the major was really eloquent to-day !" 


In his own giving for religious purposes, be adopted 
the Hebrew system of tithes^ contributing every 3'ear 
one tenth of his income to the church. He was a 
liberal giver to all causes of benevolence and public 
enterprises, and during the war he gave bounteously 
of his means to promote the spiritual interests of the 

During a summer spent in the little village of Bev- 
erly, "West Yirginia (the home of his sister), he was 
troubled to find that there was but little religious 
influence in the place, and that a number of the friends 
and acquaintances he made there were professed infi- 
dels. So great was his desire to convince them of 
their error and danger, that he prepared and delivered 
a brief course of lectures upon the evidences of Chris- 
tianity. A military man was not often seen in that 
remote region, and this led him to hope that some 
might be drawn even by curiosity to listen to some- 
thing from him more favorably than from others, 
thouo^h it mio^ht be much inferior. He did succeed in 
attracting crowds of hearers, but the delivery, he said, 
was one of the greatest trials he had ever had. 

In social life Major Jackson was not what is called 
a '' society man;" indeed, the very phrase seems an 
incongruity as applied to him. But before his mar- 
riage he mingled constantly in society — punctiliously 
performing his part in the courtesies which are due 
from young gentlemen — more, perhaps, from a sense 
of duty than from inclination. He w^as not naturally 
social, but he was a most genuine and ardent admirer 
of true womanhood ; and no man was more respectful 
and chivalrous in his bearing tow^ards the gentler sex. 
He never passed a woman either of high or low de- 


gree, whether he knew her or not, without lifting 
his cap. and he was never lacking in any attention or 
service that he could render. AVhen a lady entered 
the room he always rose to his feet and remained 
standing until she was seated. But with all his polite- 
ness and thorough breeding, he was so honest and 
conscientious that he could not indulge in tliose little 
meaningless flatteries with which young people are 
so prone to amuse themselves ; hence he was not so 
popular in general society as young men who have 
no scruples of that sort. But he had his friendships 
among ladies who could appreciate him, and was a 
frequent visitor, delighting in throwing off restraint 
and making himself very much at home. In a letter 
to a friend he said : '' The kind of friends to whom I 
am most attached are those with whom I feel at home, 
and to whom I can go at all proper times, and infor- 
mally tell them the object of my call, with the assur- 
ance that, if practicable, they will join me in carrying 
out my plans, whether they are for an evening prom- 
enade, a musical soiree^ or whatever they may be ; and 
all this, Avithout the marred pleasure resulting from a 
conviction that afterwards all my conduct must under- 
go a judicial investigation before ' Judge Etiquette,' 
and that for every violation of his code I must be cen- 
sured, if not socially ostracized." 

A Southern lady thus describes the impression that 
Major Jackson made upon her : '' There was a pecu- 
liarity about him which at once attracted your atten- 
tion. Dignified and rather stiff, as military men are 
apt to be, he was as frank and unassuming as possible, 
and was perfectly natural and unaffected. He always 
sat bolt upright in his chair, never lounged, never 


crossed his legs, or made an unnecessary movement. 
The expression of his soft gray eyes was gentle, yet 
commanding, giving you a delightful feeling of the 
sweetness, purity, and strength of his character. His 
dress (in times of peace at least) was always in good 
taste, and faultlessly neat. Everything he wore was 
of the best material. 'A thorough gentleman' was 
not exactly the expression to describe the impression 
first made upon you : it was something more— a title 
of greater distinction than this must describe him— 
' a modern knight of King Arthur's Eound Table, ' 
would have more properly conveyed the indelible pict- 
ure he fixed upon your mind. IS'othing unworthy, 
nothing ignoble, nothing of modern frivolity and little- 
ness—any thoughtful observer could have seen, even 
before the war, that ' Stonewall ' Jackson was as true 
a hero as Bayard, or Ealeigh, or Sidney." 

The following picture is one of the best that have 
ever been drawn, and may well have the merit of ac- 
curacy, since it is by one who was a constant observer, 
as he was on his staff, and thus a member of his mili- 
tary family. It is the Eev. Dr. Dabney who thus 
sketches the figure of his chief : '' His person was tall, 
erect, and muscular, with the large hands and feet 
characteristic of all his race. His bearing was pecul- 
iarly English; and therefore, in the somewhat free 
society of America, was regarded as constrained. Ev- 
ery movement was quick and decisive; his articula- 
tion was rapid, but distinct and emphatic, and, accom- 
panied by that laconic and perspicuous phrase to which 
it was so well adapted, it often made the impression 
of curtness. He practised a mihtary exactness in all 
the courtesies of good society. DiflFerent opinions ex- 


isted as to his comeliness, because it varied so much 
with the condition of his health and animal spirits. 
Ills brow was fair and expansive ; his eyes were blue- 
grav, large, and ex])ressive, reposing usually in placid 
calm, but able none the less to flash lightning. His 
nose was Roman, and well chiselled ; his cheeks ruddy 
and sunburnt ; his mouth firm and full of meaning, and 
his chin covered with a beard of comely brown. The 
remarkable characteristic of his face was the contrast 
between its sterner and its gentler moods. As he 
accosted a friend, or dispensed the hospitalities of his 
own house, his serious, constrained look gave place to 
a smile, so sweet and sunny in its graciousness that 
he was another man. And if anything caused him to 
burst into a hearty laugh, the effect was a complete 
metamorphosis. Then his eyes danced, and his coun- 
tenance rippled with a glee and aha?ido?i literally in- 
fantile. This smile was indescribable to one who never 
saw it. Had there been a painter with genius subtile 
enough to fix upon his canvas, side by side, the spirit 
of the countenance with which he caught the sudden 
jest of a child romping on his knees, and with which, 
in the crisis of battle, he gave the sharp command, 
' Sweep the field with the bayonet I' he would have ac- 
complished a miracle of art, which the spectator could 
scarcely credit as true to nature. 

"In walking, his step was long and rapid, and at 
once suggested the idea of the dismounted horseman. 
It has been said that he was an awkward rider, but 
incorrectly. A sufficient evidence of this is the fact 
that he was never thrown. It is true that on the 
march, when involved in thought, he was heedless of 
the grace of his posture ; but in action, as he rode 


with bare head along his column, acknowledging the 
shouts which rent the skies, no figure could be nobler 
than his. His judgment of horses was excellent, and 
it was very rare that he was not well mounted." 

His passport, which he procured at Washington for 
a European trip in 1S50, describes him thus : '' Stature 
five feet nine and three-quarter inches, English ; fore- 
head full; eyes gray; nose aquiline ; mouth small; chin 
oval ; hair dark-brown ; face oval ; complexion dark." 

The last is a mistake, as his complexion was nat- 
urally fair, but was very susceptible to sunburn. A 
lady who was a relative, with whom he lived under the 
same roof several years, says : 

" He was a man siii generis ; and none who came 
into close enough contact with him to see into his 
inner nature were willing to own that they had ever 
known just such another man.-' After she was allowed 
unguarded insight into ''the very pulse of the ma- 
chine," she recalls the incredulity with which her 
declaration that Jackson was the very stuff out of 
which to make a hero was received, before any sword 
was lifted in the contest. 

She describes him upon his first entrance into Lex- 
ington society as " of a tall, very erect figure, with a 
military precision about him which made him appear 
stiff, but he was one of the most polite and courteous 
of men. He had a handsome, animated face, flashing 
blue-o-rav eves, and the most mobile of mouths. He 
was voted eccentric in our little professional circle, 
because he did not walk in the same conventional 
grooves as other men : it was only when we came to 
know him with the intimacy of hourly converse that 


we found that much that passed under the name of 
eccentricity was the result of the deepest underlying 
principle, and compelled a respect which we dared 
not withhold. After he became an inmate of our 
household, we were not long in discovering that the 
more rigidly and narrowly his springs of action were 
scrutinized, the higher rose our respect and reverence. 
What may have provoked a smile when the motive 
or i)rinciple that lay behind the act was entirely mis- 
apprehended came to be regarded with a certain ad- 
mii'ing wonder when the motive of the act was made 
clear. We sometimes used to charge him with losing 
sight of the perspective of things. Not drawing the 
distinction that men generally do between small and 
great, he laid as much stress upon truth in the most 
insignificant words or actions of his dail}' life as in. 
the most solemn and important. He weighed his 
liofhtest utterances in ' the balances of the sanctuarv.' 
When it would be playfully represented to him that 
this needless precision interfered with the graces of 
conversation, and tended to give angularity and stiff- 
ness to his style, his reply would he that he vras per- 
fectly aware of the inelegance it involved, but he chose 
to sacrifice all minor charms to the paramount one of 
absolute truth."' 

His crystalline truthfulness was equally noticeable 
in admitting that he did vot I'now facts or things, 
when really there was no appeal made to his knowl- 
edge except tlie common "you know,'' witli wliich so 
many interlard their conversation. " Xothing.'" he 
said. •* would induce him to make the impression that 
he knew what he did not." 


So in conversation, if he unintentionally made a 
misstatement about a matter of no moment whatever, 
as soon as he discovered his mistake, he would lose 
no time in hastening to correct it, even if he had to 
go upon the mission in a pouring rain. Upon being 
asked, " Why, in the name of reason, do you walk a 
mile in the rain for a perfectly unimportant thing ^ 
his reply was, " Simply because I have discovered 
that it was a misstatement, and I could not sleep com- 
fortably to-night unless I corrected it." 

His ideas of honesty were just as rigid. An in- 
stance soon after our marriage will show this. One 
autumn afternoon we were taking a stroll, and passing 
a large apple orchard where the ripe fruit had fallen 
plentifully upon the ground, I asked him to step over 
the fence and treat ourselves to some of the tempting 
apples. My rebuke can be imagined when in the kind- 
est manner he answered: "]^o, I do not think it 
would be right to do that. I am sure that Colonel 

E would have no objection, and would gladly 

give them to us if he were here, but I cannot take 
them without his leave." 

No man carried his conscientiousness to a greater 
extreme, and many may say that he did it to an un- 
necessary and even morbid degree ; but his humility 
was as pre-eminent as his conscientiousness, and al- 
though he laid down these stringent rules for his own 
governance, he did not set himself up as a guide or 
model for others, and never forced his convictions 
upon any one. He never even inadvertently fell into 
the use of the expressions so common upon our lips 
that he " wished that any event or circumstance were 
different from what it was." To do so would, in his 


opinion, have been to arraign Providence. He was 
utterly free from censoriousness, envy, detraction, and 
all uncharitableness, and certainly kept his rule that 
if he could say nothing good of a man, he would not 
speak of him at all. 

Bin if he once lost confidence, or discovered decep- 
tion and fraud on the part of one whom he had trust- 
ed, his faith was not easily restored, and he with- 
drew himself as much as possible from any further 
dealings with him. However, he religiously kept the 
door of his lips, not permitting a word of censure or 
denunciation to pass them ; and even when convinced 
that a man was a hypocrite, his severest sentence 
asrainst him was that he believed him to be a " de- 
ceived man," who was so blinded that he could not 
see the error of his ways. 

..." Only in the innermost circle of home did 
any one come to know what Jackson really was. 
. . . His natural temperament was extremely buoy- 
ant, and his ahandon was beautiful to see, provided 
there were only one or two people to see it." 

As may be supposed, punctuality was regarded by 
him as a virtue: " Xo one could ever charge him 
^vitll loss of time through dilatoriness on his part. 
He never failed to fill an engagement ; or, if it was im- 
possible for him to do so, he would take any amount 
of ti'oiible to give notice beforehand of his inabilit}^ 
to kee]) it. . . . Once only do I remember that he 
was late in getting to prayer - meeting, for he was 
as punctual as a clock in being in his seat before the 
o])ening of the services of the church. On this oc- 
casion, when he found that the worship had com- 
menced (although we were only a few minutes be- 


hind time), he declined to enter, saying we had no 
right to disturb the devotions of others by going in 
daring the service, and so we returned home. 

" His personal habits w^ere systematic in the ex- 
treme, lie studied his physical nature with a physi- 
cian's scrutiny ; and having once adopted a regimen 
which he believed perfectly suited to himself, nothing 
would ever tempt him to swerve in the slightest de- 
gree from it. He ate, as he did everything else, from 
a sense of duty." He had suffered much from dys- 
pepsia, and for that reason had to practise absolute 
control over his appetite, and nothing could tempt 
him to partake of food between his regular hours. 
" When sometimes at parties and receptions a friend 
would entreat him, for courtesy's sake and the gratifi- 
cation of his hostess, to seem to accept some delicacy, 
or at least venture upon a grape or an orange, he 
would always reply : " No, no ; I have no genius for 

In all the means that he sought for relief in sub- 
duing his arch-enemy, dyspepsia, he found none that 
proved so beneficial as the hydropathic treatment. 
He became a strong believer in the system, and dur- 
ing his summer vacation he visited several hydro- 
pathic establishments in New York and New Eng- 
land, and invariably gained strength from the baths 
and the exercise. One summer his chest broadened 
several inches b\^ his performances in the gymnasium, 
and on his return home he found his double-breasted 
coat (a major's uniform) incapable of accommodating 
his increased dimensions, so he had to have a new 
one made. He always wore citizen's dress when ofi" 


When he had a home of his own, he provided himself 
with some of his favorite apphances for gymnastic 
exercises, and greatly invigorated himself by their use. 

He abstained from the use of all intoxicating drinks 
from principle, having a fondness for them, as he him- 
self confessed, and for that reason never daring to in- 
dulge his taste. During the Avar, when asked by a 
brother officer to join him in a social glass, he replied : 
" Xo, I thank you, but I never use it ; I am more afraid 
of it than of Federal bullets." Xor did he use tobacco 
in any form, and for many years not even tea and 
coffee, believing that they w.ere injurious to his health. 

When persons about him complained of headaches 
or other consequences of imprudence, he would say : 
" If you follow my rule, Avhich is to govern yourself 
absolutely, I do not think you would have these 
sufferings. My head never aches : if anytliing dis- 
airrees with me, I never eat it." 

As an instance of the alacrity with Avhich, if once 
convinced that a thing was right to do, he did it, on 
one occasion, when he had been talking of self-abne- 
gation and making rather light of it, a friend sug- 
gested that he had not been called upon to endure it, 
and sup])osed a case : " Imagine that the providence 
of God seemed to direct you to drop every scheme of 
life and of personal advancement, and go on a mission 
to the heart of Africa for the rest of your days, 
would you go r' His eyes flashed as he instantly re- 
plied : " I would go xoithout my hat /" 

This same friend once asked him what wa?^ his un- 
derstanding of the Bible command to be '' instant in 
prayer " and to " pray without ceasing." " I can give 
you," he said, '' my idea of it by illustration, if you 


will allow it, and will not think that I am setting 
myself up as a model for others. I have so fixed the 
habit in my own mind that I never raise a glass of 
water to my lips without lifting my heart to God in 
thanks and [)rayer for the water of life. Then, when 
we take our meals, there is the grace. Whenever 1 
drop a letter in the post-office, I send a petition along 
with it for God's blessing upon its mission and the 
person to whom it is sent. When I break the seal of 
a letter just received, I stop to ask God to prepare me 
for its contents, and make it a messenger of good. 
When I go to my class-room and await the arrange- 
ment of the cadets in their places, that is my time to 
intercede with God for them. And so in every act of 
the day I have made the practice habitual." 

" And don't you sometimes forget to do this ?" 
asked his friend. 

" I can hardly say that I do ; the habit has become 
almost as fixed as to breathe." 

His submission to his Heavenly Father's Avill was 
so perfect, and the assurance that " all things work 
together for good to them that love God " Avas to him 
such a blessed reality, that he always said he pre- 
ferred God's will to his own ; and his perfect assur- 
ance of faith never forsook him, however severely it 
might be tried. " He used to express surprise at the 
want of equanimity on the part of Christians under 
the pressure of untoward circumstances; and remarked 
that he did not think any combination of earthly ills 
could make him positively unhappy if he believed he 
was suffering the will of God." Thinking this a bold 
assertion, a friend ventured to touch him m a vulner- 
able pomt, knowing tliat his health was a source of 


anxious care, and asked him : '^ Major, suppose you 
should lose your health irreparably; do you think you 
could be liai>py still r He answered : " Yes, I should 
])e ha]»i)v stili." ''Well, suppose, in addition to life- 
lono- illness, you should become suddenly blind; do 
vou believe your serenity would remain unclouded ?" 
He paused a moment, as if to weigh fully every word 
he uttered, and then said : " I am sure of it ; even such 
a misfortune could not make me doubt the love of 
God." Still further to test him, and knowing his 
impatience of anything that even bordered on de- 
pendence, it was urged : " But if, in addition to blind- 
ness antl incurable infirmity and pain, you had to re- 
ceive grudging charity from those on ^vhom you had 
no claim— what then ?" There was a strange rever- 
ence in his lifted eye, and an exalted expression over 
his whole face, as he replied, with slow deliberateness : 
" n it were God's will, I think 1 could lie there content 
a hundred years P^ 

General Jackson's extreme rigor in the observance 
of the Sabbath has been much commented on, and he 
has been called a religious fanatic. Certainly he 
was not less scrupulous in obeying the divine com- 
mand to '• remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy " 
than he was in any other rule of his life. Since the 
Creator had set apart this day for his own, and 
commanded it to be kept holy, he believed that it 
was as wrong for him to desecrate it by worldly pleas- 
ure, idleness, or secular employment, as to break any 
other commandment of the decalogue. Sunday was 
Ills busiest (lay of the week, as he always attend- 
ed church twice a day and taught in two Sabbath 
schools! He refrained as much as possible from all 


worldly conversation, and in his family, if seculai* 
topics were introduced, he would say, with a kindly 
smile, '' We will talk about that to-morrow." 

He never travelled on Sunday, never took his mail 
from the post-office, nor permitted a letter of his own 
to travel on that day, always before posting it calcu- 
lating the time it required to reach its destination ; 
and even business letters of the utmost importance 
were never sent off the very last of the week, but were 
kept over until Monday morning, unless it was a case 
where distance required a longer time than a week. 

One so strict in his own Sabbath observance natu- 
rally believed that it was wrong for the government 
to carry the mails on Sunday. Any organization which 
exacted secular labor of its employees on the Lord's 
day was, in his opinion, a violator of God's law. Just 
before his last battle he wrote the following letter, 
touching upon this matter, to his friend Colonel J. 
T. L. Preston : 

"Near Fredericksburg, Va., April 27th, 18G3. 
" Dear Colonel, — I am much gratified to see that 
you are one of the delegates to the General Assembly 
of our Church, and I write to express the hope that 
something may be accomplished by you at the meet- 
ing of that influential body towards repealing the law 
requiring our mails to be carried on the Christian Sab- 
bath. Recently I received a letter from a member of 
Congress (the Confederate Congress at Richmond) 
expressing the hope that the House of Representa- 
tives would act upon the subject during its present 
session ; and from the mention made of Colonel Chil- 
ton and Mr. Curry of Alabama, I infer that they are 


membei*s of the committee which recommends the 
repeiil of the law. A few days since I received a 
very gratifying letter from ^Mr. Cuny, which was vol- 
untary on his part, as I was a stranger to him, and 
there had been no previous correspondence between 
us. 11 is letter is of a cheering character, and he takes 
occasion to say that divine laws can be violated with 
impunity neither by governments nor individuals. I 
reirret to sav that he is fearful tiiat the anxietv of mem- 
bers to return home, and the press of other business, 
will prevent the desired action this session. I have 
said thus much in order that you may see that Con- 
gressional action is to be looked for at the next meet- 
ing of Congress; hence the importance that Chris- 
tians act ])romptly, so that our legislators may see the 
current opinion before they take up the subject. I 
hope and pra}" that such may be our country's senti- 
ment upon this and kindred subjects that our states- 
men will see their way clearly. Xow appears to me 
an auspicious time for action, as our people are look- 
ing to God for assistance. Very trulv 3^oar friend, 

'' T. J. Jackson." 

In another letter to his pastor he says : '' It is de- 
lightful to see the Congressional Committee report so 
stnjngly against Sabbath mails. I trust that you will 
write to every member of Congress with whom you 
have any influence, and do all you can to procure the 
ado])tion of the report. And please request those with 
whom you correspond (when expedient) to do the same. 
I beheve that (lod will bless us with success if Cliris- 
tians will but do their duty. For nearly fifteen years 
Sabbath nuuls have been, througli God's blessing, 


avoided by me, and I am thankful to say that in no 
instance has there been occasion for regret, but, on the 
contrary, God has made it a source of pure enjoyment 
to me." 

For a long time he kept his resolution not to use 
his eyes b\^ artificial light ; and it was his custom never 
to break the seal of a letter which came to him late 
on Saturday night until the dawn of Monday morn- 
ing. When he became engaged, and his Jiancee lived in 
another State, it was a subject of amusing speculation 
among his friends whether he would break this rule. 
But it was found that even to the excuse " The wom- 
an tempted me " he did not yield. A friend in walk- 
ing to church with him one Sunday morning, know- 
ing he had received a letter the evening before, said 
to him : " Major, surely you have read j^our letter ?" 
'- Assuredly not," said he. " Where is it ?" asked his 
friend. "Here," tapping his coat -pocket. "AYhat 
obstinacy !" exclaimed his companion. " Don't you 
know that your curiosity to learn its contents will dis- 
tract your attention from divine worship far more than 
if you had read it ? Surely, in this case, to depart 
from your rule would promote a true Sabbath observ- 
ance, instead of injuring it." " No," he answered, qui- 
etly, " I shall make the most faithful effort I can to 
govern my thoughts and guard them from unnecessary 
distraction ; and as I do this from a sense of duty, I 
expect the divine blessing upon it." He said after- 
wards that his tranquillity and spiritual enjoyment 
were unusually great during the day. 

In the autumn of 1855, he organized his Sabbath- 
school for the instruction of the colored people of Lex- 
ington. His interest in that race was simply because 


they had souls to save ; and he continued to instruct 
them with great faithfulness and success up to the 
breaking-out of the war. In this missionary work he 
was assisted by a number of ladies and gentlemen. 
This school was held in the afternoon of the Sabbath ; 
its sessions were short and spirited, and he soon in- 
fused interest and punctuality into both teachers and 
ini])ils. Upon my removal to Lexington I proposed 
takino- a class in the Sunday-school for white chil- 
dren, but he preferred that my labors should be given 
to the colored children, believing it was more impor- 
tant and useful to put the strong hand of the Gospel 
under the ignorant African race, to lift them up. I 
have always felt thankful that his wishes guided me 
in this matter, for it was a privilege to witness his 
great interest and zeal in the work, and never did his 
face beam with more intelligence and earnestness than 
when he was telling the colored children of his Sab- 
bath-school the story of the cross. 

When in the army he inquired of every visitor from 
the church to his camp how his colored Sunday-school 
was getting on, and expressed great satisfaction at 
hearing of its prosperity. This school is still in suc- 
cessful operation. 

The Rev. Dr. White said he was once both gratified 
and amused when Major Jackson came to him to re- 
port the result of a collection which he had made in 
the congregation for the Bible Society. At the foot 
of the long list of the church-members and other citi- 
zens were a number of additional names in pencil- 
marks with small sums attached to them. Upon in- 
(^uiring who they were, the major explained : '* These 
at the top are your regulars, and those below are my 


militia." In bis round of visiting, he had called u})on 
some of his colored friends, and encouraged them to 
give, even if it were but a mite, to this good cause, ar- 
guing that their money was more profitably spent in 
this way than in tobacco and whiskey, and that it 
would elevate them, and increase their interest in the 
study of the Bible. This activity for the good of oth- 
ers brought its own reward. This man, so busy in 
good works, his pastor said, '' was the happiest man 
he ever knew." His faith and trust were so implicit 
that his own will was in perfect subjection to that of 
his Heavenly Father, and no suffering or trial could 
make him wish it had been otherwise. 

The story of Major Jackson's life in Lexington would 
be lacking in one important link of the chain without 
the mention of his dear and honored Christian friend, 
Mr. John B. Lyle, to whom he was more indebted for 
spiritual profit than to any one else except his pastor. 
This gentleman was an elder of the church, a bachelor, 
past middle-age, and not prosperous, as the world goes, 
but he was one of those whole-souled, large-hearted 
Christians whose lives are full of love and sunshine. 
His genial face and ready sympathy made him a great 
favorite with young and old, and he was known as the 
comforter of the afflicted, the restorer of the wayward, 
and the counsellor of the doubting. Indeed, his heart 
was big enough to take in all who sought a place there. 
The young ladies made a special pet of him, and he 
was generally the confidant and adviser of his numer- 
ous friends, both in temporal and spiritual matters. 
He was fond of music, and led the church choir. The 
church at that time had no organ, but his magnificent 
voice ^vas almost equal to an organ itself. Major Jack- 


son rarely passed a day without a visit to Mr. Lyle's 
sanctum, and thus, coming under the constant influ- 
ence of one whose inner Christian hfe was as elevated 
as his outward was active, his own religious character 
became moulded into that exalted type for which he 
was so consi)icuous. It was largely due to Mr. Lyle's 
guidance in religious reading, his own bright example 
and instructions, that Major Jackson attained that 
perfect assurance of faith, which shed such sunshine 
over his latter years. He also taught him to cherish 
a high sense of the value of prayer, and to expect an 
answer to it. In taking a journey, he never parted 
from his wife without engaging in prayer ; before go^ 
ing to his Sabbath-schools he always knelt in prayer, 
and so, in every act of life, "prayer was his vital 

The first visit that my husband took me to pay af- 
ter my arrival at my new home was to his friend, Mr. 
Lyle, and his smiling and hearty '' welcome to Lexing- 
ton " went directly to the heart of the stranger. He 
was then a partial paralytic, and it was not many 
months until a final stroke removed him to a better 
world. As an evidence of the strong hold he had on 
the hearts of all who knew him, one who was not con- 
nected with him by any tie of blood had him buried 
in his own family lot in the cemetery, and marked the 
spot by a monument bearing this inscription : " He 
was the truest friend, the bravest man, and the best 
Christian ever known to him who erects this stone to 
his memory." 

The name of Dr. White, the good pastor, and his 
faithful under -shepherd, John B. Lyle, will long be 
fragrant memories in Lexington. 



Major Jackson had never been a teacher before he 
became a professor in the Virginia Military Institute, 
and when asked by a friend whether he did not feel dis- 
trustful of himself in undertaking so untried and ar- 
duous a course of instruction, he replied: ''jS'o: I 
expect to be able to study sufficiently in advance of 
my classes ; for one can always do ivhat he vnlU to ac- 

In this spirit he entered on his duties as a teacher, and 
discharged them with the same painstaking fidelity 
that he did everything else he undertook in life. His 
extreme conscientiousness constrained him to carry 
out to the very letter all the regulations of the school, 
and when he came into conflict either with superiors 
or inferiors, it was because they were disposed to prac- 
tise more policy and expediency than the rules pre- 
scribed. But we will let some of his colleagues in of- 
fice, and his friends in Lexington and elsewhere, give 
their testimony to his character as a teacher and an 
officer. The superintendent of the Institute, General 
Francis H. Smith, says : '* The professorial career of 
Major Jackson was marked by great faithfulness, and 
by an unobtrusive yet earnest spirit. With high men- 
tal endowments, teachinrj was a new profession to him. 

32 Llt^E ^^^^ (JF.NERAL TllUMAS J. JACKSON. 

and deinaiuled, in the important department assigned 
him, an amount of labor which, from the state of his 
health, and especially from the weakness of his eyes, 
he })erformed at great sacrifice. Conscientious fidelity 
to duty marked every step of his life here, and Avhen 
called to active duty in the field he had made consider- 
able progress in the preparation of an elementar}^ work 
on optics, which he proposed to publish for the benefit 
of his classes. Strict, and at times stern, in his disci- 
pline (though ever polite and kind), he was not always 
a ])<)])ular professor; but no one ever possessed in a 
higher degree tlie confidence and respect of tlie cadets, 
for his unbending integrity and fearlessness in the dis- 
charge of duty. If he were exact in his demands upon 
them, they knew he was no less so in his own respect 
for and submission to authority. His great principle 
of government was that a general rule should not be 
violated for any particular good ; and his animating 
rule of action was, that a man could accomplish what 
he willed to perform. For ten years he prosecuted his 
unwearied labors as a professor, making during that 
period, in no questionable form, such an i/njjress upon 
those who, from time to time, were under his command, 
that when the war broke out the spontaneous senti- 
ment of every cadet and graduate was to serve under 
him as their leader. 

•• The habit of mind of Major Jackson, long before he 
made a ])ublic profession of religion, was reverential. 
Devoutly recognizing the authority of God, submis- 
sion to 11 ill! as his Divine Teacher and Guide soon 
matured into a confession of faith in him, and from 
that moment the 'triple cord' — 'not slothful in busi- 
ness, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord' — bound him 


in simple and trustful obedience to liis Divine Mas- 

In the third year of Major Jackson's professorship 
in the Military Institute a vacancy occurred in the 
Chair of Mathematics at the University of Virginia 
by the death of Professor Courtenay, and he Avas high- 
ly recommended by General Lee and others for the 
position, but, as was quite natural, the directors pre- 
ferred an alumnus of the University, and so elected 
Professor Bledsoe, an older and more experienced 
teacher. In the end it proved better that Major Jack- 
son remained at Lexington. 

Major Jackson was twice married — the first time in 
1853, August 4th, to Elinor, daughter of the Rev. Dr. 
George Junkin, President of Washington College, 
who is remembered by all who knew her as a person 
of singular loveliness of character; as possessed of 
great natural intelligence, which Avas developed in a 
family of high cultivation ; while her native modesty 
and conscientiousness ripened, under parental culture, 
into a beautiful type of Christian womanhood. Thus 
she had every qualification to make a happy home. 
But this happiness was not to be of long duration. 
About fourteen months after the marriage, in giving 
birth to a child, that never breathed, the mother died 
also, so that all that was dearest to him on earth was 
laid in the grave. This was a terrible blow, for he was 
a devoted husband ; and his early life having been so 
isolated from home influences, family ties were more 
to him than to most persons. But his resignation to 
God's will was unshaken, and his Christian character 
became more mellowed and consecrated by this sad 


A few extracts from his letters to his aunt, Mrs. 
Xeale, will show the spirit in which he bore his afflic- 

''February 16th, 1855. 

'' Your kind letter, so full of sympathy and love, 
made a dee}) impression on my stricken heart. I can 
liardly realize yet that my dear EUie is no more — that 
she Avill never again Avelcome my return — no more 
soothe my troubled spirit by her ever kind, sympa- 
thizing heart, words, and love. . . . She has left me 
such monuments of her love to God, and deep depend- 
ence upon her Saviours merits, that were I not to be- 
lieve in her happiness, neither Avould I believe though 
one were to rise from the dead and declare it. God's 
prcmiises change not. She w^as a child of God, and 
as such she is enjoying Him forever. ... I have 
sutTered so mucli with my eyes lateh^ that 1 have had 
great fears that I might lose them entirely, but all 
things are in the hands of a. merciful Father, and 
to His will 1 hope ever cheerfully to submit. . . . 
My dear EUie, when living, spoke of the beauty of 
your letters. I feel that had she lived she would 
have been in correspondence with you ; but now that 
cannot be in this sinful world, though it may be that 
an intimate friendshi]) will exist between you in yon- 
der world of bliss whither she has gone. If she re- 
tains her pure, human affections there, I feel that she 
will derive pleasure from the acquaintance of any one 
who in this world loves me, or whom 1 love. And 
does she not retain love there ( ' God is love.' T 
believe that she retains every pure, human attribute, 
and in a higher state than when trammelled with flesh 
\u^Vi\ Oh. do you not long to leave the flesh and go to 


God, and mingle with the just made perfects Of all 
the moments of life, there are none around which 1 
cluster so much that is joyful. Yet I feel that I do 
not wish to go before it is the will of God, who with- 
holds no good thing from them that love Him. I 
thank my Heavenly Father that I can realize that 
blessed declaration. I frequently go to the dearest 
of earth's spots, the grave of her who was so pure 
and lovely — but she is not there. AYhen I stand 
over the grave, I do not fancy that she is thus con- 
lined, but I think of her as having a glorified ex- 

For a long time he visited her grave daily, and al- 
ways stood Over it with uncovered head, absorbed in 
tender and loving memories. In one of his note-books 
appears the following entry, showing his desire to 
profit by his great sorrow : '' Objects to be effected 
by Elbe's death : To eradicate ambition ; to eradicate 
resentment ; to produce Immility. If you desire to be 
more heavenly-minded, think more of the things of 
heaven, and less of the things of earth." 

During the summer and fall of 1856, Major Jack- 
son made a tour through Europe, which covered a 
period of nearly five months. To a friend he wrote : 
'' I was so urged by a concurrence of favorable cir- 
cumstances to visit Europe as to induce me to believe 
that the time had arrived for carrying out my long- 
contemplated trip, with which I was much charmed." 
He then goes on to speak in the most rapturous terms 
of '' the romantic lakes and mountains of Scotland, 
the imposing abbeys and cathedrals of England ; the 
Rhine, with its castellated banks and luxuriant vine- 


yards ; the sublime scenery of Switzerland, with her 
lofty Mont Blanc and massive Mer - de - Glace ; the 
vestitJ-es of Venetian beauty; the sculpture and paint- 
ings of Italy; the ruins of Rome ; the beautiful Bay 
of Naples, illuminated by Vesuvius ; and lovely France, 
with her gay capital," etc. Again he writes : 

" I Avould advise you never to name my European 
trip to me unless you are blest with a superabundance 
of patience, as its very mention is calculated to bring- 
up with it an almost inexhaustible assemblage of 
grand and beautiful associations. Passing over the 
works of the Creator, which are far the most impres- 
sive, it is difficult to conceive of the influences which 
even the works of His creatures exercise over the 
mind till one loiters amidst their master productions. 
AVell do I remember the influence of sculpture upon 
me during my short stay in Florence, and how there 
I beo-an to realize the sentiment of the Florentine : 
' Take from me my liberty, take from me what you 
will, but leave me my statuary, leave me these en- 
trancing productions of art.' And similar to this is 
the influence of painting." 

In another letter he is enthusiastic over Powers's 
statue of II Penseroso, who '^ is represented as walk- 
ing al)r()a(l wliile absorbed in thought, with the finger 
of one hand I'esting upon the lip, while the other car- 
ries a train." 

His trip gave him boundless ])leasure, and. although 
it Avas a hurried one, he managed to visit a great num- 
])er of places in the space of four months, as the fol- 
lowing letter to his aunt, Mrs. Neale, will show : 



"Lexington, Ya., Oct. 27tli, I80G. 
" It is with much pleasure that God again permits me 
to write to you from my adopted home. Your kind- 
ness and that of uncle has not been forgotten ; but 
when you hear Avhere I have been during my short 
absence, you will not be surprised at not having heard 
from me, as my time was too short to see well all 
that came within the range of my journey. After 
leaving Liverpool I passed to Chester and Eaton 
Hall, and from there, returning, I visited Glasgow, 
Lochs Lomond and Katrine, Stirling Castle, Edin- 
burgh, York, London, Antwerp, Brussels, Waterloo, 
Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne, Bonn, Frankf ort - on - the - 
Main, Lleidelberg, Baden-Baden, Strasburg, Basle, 
Lakes Lucerne, Brience, and Thun; Berne, Freiburg, 
Geneva, the ]\Ier de Glace, over the Alps by the Sim- 
plon Pass ; Milan, Venice, Florence, Xaples, Eome, 
Marseilles, Paris, London, and Liverpool again, and 
then home. ... It appeared to me that Providence 
had opened the Avay for my long-contemplated visit, 
and I am much gratified at having gone." 

When he set out on this foreign tour, like other en- 
thusiastic travellers, he began with a resolution to 
keep a journal, in which he would give a minute de- 
scription of all that he saw from day to day ; but when 
he was fairly in the heart of Old England, he found 
himself so absorbed with the sights and scenes that 
crowded upon his attention that his ''Journal" sub- 
sides into mere jottings of places and objects which 
are of interest chiefly to his family. During these 
months he acquired such a knowledge of French that 
for 3^ears after it was his custom to read his Scripture 
morniui^ lesson in a French Testament. 


In cTossin^i,^ the ocean he gave liiniself ample time 
to reach home at tlie expiration of his furlough, but 
the steamer failed to make the tri]) in the usual num- 
ber of days. At tliis his friends, who knew him to 
be the very soul of punctuality, expressed their Avon- 
der at his failure to '' come up to time." Upon liis 
arrival, as soon as the lii-st greetings were over, and 
he had explained the cause of his detention, one of 
them exclaimed : "But, Major, haven't you been mis- 
erable since the beginning of the month i You are 
so particular in kee])ing your appointments that ^\e 
imagined you were beside yourself with imi)atience." 
"Not at all," lie replied; "1 did all in my power to 
])e here at the appointed time; but when the steamer 
was delayed by Trovidence, my responsibility was at 
an end.'- The great object of his journey was at- 
tained. Aside from the pleasure of seeing foreign 
countries, his health Avas perfectly restored, and he 
was ready to resume his work. 



In writing these memoirs, it has been my aim, up 
to this period, to keep myself in the background as 
much as possible ; but in what follows, my own life 
is so bound up with that of my husband that the 
reader will have to pardon so much of self as must 
necessarily be introduced to continue the story of his 
domestic life and to explain the letters that follow. 

I trust it will not be out of place to give a very brief 
insight into my early life, knowing full well that what- 
ever interest is awakened in me is only a reflected one, 
arising solely from the fact of my having been the 
wife of General Jackson. The home of my girlhood 
was a large, old-fashioned house, surrounded by an 
extensive grove of fine forest trees, on a plantation in 
Lincoln County, Korth Carolina. My father, the Rev. 
Dr. R. H. Morrison, a Presbyterian minister, had in 
his earlier life been a pastor in towns, and was the first 
president of Davidson College, in Xorth Carolina ; but, 
his health having failed, he sought a country home for 
rest and restoration, and reared his large family of ten 
children principallv in this secluded spot, where he was 
able to preach to a group of country churches. He 
was graduated from the Universit}^ of Korth Carolina, 
in the year 1818, in a class with President Polk, Bish- 
op Green, of Mississippi, and several other men of em- 


ineiice in church and state. lie Avas always a good 
student, and liis own home furnished the best school 
for his children until the girls were old enough to be 
sent off to boarding-school and the boys to college.^- 

* The nauK'S of those children were : 

1st. IsabeUa, who married General D. H. IIill. 

2d. William AVilberforce (of the Confederate army), who died 
in 18G.J, a victim of the war. 

3d. Harriet, married Mr. James P. Irwin, of Charlotte, N. C. 

4th. Mary Anna, Avifc of General Thomas J. Jackson. 

5th. Eugenia, married General Ruius Barringer, of X. C. 

6th. Susan, mtirried Judge A. C. Avery, of N. C. 

7th. Laura, married Colonel J. E. Brown, of Charlotte, K C. 

8th. Joseph Graham, married Jennie Davis, of Salisbury, N. C. 

9th. Robert Hall, married Lucy Reid, of Iredell County, N. C. 

10th. Alfred J., married Portia Lee Atkinson, daughter of Rev. 
Dr. J. 31. P. Atkinson, of Hampden Sidney College, Virginia. 

Alfred, the Benjamin and flower of the flock, followed the sacred 
calling of his father. Gifted in mind and person and winning 
in manner, he gave promise of great usefulness in the church. 
He was settled as pastor of a Presbyterian church in Selmn, Ala- 
bama, where his labors had been greatly blessed, but at the end 
of six months his career was cut short by typhoid fever. 

My honored and beloved father long outlived his son, Laving 
attained the age of ninety years. As he died since this biography 
was commenced, I cannot refrain from quoting a brief tribute by 
my pastor to his memory : 

" Descended from a sterling Scotch-Irish ancestry, he inherited 
those qualities of mind and heart which, hallowed by grace, made 
him an honor to the age and a blessing to the world. Called by 
the Saviour in the morning of life, he obeyed the voice of the gra- 
cious Shepherd, and followed Him faithfully to its close. Four 
times a year he read the Bible through from beginning to end, study- 
ing all the commentaries that could throw light upon its sacred 
pages. Those, with daily communion with God, and the reading 
f)f devotional books, were tlie sources of his truly heavenly piety. 
Literary tastes were sanctified, and mind and heart found their 


In those good old times before the war many wealthy 
families lived upon their plantations, and the neigli- 
borhood in Avhich my father lived was noted for its 
excellent society, relinement, and hospitality. My 
mother was Mary Graham,- daugliter of General Jo- 

liighest satisftxction and enjoyment in the green pastures of divine 
truth and beside the still waters of divine consolation. The grand 
doctrines of grace entered into and moulded his Christian experi- 
ence, and made him humble and prayerful, cheerful and strong, 
decided but liberal, active and zealous, steadfast, immovable, and 
always abounding in the work of the Lord. In Lis latter years 
all of his income — after providing for his personal wants — was de- 
voted to the Gospel, not restricting himself to his own, but assist- 
ing other denominations of Christians. 

"Davidson College, of which he was the founder, has risen to 
eminence among the institutions of America. Its liigh standard 
commands the respect of the whole country, whilst the moral in- 
fluences which govern and surround it are unsurpassed. During 
the fifty-two years of its existence, it has given to the church two 
hundred ministers of the Gospel ! Who is able to compute the 
sum total of blessing accruing to the world from this one source 
alone ? Who is able to measure its influence for good through 
all coming time? And who is able to estimate the indebted- 
ness of society, the state, and the church to its noble founder ? 
Davidson College is his monument, for which generations yet un- 
born will rise up and bless the name of Dr. Robert Hall Morrison. 

" He has left to his descendants the rich legacy of an honored 
name, a holy life, an elevated Christian character, and many 
fervent prayers v/hich have been, and are yet to be, answered in 
blessings on their heads — a legacy infinitely more precious than 
all the diadems and treasures of earth."' 

*The name of Graham recalls that of my mother's father, Gen- 
eral Joseph Graham, a name well known in our Revolutionary 
annals. He entered the army at nineteen years of age. At the 
end of two years of arduous and responsible service he was strick- 
en down by a severe and lingering illness, but returning health 


sepli (4niliain, and sister of the Hon. ^^illiam A. Gra- 
ham, who Avas successively Governor of North Caro- 
lina, United States Senator, and Secretary of the Xavy 
durinf^" President Fillmore's administration. Having 
seen a good deal of the Avorld in her young days, my 
mother was anxious to give her daughters the same 
pleasure, and we were indulged in charming trips 
whenever it Avas practicable ; but, there being six 
daughters, we had to take these trips by turns. My 
beautiful younger sister Eugenia and I left school at 
the same time, came out as young ladies together, and 
never were two sisters happier or more united in mut- 
ual affection and confidence. AYe Avere simple coun- 

found hira again in the field. When the war invaded his own 
section, and the army nuder General Greene withdrew towards 
Virginia, to him was assigned the command of those troops which 
sustained the rear-guard nnder General Davies. For many miles 
he was confronted witli Tarleton's famous cavalry, said to be the 
best in the British service. The obstinate resistance wliich he op- 
posed to their advance had nearly closed his career. After many 
gallant but ineffectual attempts to drive them back, he fell, liter- 
ally covered with wouuds. But no sooner did he recover than he 
again took the field. The service which now fell to his lot was 
one of peculiar privation, suftering, and sacrifice. Of commissary 
stores, his command often had none ; nay, were sometimes under 
the necessity of supplying their own horses and j^urcluising their 
own equipments. But his patriotism was entire and uncalculat- 
ing; he recked not of means, health, or life itself in the cause to 
which he had devoted himself; and so he continued in the field as 
long as there was an enemy in the country, and though, when 
])eace was declared, he had but entered on the threshold of man- 
hood, he ha<l commanded in fifteen different engagements. 

In civil life he was scarcely less distinguished. The many im- 
portant positions filled by him aff"ord the highest testimony to his 
capacity and character. He received the commission of major- 
treneral durin'' the war of 1812. 


try raaidens, knowing little of the world outside of 
our father's home, where all was purity, peace, and 

My first revelation of the gay Avorld was a visit to 
my uncle Graham, in Washington, during the last 
year of Mr. Fillmore's administration. AYashington 
was then a rather small, old-fashioned city compared 
with its present expansion and magniticence, but to a 
little country girl, in 1853, it was the grandest and 
most charming place that she liad ever seen. Two 
other young ladies were guests of my uncle at the 
same time, and we formed a most congenial and hap- 
pv trio during: mv delio^htful stay of four months. 
Being "Cabinet ladies,'' Ave, of course, were invited 
to all the grand entertainments, and though none of 
us were dancing girls (for myself, as a minister's 
daughter, it would not have been considered proper), 
certainly we did not need it to complete our enjoy- 

One of our red-letter evenings was a select social tea 
at the AVhite House, the charming hostess. Miss Fill- 
more, being equal in cultivation and accomplishments 
to any one w^ho has filled the position of " first lady 
of the land." Her mother was living, and, of course, 
took precedence of the daughter, but the latter was 
hostess to her young friends on this evening. We had 
some very delightful music on the harp, one lady sing- 
ing ''Auld Robin Gray" Avith exquisite beauty and 

Upon my return home, my younger sister, Eugenia, 
was to have a trip to Lexington, Virginia, Avhich at 
that time was the home of our oldest sister, wdio had 
married Major D. H. Hill (afterwards general in the 


Confederate army), a professor in Washington College. 
One of my father's elders and friends, Eobert I. McDow- 
ell, was a (lel(\i:-ate to the General Assembly at Philadel- 
phia, and kindly oifered to escort Eugenia on her jour- 
ney. Having recently returned from so hjng a visit 
to AVashiugton, it never entered into my head even to 
wish that 1 might be permitted to accompany my sis- 
ter, and mv astonishment can be imagined when she 
came bounding into my room in a perfect ecstasy, ex- 
claiming : '' Oh, sister, father says you may go, too !" 
Being a very dejiendent younger sister, and always 
shrinking, on account of shyness, from going any- 
where alone, it may be that she had put in a plea for 
me to accompany her that was irresistible; but, at all 
events, no plan could have been more delightful than 
for us to make this visit together, and two more joy- 
ous young creatures never set out upon a journey, the 
entire unexpectedness of my being one of the party 
filling the cup of our happiness. 

At that time North Carolina had only a few rail- 
roads. nr»nc near to us, going north ; but there was one 
I'unning from Charlotte to Charleston, South Carolina, 
and our escort chose this circuitous route, via Charles- 
ton, Wilmington, and Richmond, rather than travel by 
coach across the country. 

This long journey, instead of proving wearisome to 
us, was a source of genuine enjoyment, especially as 
we took it by easy stages. AVe spent one night in 
Columbia, which we had time to see in its lovely May 
dress, with its enchanting old private gardens, with 
tlieii' w(';iltli oF flowers and evergreens. At Charles- 
ton we spent only a few hours, but our drive through 
it to take the steamer gave us a glimpse of this city 


by the seca. Our rapture then reached its acme, when 
we beheld for the first time the ocean, and had a sail 
of twenty-four hours ui)on it to Wihnington. It was 
a perfect afternoon, the sunset was superb, and, as 
we escaped seasickness, we were able to enjoy every- 
thing. From Wilmington to Eichmond we travelled by 
rail, and expected at the latter place to part with our 
escort, but he chivalrously volunteered to see us to our 
journey's end, and accompanied us all the way to Lex- 
ington. From Staunton to Lexington we travelled by 
stage-coach. Upon our arrival, my sister, Mrs. Hill, 
was as much surprised at seeing me as I was at 
being permitted to take the trip, for she was expect- 
ing only one of her young sisters to visit her that 

General Hill has told of the links in the chain of 
Providence that led Major Jackson to Lexington. Of 
course, I cannot but look upon it as a special Provi- 
dence that led me there to meet him who was to be 
my future husband, and to know him as a friend, with- 
out the remotest idea, on his part or mine, that we 
could ever be to each other anything more. 

Through the letters of Major and Mrs. Hill, we had 
heard of their friend. Major Jackson, and his engage- 
ment to Miss Elinor Junkin had been confided to them 
before we went to Lexington, so that before we met 
him we knew that he was soon to be married. He 
was very intimate at the house of Major Hill, and was 
the first gentleman to call upon us, his regard for our 
relatives giving him a very friendly feeling towards 
us. His greeting was most cordial, and he very soon 
offered his services in the kindest manner, tellino- us 
that if Major Hill was ever too much engaged to give 


US every needful attention, we must call upon him as 
we would niK)n a brother. 

My first impression was that he was more soldierly- 
looking than anything else, his erect bearing and mil- 
itary dress being quite striking; but upon engaging in 
conversation, his open, animated countenance, and his 
clear complexion, tinged v»^ith the ruddy glow of health, 
were still moi'e pleasing. The descriptions of his per- 
sonal appearance differ so much that I must be per- 
mitted to give mine, which surely ought to be true to 
life. Ilis head was a splendid one, large and finely 
formed, and covered with soft, dark-brown hair, which, 
if allowed to grow to any length, curled ; but he had 
a horror of long hair for a man, and clung to the con- 
ventional style, d la mUitaire, of Avearing very close- 
cut hair and short side-whiskers. After he was per- 
suaded to turn out a full beard, it was much more be- 
coming to him, his beard being a heav}^ and handsome 
l)rown, a shade lighter than his hair. His forehead 
was noble and expansive, and always fair, from its 
protection by his military cap. His eyes were blue- 
gray in color, large, and well-formed, capable of won- 
derful chano:es with his varvino^ emotions. His nose 
was straight and finely chiselled, his mouth small, and 
his face oval. His profile was very fine. All his feat- 
ures were regular and symmetrical, and he was at all 
times manly and noble-looking, and when in robust 
health he was a handsome man. 

His manners were rather stiff, but they had a cer- 
tain dignity which showed that he was not an ordi- 
nary man. II is uniform, consisting of a dark -blue 
frock-coat with shoulder-straps, double-breasted, and 
buttoned up to the chin with brass buttons, and fault- 


less white linen pantaloons, was very becoming to 

My young sister and I were at the age when girls 
can see fun in everything, and while fully appreciating 
the warmth of his kindness, we were silly enough to 
make ourselves very merry over the role he had as- 
sumed in offering himself as a brother to us, and we 
never looked upon him as a beau any more than we 
would upon a man who was already married. With 
this perfect understanding of the situation, we came 
to know him very intimately, a day rarely passing 
without his calling for a few moments; and having 
adopted us as his protegees^ he came every Sunday 
evening to see if we were provided with escorts for 
church. My beautiful young sister was more of a 
belle than I, and was scarcely ever without an engage- 
ment of this kind, so it fell to my lot to share the 
brotherly wing of the major oftener than to her. I 
always felt that he would have chosen her first if the 
opportunity offered, but neither of us had any greater 
hesitation in accepting his escort than we would that 
of Major Hill. We both felt that he was a delightful 
and never-failing stand-by, as he always kept out of 
the way if any other young men wished to pay their 
respects, only offering his services when they were 
needed. But he often took us on long strolls into 
the country, and contributed in every way that he 
could to our enjoyment as long as he remained. We 
teased him a great deal, which he always took good- 
naturedly, but never once admitted to us the fact of 
his engagement, and his fiancee and he were rarely 
seen together in public. This Avas in deference to her 
wishes, and they both kept their secret so well guard- 


ed that, when their marriage was announced it took 
the town by surprise. AVe were in Lexington at the 
time. He had bidden us good-by, and gone off in the 
beinnning of his summer vacation, and we thought we 
had seen the last of the major, as w^e were to return 
home before his professorial duties called him back. 

That visit to Lexington, to us, was as charming as 
charming could be. Arriving there, as we did, in the 
month of May, that mountain country was arrayed in 
all its spring beauty, and there could not have been a 
more propitious season for social enjoyment to young 
people than just before the commencements of the 
two large institutions. We were there long enough 
in advance to make many pleasant acquaintances, 
and, that being the gay season of the town, there w^ere 
a succession of entertainments and a round of par- 
ties, at which there w^as always music, but never danc- 
ing or card-playing. A more cultivated and religious 
community was not to be found; and the numerous 
young men there at the time, embracing professors, 
theological and college students, cadets, and citizens, 
seemed to vie with each other in showing courtesy to 
the young ladies, of whom there Avas an unusually large 
circle there that summer. After the commencements 
were over, the greater part of our acquaintances left for 
their homes, or for new scenes of recreation during the 
vacation. But even after the cessation of the round of 
gayety, and w^hen the College and the Institute were 
em])ty, there were enough residents left to afford us a 
very delightful, though quiet, time to the end of our visit. 

r)ne August morning we were taken by surprise 
when (jur friend Major Jackson suddenly dropped in, 
and our many exclamations of wonder at seeing him 


amused him as much as his unexpected appearance 
astonished us. The reunion was a merry one, and he 
spent an hour or more, calHng for his favorite songs 
and seeming genuinely happy ; but not even a liint 
did he give us as to the object of his return, although 
we plied him with all sorts of teasing questions. We 
saw him no more, but were electrified the next morn- 
ing at hearing that he and Miss Ellie Junkin were 
married, and had gone Xorth on a bridal tour ! 

After our return home, my sister and I became ab- 
sorbed in our old associations, and while retaining the 
most pleasant and grateful recollections of our kind 
friend Major Jackson, we lost sight of him entirely ; 
and as Major and Mrs. Hill removed from Lexington, 
our communication with the place was cut off. 

The following spring after our return, Eugenia was 
married to a young lawyer of Korth Carolina, Mr. 
Rufus Barringer, who during the war became a gen- 
eral in the Confederate army. 

The loss of her sweet companionship was, up to that 
time, the g-reatest trial of my life. For three years 
after, I lived at home '' in maiden meditation, fancy- 
free" — little dreaming what the future held in store for 
me ; for I can truthfully sa}^ that my fate was as much 
of a surprise to me as it could have been to any one 
else. ^Ye had heard with sincere sorrow and sympa- 
thy of the death of Mrs. Jackson ; but afterwards noth- 
ing was heard from the major, except in an incidental 
way. However, he was given to surprises, and after 
returning from Europe with restored health and spir- 
its he began to realize that life could be made bright 
and happy to him again, and in revolving this problem 
in his mind his first impulse was to open communica- 


tion with his old friend Miss Anna Morrison, and see 
if she could not be induced to become a participant in 
attaining liis desired happiness. So, to my great sur- 
prise, the first letter I ever received from him came to 
me expressing such blissful memories over reminis- 
cences of the summer Ave had been together in Lex- 
ington that my sister Eugenia laughed most heartily 
over it, and predicted an early visit from the major. 
Still, I was incredulous, and when her prediction was 
verified in a very short time, and I saw a tall form, 
in military dress, walking up from my father's gate, 
I could scarcely believe my senses. His visit was 
brief, as he had asked for a leave of absence in the 
midst of the session, promising to return on a certain 
day, and it mattered not how much success or fascina- 
tion enchained him, he would not indulge himself one 
moment beyond the limit of his time. My father was 
highly pleased with him as a Christian gentleman, and 
my mother was also favorably impressed, especially 
with his extreme politeness, so that his visit was one 
of mutual congeniality and enjoyment. I was always 
thankful that our acquaintance and friendship had 
been formed in a perfectly disinterested way, without 
a thouglit on either side that we should ever occupy 
a closer relation. 

Tie was a great advocate for marriage, appreciating 
the gentler sex so highly that whenever he met one 
of the "unappropriated blessings" under the type of 
truest womanhood, he would wish that one of his bach- 
elor friends could be fortunate enough to win her. 

Some extracts from his letters after our engage- 
ment will show the tenderness of his nature, and how 
with this human affection were mingled a boundless 


love and gratitude to Him who was the giver of all. 
Upon hearing of the death of an idolized little boy, 
the son of Major Hill, he writes : " I wrote to Major 
and Mrs. Hill a few days since, and my prayer is that 
this heavy affliction may be sanctified to them. I 

was not surprised that little M was taken away, 

as I have long regarded his father's attachment to 
him as too strong; that is, so strong that he would 
be unwilling to give him up, though God should call 
for his own. I do not believe that an attachment 
ever is, or can be, absolutely too strong for any object 
of our affections; but our love to God may not be 
strong enough. We may not love Him so intensely as 
to have no will but His. ... Is there not a comfort in 
prayer which is nowhere else to be found?" 

"April 25th, 1S5T. It is a great comfort to me to 
knov\^ that although I am not with you, yet you are 
in the hands of One who will not permit any evil to 
come nigh you. What a consoling thought it is to 
know that we may, with perfect confidence, commit 
all our friends in Jesus to the care of our Heavenly 
Father, with an assurance that all will be well with 
them ! . . . I have been sorel}^ disappointed at not 
hearing from you this morning, but these disappoint- 
ments are all designed for our good. 

'- In my daily walks I think much of you. I love to 
stroll abroad after the labors of the day are over, and 
indulge feelings of gratitude to God for all the sources 
of natural beauty with ^vhich he has adorned the 
earth. Some time since, my morning walks were ren- 
dered very delightful by the singing of the birds. The 
morning carolling of the birds, and their sweet notes 


in the evenino-, awaken in nie devotional feelings of 
praise and thanksgiving, though very cUtferent in their 
nature. In the morning, all animated nature (man ex- 
ce])ted) appears to join in expressions of gratitude to 
God : in the evening, all is hushing into silent slum])er, 
and thus disposes the mind to meditation. And as 
my mind dwells on you, I love to give it a devotional 
turn, by thinking of you as a gift from our Heavenly 
Fatlier. How delightful it is thus to associate every 
pleasure and enjoyment with God the Giver I Thus 
will He bless us, and make us grow in grace, and in 
the knowledge of Him, whom to know aright is life 

"May Tth. 1 wish I could be with you to-morrow 
at your communion. Though absent in body, yet in 
spirit I shall be present, and my prayer will be for 
your growth in every Christian grace. ... I take 
special pleasure in the part of my prayers in which I 
beg that every temporal and spiritual blessing may 
be yours, and tliat the glory of God may be the con- 
trolling and al)Sorbino: thouo-ht of our lives in our new 
relation. It is to me a great satisfaction to feel that 
our Heavenly Father has so manifestly ordered our 
union. I believe, and am persuaded, that if we but 
walk ill His commandments, acknowledo^ino: Him in 
all oui- ways, He will shower His blessings upon us. 
How delightful it is to feel that we have such a 
friend, wlio changes not ! The Christian's recogni- 
tion of (iod in all Hi.s woi'ks greatly enhances his en- 

•• M;iy l<Uli. There is something very pleasant in 


the thought of your mailing me a letter every Mon- 
day ; such manifestation of regard for the Sabbath 
must be well-pleasing in the sight of God. Oh that 
all our people would manifest such a regard for his 
holy day ! If Ave would idl strictly observe his holy 
laws, wiiat would not our country be ? . . . When in 
prayer for you last Sabbath, the tears came to my eyes, 
and I reahzed an unusual degree of emotional tender- 
ness. I have not yet fully analyzed my feelings to my 
satisfaction, so as to arrive at the cause of such emo- 
tions ; but I am disposed to think that it consisted in 
the idea of the intimate relation existing between you, 
as the object of my tender aflPection, and God, to 
Avhom I looked up as my Heavenly Father. I felt that 
day as if it were a communion day for myself.'' . . . 

" June 20th. I never remember to have felt so touch- 
ingly as last Sabbath the pleasure springing from the 
thought of prayers ascending for my welfare from 
one tenderly beloved. There is something very de- 
lightful in such spiritual communion." 

On the 16th of July, 1857, we were married. It 
was a quiet little home wedding, and the ceremony 
was performed by a favorite old ministerial friend of 
mine, Eev. Dr. Drury Lacy. My father could not 
trust his emotional nature enough to marry any of 
his daughters. 

Whether or not it was in his usual formula, or 
whether he was impressed by the very determined 
and unbending look of the mihtary bridegroom. Dr. 
Lacy made him promise to be an '' indulgent husband," 
laying special stress upon the adjective ; but he was 


equally emphatic in exacting obedience on the part of 
the bride. 

The most memorable incident of the occasion to 
me was that my trousseau, which had been ordered 
from Xew York in ample time, arrived only a few 
hours before the ceremony, and I had been compelled 
to improvise a bridal outfit, in the certain expectation 
of disappointment. However, the old adage "All's 
well that ends well" w^as verified in this case, as every 
article of my ordering was a perfect fit, and entirely 
satisfactory ; and the trustful major had reassured me 
all along that they would come in time. This was one 
of the "special providences" w^hich he loved to re- 
count. His bridal gifts to me w^ere a beautiful gold 
watch and a lovely set of seed pearls. 

A few^ days after our marriage we set out upon a 
Xorthern tour. The trip included visits to Richmond, 
Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, Saratoga, and Ni- 
atjara. In Xew York 'vje saw almost everything that 
was to be seen in the w^ay of sight-seeing, even climb- 
ing to the top of the spire of Trinity Church, to take 
a bird's-eye view of the magnificent panorama which 
it overlooks. The view Avas indeed grand, embracing 
the whole city — graceful, sparkling rivers; the bay 
and sound, studded w^ith vessels in motion and at 
rest : and beautiful rural scenery stretching out as far 
as the eye could reach. 

Ihit the places that combined the greatest amount 
of interest and pleasure w^ere Niagara and Saratoga. 
No man delighted more in viewing the grand and won- 
derful works of the Creator, and in looking "through 
nature up to nature's God." At Saratoga he took 
not a particle of interest in the gay and fashionable 


throng, but the natural beauties of the place charmed 
him, and he found a delightful recreation in rowing 
me over the lovely lake, whose placid waters were, at 
that time, covered with water-lilies. 

After completing this delightful Northern tour, we 
wended our way to the Kockbridge Alum Springs, a 
ver}^ pleasant mountain resort in the Valley of Vir- 
ginia, and only a few hours from Lexington. Here 
we remained several weeks, or until the beginning of 
the session at the Institute ; enjoying the quiet, and 
spending the time in reading, walking, and sitting 
in the woods ; the delicious mountain air and fine 
scenery giving a zest to existence, and sending us 
away regretfully when duty called us home. Major 
Jackson derived great benefit from the mineral waters 
of the Eockbridge Alum Springs, and it was a favorite 
resort of his. Upon our return to Lexington w^e lived 
for a few months at the best hotel in the place ; but he 
was not at all fond of boarding, and longed for the 
time when he could have a home of his own. In a 
letter to a friend he says : " I hope in the course of 
time we shall be able to call some house our home, 
where we may have the pleasure of receiving a long 
visit from you. I shall never be content until I am 
at the head of an establishment in which my friends 
can feel at home in Lexington. I have taken the first 
important step by securing a wife capable of making 
a happy home, and the next thing is to give her an 

Doctor Dabney truly says of General Jackson that 
'' in no man were the domestic affections ever more 
tender and noble. He Avho saw only the stern, self- 
denying soldier in his quarters, amidst the details of 


the commander's duties, or on the field of battle, could 
scarcely comprehend the gentle sweetness of his home 
life. There the cloud, which to his enemies was only 
night and tempest, displayed nothing but the ' silver 
lining/ In his household the law of love reigned : his 
own ])attern was the chief stimulus to duty; and his 
sternest rebuke, when he beheld any recession from 
gentleness or ]n'opriety, was to say, half tenderly, half 
sadly : 'Ah I that is not the way to be happy I' " 
Bayard Taylor's beautiful lines : 

•* The bravest are the tenderest, 
The loving are tlie dariug," 

found a true exemplification in him, of which his 
letters will be the best proof. 

A few months after our marriage he proposed that 
we should study together the Shorter Catecliism as a 
Sabbath-afternoon exercise, and it was not long until 
we committed it to memory — he reciting it to me 
with perfect accuracy from beginning to end. This 
he had not been taught in his youth, although he had 
read it carefully before committing himself to Presby- 
terianism. He considered it a model of sound doc- 
trine, as he did also the Confession of Faith ; but his 
chief study was the Bible itself, which was truly '' a 
lamp unto his feet, and a light unto his path." 

After boarding more than a year, he finalh^ suc- 
ceeded in ])urchasing a house in Lexington, the only 
available one he could obtain, and it was his intention 
to sell it and build one to suit himself in the course of 
time. r>ut unsuitable as this large, old house was for 
his small fjiniily, it was genuine happiness to him to 
have a home of his own : it was the first one he had 
ever possessed, and it was truly his castle. He lost 



no time in going to work to repair it and make it 
comfortable and attractive. His tastes were simple, 
but he liked to have everything in perfect order— 
every door '* on golden hinges softly turning," as he 
expressed it ; "a place for everything, and everything 
in its place ;" and under his methodical management 




his household soon became as regular and well-or- 
dered as it was possible for it to be with negro ser- 
vants. His furniture was very plain, though of ex- 
cellent materials; but simplicity itself marked every 
article. A lady said it was just lier idea of a Chris- 
tian home. He believed in providing his family with 
every comfort and convenience, for which he spared 


no expense. He was intensely fond of his home, and 
it was there he found his greatest happiness. There 
all that was best in his nature shone forth, shedding 
sweetness and light over his household. 

Those uho knew General Jackson only as they saw 
him in public would have found it hard to believe that 
there could be such a transformation as he exhibited 
in his domestic life. He luxuriated in the freedom 
and liberty of his home, and his buoyancy and joyous- 
ness of nature often ran into a playfulness and ahan- 
don that would have been incredible to those who 
saw him only when he put on his official dignity. 
The overflowing sunshine of his heart was a reflection 
from the Sun of Eighteousness, and he always said 
we could not love an earthly creature too much if we 
only loved God more. He was generous but unosten- 
tatious in his mode of living, and nothing gave him 
more pleasure than to welcome his friends to his sim- 
ple and hospitable home. He particularly delighted 
ill entertaining ministers of the Gospel. 

His garden was a source of very great pleasure to 
him : he worked in it a great deal with his own hands, 
and cultivated it in quite a scientific way. He stud- 
ied Buist's K'dfJien Garden^ and had an elaborate cal- 
enchir fur planting, whicli was given him by an en- 
thusiastic brother-officer iu the army. So successful 
was he as a gardener tliat he raised more vegetables 
than his family could consume. His early training 
ujxjn his uncle's farm had instilled into him a love for 
rural pursuits, and it was not long until he gratified 
his desire to possess a little farm of his own, which 
embraced twenty acres near town. Here, with the 
aid of his negroes, he raised wheat, corn, and other 


products, and every year his crops and land improved 
under his dihgent care. This farm he sold during the 
war, and invested the proceeds in Confederate bonds 
to assist the government. 

His life at home was perfectly regular and system- 
atic. He arose about six o'clock, and first knelt in 
secret prayer ; then he took a cold bath, which was 
never omitted even in the coldest days of winter. 
This was followed by a brisk walk, in rain or shine 
(for with a pair of india-rubber cavalry boots and a 
heavy army overcoat he was independent of the weath- 
er), and he returned, looking the picture of freshness 
and animation. 

Seven o'clock was the hour for family prayers, 
which he required all his servants to attend prompt- 
ly and regularly. He never waited for any one, not 
even his wife. 

Breakfast followed prayers, after which he left im- 
mediately for the Institute, his classes opening at 
eight o'clock and continuing until eleven. He was 
engaged in teaching only three hours a day, except 
for a few weeks before the close of the session, when 
the artillery practice demanded an additional hour 
in the afternoon. Upon his return home at eleven 
o'clock, he devoted himself to study until one. The 
first book he took up daily was his Bible, which he 
read with a commentary, and the many pencil-marks 
upon it showed with what care he bent over its pages. 
From his Bible lesson he turned to his text-books, 
which engaged him until dinner, at one o'clock. Dur- 
ing these hours of study he would not permit any in- 
terruption, and stood all that time in front of a high 
desk, which he had had made to order, and upon 


which he kept his books and stationery. After din- 
ner lie gave himself up for half an hour or more to 
leisure and conversation, and this was one of the 
brightest periods in the home life. He then went 
into his garden, or out to his farm to superintend his 
servants, and frequently joined them in manual labor. 
He would often drive me out to the farm, and find a 
shady spot for me under the trees, while he attended 
to the work of the field. AYhen this was not the case, 
he always returned in time to take me, if the weather 
permitted, for an evening walk or drive. In summer 
we often took our drives by moonlight, and in that 
beautiful Valley of Virginia the queen of night seemed 
to shine with more brightness than anywhere else; 
but. leaving all romance out of the question, there 
could be no more delightful wa.y of spending the long 
summer evening. When at home, he would indulge 
himself in a season of rest and recreation after supper, 
thinking it was injurious to health to go to work im- 
mediately. As it was a rule with him never to use his 
eyes by artificial light, he formed the habit of study- 
ino- raentallv for an hour or so without a book. After 
going over his lessons in the morning, he thus re- 
viewed them at night, and in order to abstract his 
thoughts from surrounding objects — a habit which he 
had cultivated to a remarkable degree — he would, if 
alone with his wife, ask that he might not be dis- 
turbed by any conversation, and he would then take 
his seat with his face to the wall, and remain in 
perfect abstraction until he finished his mental task, 
when he would emerge with a bright and cheerful 
face into social enjoyment again. He was very fond 
of beinff read to. and much of our time in the even- 


ings was passed in my ministering to him in this way. 
At first he fitted up a study for himself, but having no 
children, he gradually came to making our large, pleas- 
ant living-room his study, and finally moved his up- 
right desk into it, having become assured that he 
would meet with no interruption, either in his morn- 
ing work, or when he sat with face to the wall, as 
silent and as dumb as the sphinx, reviewing his les- 
sons in the evening. He had a library, which, though 
small, was select, composed chiefly of scientific, his- 
torical, and rehgious books, with some of a lighter 
character, and some in Spanish and French. Xearly 
all of them w^ere full of his pencil marks, made with a 
view to future reference. 

The few^ years spent so happily and peacefully in 
this little home were unmarked by any events important 
to the outside world. One little bud of promise was 
sent for a brief period to awaken new hopes of do- 
mestic joy and comfort, but it pleased God to trans- 
plant it to heaven before these hopes could be real- 
ized. The father, in announcing the arrival of the 
infant to its grandmother, commences thus : '' Dear 
mother, w^e have in our home circle a darling little 
namesake of yours, and she is a bright little one, her 
father being the judge. . . ." And he concludes by say- 
ing : '• I hope it will not be many years before our little 
Mary Graham will be able to send sweet little mes- 
sages to you all." The child hved only a few weeks, 
and its loss was a great, very great, sorrow to him. 
But here, as always, religion subdued every murmur. 
Great as was his love for children, his spirit of sub- 
mission was greater, and even in this bitter disappoint- 
ment he bowed uncomplaining to his Father's will. 



TiiK summer of 1S5S wus ushered in witlx sorrow, 
brintring my first taste of bitter bereavement. Soon 
after the loss of our first-born, another crushing stroke 
came in the death of my sister Eugenia, who had always 
been to me like a twin sister, so united and happy had 
been our early lives together. She left two little chil- 
dren motherless, and I was not permitted to be with 
her at the time of her death ; so it seemed as if my cup 
of trial was full. But all that love and sympathy could 
suggest to alleviate a first grief was done for me by 
my good husband, and his own beautiful example of 
resignation and cheerfulness was a rebuke to me. 

That summer was spent at the Xorth. He was 
never willing to be separated from his wife, unless 
duty or necessity required it — his desire being to share 
his every pleasure with her, without whom it would 
not be complete. His vacations were seasons of great 
recreation and enjoyment to him. He Avas fond of 
travelling, and liked the bracing climate of the Xorth- 
ern States. AVhen worn down by the labors of his 
professorship, he used to say that he had "a periodical 
longing to go North," and this he gratified every sum- 
mer after our marriage, until the beginning of the war. 
He always returned home much refreshed and bene- 
fited bv these excursions. 


He had never visited Fortress Monroe, and he seemed 
to. think that was a duty he owed liimself; so this 
summer of 1S5S we took that point in our route, 
and spent a few days there — he passing much of his 
time in the fort, and acquainting himself with every 
part of it. We then went by steamer to Cape May, 
where he luxuriated in the surf bathing. Another 
delightful trip by steamer took us to New York, where 
we spent several weeks, for the purpose of having his 
throat treated by a specialist. He was affected ^vith 
a sho'ht bronchial trouble, but was not at all an invalid 
in any other respect. While in the city, a part of each 
day was devoted to sight-seeing. He generally went 
out alone in the morning on an exploring expedition, 
being an indefatigable walker, and then he would re- 
turn and take me to the places which he thought 
would most interest me. Thus the time was passed 
most agreeably in driving and seeing every place of 
interest in and around the city. The Diisseldorf Art 
Gallery was a favorite place of resort, for Avhile he 
had but httle knowledge of art, he had a natural love 
for it. After spending the mornings in this way, he 
enjoyed nothing so much in the evenings as to stay 
quietly at home and have me read to him. This sum- 
mer was devoted to Shakespeare, and he was a most 
attentive and appreciative listener. Whenever a pas.- 
sage struck him, he would say, "Mark that," and 
many were the interruptions of this kind. The even- 
ings were sometimes varied by attending a con- 

The opening of the fall term of the Military Insti- 
tute always found him at his post, and our return 
home was a joyful time both to us and our domestics. 


As these servants Avill frequently be mentioned in 
his letters, a short account of them may not be un- 
interesting:. The first slave he ever owned was a man 
named Albert, who came to him and begged that he 
would buy him on the condition that he might be per- 
mitted to emancipate himself by a return of the pur- 
chase-money, as he would be able to pay it in annual 
instalments. Major Jackson granted his request, al- 
though he had to wait several years before the debt 
could be paid, and my impressi(jn is that it was not 
fully paid when the war broke out. This man, Al- 
bert, hired himself as a hotel-waiter, and was never 
an inmate of our family, except on one occasion, when 
he had a long spell of illness, and his master took him 
to his home to care for him as an act of humanity, for 
Albert had no family of his own. Every morning my 
husband paid him a call to see how he was getting 
along and what he needed ; and one morning, as he 
came in from one of these visits, his face was so con- 
vulsed with laughter that he had to drop into a seat 
and give full vent to the explosion before he was able 
to explain the cause of it. Albert had been committed 
to the ministrations of our two maid - servants, with 
the expectation that he would be well cared for by 
these colored sisters ; but probably he was not grate- 
ful enough for their services, or their tender mercies 
towards him may have grown cruel. At all events, 
he complained of their neglect and ill-treatment, which 
he summed up by saying that he ''had never heen so 
hedevilled hy tico icomen in Ms life /" It Avas this 
disgusted and dolorous recital of his woes that had 
amused the major so intensely. 

The next servant that came into his possession was 


an old woman, xVniy, who was about to be sold for 
debt, and who sought from him a deliverance from 
her troubles. This was some time before our marriage, 
when he had no use for her services; but his kind 
heart was moved by her situation, and he yielded to 
her entreaties, and gave her a home in a good, Chris- 
tian family, until he had one of his own. She proved 
her gratitude by serving him faithfully. She was one 
of the best of colored cooks, and was a real treasure 
to me in my new experience as a housekeeper. After 
our home was broken up by the Avar, old Aunt Amy 
languished and died in the house of a colored woman 
in Lexington, her master paying all her expenses of 
board, medical attendance, and comforts. She was 
not suffered to want for anything, a kind friend then 
looking after her, at his request, and providing for her 
suitable burial. 

Hardly had this poor old servant breathed her last 
when the friend who had been engaged to care for 
her wrote to General Jackson to inform him of her 
death. And though he was then in the field, with 
other things to think of, he said the reading of it 
" moved him to tears." In it the friend writes : 

..." I could have wished that your letter had 
come a few hours earlier, that poor Aunt Amv's 
heart might have been refreshed by the evidences of 
your Christian remembrance and kindness. Before it 
reached me, she had passed beyond the need of earth- 
ly aid or sympathy, and I do trust was an adoring, 
wondering spirit before the Throne. She died last 
night at midnight without any fear, and, as I believe, 
w4th a simple reliance on Jesus for salvation. It was 


only the death of a poor slave— a most insignificant 
tliint'- in men's eyes — and yet may ^ye not hope that 
there uas joy in heaven over another ransomed soul 

one in Avliom the Saviour saw the result of 'his 

travail' and Avas 'satisfied.' ... I called to see her 
a few minutes last Friday — found her sitting up, 
though suffering much. She told me that she wanted 
to thank you for that money, and to let you know 
al)out her. She expressed entire resignation to God's 
will, and trust in Christ alone. ... I knew that it 
would be your wish that she should have a well-ordered 
bui'ial. so Dr. White attended, and my servants tell me 
that it is many a day since so large a colored funeral 
has been seen in Lexington. It may seem very need- 
less to write so minutely about a poor old servant, but 
I am sure your true Christian feeling will appreciate 
all that I have told you of the humble faith of this 
saved soul, gathered from your own household. The 
cup of cold Avater you have ministered to this poor 
disciple may avail more in the Master's eye than all 
the brilliant deeds with which you may glorify your 
country's battle-fields. So differently do man and his 
Maker judge I" 

Hetty, our chandjcrnuiid and laundress, was an im- 
portation from North Carolina. She had been my 
nurse in infancy, and from this fact there had always 
existed between us a bond of mutual interest and at- 
tachment. As she wished to live with me, my father 
transferred to me the ownership of herself and her two 
boys. Hetty was sent as a nurse to our first child, 
from her ])lantation-home in North Carolina to Lex- 
ington, and made the journey all alone, which was 


quite a feat for one so inexperienced as a ••' corn-field 
hand," in which capacity she had served for years. 
After travelling by stage-coach and railroad as far as 
Eichmond (aUhough she did not go down into South 
Carolina, around Eobin Hood's Barn, and back again 
into North Carolina, as my sister Eugenia and I had 
done), she had to change cars, and being sorely be- 
wildered in finding her train, she was asked Avhere 
she was going, and her discouraged reply was : " Why, 
I'm going to Virginia^ but the Lord knows whether 
I'll ever get there or not !" She did, however, turn 
up all right at the end of her destination, and was so 
rejoiced at finding her young mistress at last that her 
demonstrations were quite touching, as she laughed 
and cried by turns. 

That she was fully equal to taking care of herself 
is instanced by the following : On her return to Xorth 
Carolina during the war, she was again travelling alone, 
and while changing trains she saw a man pick up her 
little, old hair trunk — her own personal property, con- 
taining all her valuables — and suspecting his honesty, 
with a determination to stand up for her rights, she 
called out to him peremptorily : " Put down that 
trui)k ; that^s General Jacksonh truiik. P^ 

Hetty was an energetic, impulsive, quick-tempered 
woman, with some fine traits, but inclined to self- 
assertion, particularly as she felt her importance in 
being so much the senior of her new master and mis- 
tress. But she soon realized, from the spirit Avhicli 
'' commanded his household after him," that her only 
course must be that of implicit obedience. After learn- 
ing this lesson she toned down into a well-mannered, 
useful domestic, and indeed she became a factotum in 


the household, rendering valuable service in the house, 
garden, and u\)(m the farm. The latter, however, Avas 
her favoi'ite held of labor, for the freedom of the 
country was as sweet to her as to the birds of the air. 
JShe Ijecame devoted to her master, was the nurse to 
his infant child at the time of his death, and was a 
sincere mourner for him, her tears flowing freely; 
and she said she had lost her best friend. 

Hetty's two boys, Cyrus (called Cy) and George, be- 
tween the ages of twelve and sixteen, were pure, una- 
(hdterated Africans, and ^lajor Jackson used to say 
that if these boys were left to themselves they would 
])e sure to go back to barbarism ; and yet he was tm- 
wearying in his efforts to elevate them. At his re- 
(juest I taught them to read, and he required them to 
attend regularly family worship, Sunday-school, and 
church. He was a very strict but kind master, giv- 
ing to his servants " that which is just and equal," but 
exacting of them prompt obedience. lie thought the 
best rule for both parents and masters Avas, after mak- 
ing prohibitory laws and knowing they Avere under- 
stood, never to threaten, but punish, for first offences, 
and make such an impression that the offence would 
not be repeated. 

When a servant left a room without closing the 
door, lie would wait until he had reached the kitchen, 
and then call him back to sliut it, thereby giving him 
extra trouble, which generally insured his remembrance 
tlie next time. Ills training made the coloi*ed servants 
as ])olite and ])unctual as that race is capable of being, 
and liis system soon showed its good effects. They 
realized that if they did their duty they woidd receive 
the best of treatment from liini. At Christmas he was 


generous in presents, and frequently gave them small 
sums of money. 

There was one other little servant in the famih^, 
named Emma, whom the master took under his shel- 
tering roof at the solicitation of an aged lady in town, 
to whom the child became a care after having been 
left an orphan. The arrangement was made during 
my absence from home, and without my knowledge, 
my husband thinking that, although Emma was of the 
tender age of only four years, she would make a nice 
little maid for me in the future. On my return he 
took great pleasure in surprising me with this new 
present, which, by the way, proved rather a trouble- 
some one at first, but Avitli the lapse of time she be- 
came useful, though never a treasure. She was not 
bright, but he j)ersevered in drilling her into memor- 
izing a child's catechism, and it was a most amusing 
picture to see her standing before him with fixed at- 
tention, as if she were straining every nerve, and recit- 
ing her answers with the drop of a courtesy at each 
word. She had not been taught to do this, but it was 
such an effort for her to learn that she assumed this 
motion involuntarily. 

The other animate possessions of the family were a 
good-looking horse (named, from his color. Bay), two 
splendid milch cows, and a lot of chickens. Bay was 
also bought during my absence, and after coming to 
meet me at Goshen with a horse and buggy, on our 
homeward ride I commented on the nice appearance 
of the horse, Avhen my husband smilingly replied : " I 
am very thankful that you like him, for he is your 
own property." He had a playful way of applying 
the pronoun your to all the common possessions of the 


family, and so persistently did he practise this pleas- 
antry tliat he ai)plied it to himself and all his indi- 
vidual l)elongings, of Avhich he always spoke to me as 
'•your husband,*' '\vour cap,'- "your house," and even 
" your salary I" Upon the occasion of a visit from my 
mother to us, he went out and, unexpectedly^ to me, 
l)()U,i:ht a rockaway, saying she was not strong enough 
to walk all over town, and he wanted her to see and 
tMijoy everything while she was with us. 

A little incident will show the kindness and tender- 
ness of his heart. A gentleman who spent the night 
with us was accompanied by his daughter, but four 
years of age. It was the first time the child had been 
separated from her mother, and my husband, fearing 
she might miss the watchfulness of a woman's heart, 
sujrcrested that she should be committed to my care 
during the night, but she clung to her father. After 
his iruests had both sunk into slumber, the father was 
aroused by some one leaning over his little girl and 
drawiuG: the coverino; more closely around her. It 
was only his thoughtful host, who felt anxious lest his 
little guest should miss her mother's guardian care un- 
der his roof, and he could not go to sleep himself until 
he was satisfied that all was well with the child. 

In his home no man could have been more unre- 
strained and demonstrative, and his buoyancy and 
sportiveness were quite a revelation to me when I 
ijecame a sharer in the privacy of his inmost life. 
These demonstrations and ])layful endearments he 
kept up as long as he lived : time seeming only to 
intensify instead of diminishing them. 

One morning lie returned from a very early artil- 
lery drill, for wliieh he had donned full regimentals. 


as it was during commencement time, and lie never 
looked more noble and handsome than when he en- 
tered his chamber, sword in hand. He playfully be- 
gan to brandish the sword over his Avife's head, look- 
ing as ferocious and terrible as a veritable Bluebeard, 
and asking her if she was not afraid. His acting 
was so realistic that, for a moment, the timid little 
woman did quail, which he no sooner saw than he 
threw down his sword, and, in a perfect outburst of 
glee, speedily transformed himself into the very an- 
tipode of a wife-killer. 

He would often hide himself behind a door at the 
sound of the approaching footstep of his wife, and 
spring out to greet her with a startling caress. 

During the spring of 1859 I was not well, and as he 
always wished me to have the best medical attention 
the country afforded, he took me to Xew York for 
treatment, where I was obliged to remain several weeks. 
As it was the time of his session, he could not stay with 
me, so he had to return to his duties and spend all 
those weeks by himself. It was our first separation, 
and our home seemed very lonely to him. Every day 
that a letter could make the trip wiihoiit travelling on 
Sunday he was heard from, and I hope that I do not 
trespass in delicacy or propriety in permitting others 
to see so much of these letters as will show the abound- 
ing- sweetness of his home-life. On his return, after 
leaving me in Xew York, in March, 1859, he writes : 

I c^ot home last nio^ht in as o^ood health as when I 

gave my darling the last kiss. Hetty and Amy came 
to the door when I rang, but would not open until I 
gave my name. Thev made much ado about my not 


])rinirin,iz: you home. Your lnis])and has a sad heart. 
Our house h)oks so deserted without my esposar 
Home is not home Avithout my httle dove. I love 
to talk to you, little one, as though you were here, 
and tell you how much I love you, but that will not 
o-ive you the news. . . . During our absence the ser- 
vants api^ear to have been faithful, and I am well 
pleased with the manner in which they discharged 
their duties. George came to me to-day, saying he 
had iilled all the wood-boxes, and asked permission 
to go lishing, whicli was granted. . . . You must be 
cheerful and happy, remembering that you are some- 
body's sunshine." 

''April 2Tth. All your fruit-trees are yielding fruit 
this year. AVhen George brought home your cow this 
morning, she was accompanied by one fine little rep- 
resentative of his sire, and it would do your heart good 
to see your big cow and your little calf, and to see 
what a fine prospect there is for an abundant supply 
of milk. . . . AVe had lettuce for dinner to-day from 
your hot-bed. Heretofore I have been behind Cap- 
tain Ilayden's calendar for gardening, which he wrote 
out for me; but this day brings me up with it. and I 
hope hereafter to follow it closely. I have arranged 
under each month its programme for the different days, 
so I have but to look at the days of the month, and 
follow its directions as they come." . . . 

* When in Mexico, he had become so familiar with the Spanish 
languai^e that he was constantly using Spanisli words and phrases, 
especially the terms of endearment, whicli are so musical. Thus, 
liis wife was always liis esposa, or, if he wished to use the dimin- 
utive, his cHpiiHita (his little wife), while he was her cxposo — pet 
names that recur constantly in his letters. 


" May Tth. I received only three letters last week, 
and have only one so far this week, but ' hope springs 
eternal in the human breast ;' so you see I am becoming 
quite poetical since listening to a lecture on the subject 
last evening. ... I send you a flower from your garden, 
and could have sent one in full bloom, but I thought 
this one, which is just opening, would be in a better 
state of preservation when my little dove receives it. 
You must not give yourself any concern about your 
esjposo's living. . . . My little pet, your husband was 
made very happy at receiving two letters from you and 
learning that you were improving so rapidly. 1 have 
more than once bowed down on my knees, and thanked 
our kind and merciful Heavenly Father for the pros- 
pect of restoring vou to health again. Xow, don't 
get impatient, and come off before you are entirely 
well. . . . Yesterday Doctor Junkin preached one of 
his masterly sermons on the sovereignty of God, and, 
although a doctrinal discourse, it was eminently con- 
soling ; and I wish that you could have heard such a 
presentation of the subject. To-day I rode your horse 
out to your lot and saw your laborers. They are do- 
ing good work. I was mistaken about your large gar- 
den fruit being peaches, they turn out to be apricots ; 
and just think— my little woman has a tree full of 
them I You must come home before they get ripe. 
You have the greatest show of flowers I have seen 
this year. Enclosed are a few specimens. Our pota- 
toes are coming up. We have had very uncommonly 
drv weather for nearlv a fortnio:ht, and your garden 
had been thirsting for rain till last evening, when the 
weather commenced changing, and to-day we have 
had some rain. Through grace given me from above. 


I felt that the rain would come at the right time, and 
I don't recollect having ever felt so grateful for rain 
as for the present one. . . . You must not be dis- 
couraaed at the slowness of recovery. Look up to 
Him who giveth liberally for faith to be resigned to 
His divine will, and trust Him for that measure of 
health which will most glorify Him and advance to 
the greatest extent your own real happiness. AVe are 
sometimes suffered to be in a state of perplexity, that 
our faith may be tried and grow stronger. 'All 
things work together for good ' to God's children. See 
if you cannot spend a short time after dark in looking 
(jut of your window into space, and meditating upon 
heaven, with all its joys unspeakable and full of glory; 
and think of what the Saviour relinquished in glory 
when he came to earth, and of his sufferings for us ; 
and seek to realize, with the apostle, that the afflictions 
of the present life are not worthy to be compared 
with the glory which shall be revealed in us. Try to 
look up and be cheerful, and not desponding. Trust 
our kind Heavenly Father, and by the eye of faith 
see that all tilings with you are right and for your 
best interest. The clouds come, pass over us, and are 
followed ])y l^right sunshine ; so, in God's moral deal- 
ings with us, he ])ermits us to have trouble awhile. 
But let us, even in the most trying dispensations of 
His ])rovidence, be cheered by the brightness. which 
is a little ahead. Try to live near to Jesus, and secure 
that peace which flows like a river. You have your 
husband's prayers, symjiathy, and love. . . . 

'* I am so glad and thankful that you received the 
draft and letters in time. How kind is God to His 
children ! I feelso tliaiikful to Ilim that lie lias blessed 


me with so much faith, though I well know that I 
have not that faith which it is my privilege to have. 
But I have been taught never to despair, but to wait, 
expecting the blessing at the last moment. Such oc- 
currences should strengthen our faith in Him who 
never slumbers. ... I trust that our Heavenly 
Father is restoring my darling to health, and that 
when she gets home she will again be its sunshine. 
Your husband is looking forward with great joy to 
seeino^ her brio:ht little face in her own home once 
more. If you should be detained longer, 1 will send 
3^ou some summer clothing, but get everything that 
is necessary there. I sent you a check in order that 
you may have ample funds. I know how embarrass- 
ing it is even to anticipate scarcity of money when 
one is away from home. You are one darling of dar- 
linofs, and mav our kind and merciful Heavenlv Father 
bless you with speedy restoration to health and to 
me, and with every needful blessing, both temporal 
and spiritual, is my oft-repeated prayer. Take good 
care of my little dove, and remember that the day of 
miracles is past, and that God works bv means, and 
He punishes us for violating his physical as well as 
His moral laws. When you come home, I want to 
meet you at Goshen in a private conveyance, and bring 
my little one gently over the rough roads. I hope 
you will take my advice, and not burden yourself by 
carrying an3^thing in your hands, except your um- 
brella and basket. You are very precious to one 
somebod3^'s heart, if you are away off in I\"ew York. 
My heart is with my esposita all the time, and my 
prayers are for her safety. How I wish you were here 
now to share with me the pleasures of home, our garden, 


and the surrounding country, which is clothed in verd- 
ure and beauty ! . . . On AVednesday your esposo hopes 
to meet his sunshine, and may he never see its bright- 
ness obscured, nor its brilliancy diminished by spots I" 

The reader will see how freely he used the Span- 
ish pet names. In some of his letters he Avould string 
toirether a dozen or more of them — the ''linked 
sweetness long drawn out " — at once in playfulness 
and as the overflow of a heart full of tenderness. 
But this sportiveness and buoyancy of temperament 
were known only in the innermost circle of his home, 
and from these sanctities the veil would never have 
been lifted except to reveal this beautiful phase of 
his character. 

In the summer of the year 1859, he went to the 
White Sulpliur Springs for a fortnight, leaving me 
to spend the time at the Eockbridge Baths. The 
railroad not being completed at that time, he thought 
the travel by stage-coach would be too fatiguing to 
me, but he felt that he needed the mineral waters of 
the AVliite Sulphur. From there he wrote : " This is 
a veiy beautiful place, and I wish very much that I 
had my dove here. I feel that I must bring her here 
sometime. She Avould enjov it greatly, and I should 
enjoy it so much more if she Avere with me. To- 
morrow, you know, was my day to write, but I 
thought I would drop you a line to-day, so that you 
might know the whereabouts of your husband. . . . 
I am tired of this place, and wouldn't give my little 
])et for all the peo]ile here. I want to go and stay 
with my little woman. As yet I am not certain 
whether tlie waters are benelicial to me.'" . . . 


^'Aiio-ust 15tli. Last nio^lit I enioyed what I have 
lontr desired — listenino^ to a sermon from the Rev. Dr. 
Thornwell, of South Carolina. He opened with an 
introduction, setting forth the encouragements and 
discouragements under which he spoke. Among the 
encouragements, he stated that the good effected here 
Avould be widely disseminated, as there w^ere visitors 
from every Southern State. Following the example 
of the apostle Paul, he observed that whilst he felt 
an interest in all, yet he felt a special interest in those 
from his own State. He spoke of the educated and 
accomplished audience it was his privilege to address. 
After concluding his introductory remarks, he took 
his text from Genesis, seventeenth chapter, seventh 
verse, which he presented in a bold, profound, and to 
me original manner. I felt what a privilege it was 
to listen to such an exposition of God's truth. He 
showed that in Adam's fall we had been raised from 
the position of servants to that of children of God. 
He gave a brief account of his own difficulties when 
a college student, in comprehending his relation to 
God. He represented man as a redeemed being at 
the day of judgment, standing nearest to the throne, 
the angels being farther removed. And wdiy ? Be- 
cause his Brother is sitting upon the throne he is a 
nearer relation to Christ than the angels. And his 
righteousness is superior to that of the angels — his 
being the righteousness of God himself. I don't rec- 
ollect having ever before felt such love to God. I 
w^as rather surprised at seeing so much grace and 
gesture in Dr. Thornwell. I hope and pray that 
much good will result from this great exposition of 
Bible truth. . . . Early yesterday morning the tables in 


the parlor were well su]ii)lied with religious tracts. . . . 
Time passes more })leasantly here than I expected. 
]jut I want to get back to my esposita^ and I never 
want to go to any watering-place without her again." 

\w the succeeding autumn I paid a short visit to 
m\' father in North Carolina, and the following ex- 
tracts are from his letters during that period • 

..." I am writing at my desk, which I have raised 
so high that it makes me stand straight. I Avatered 
your flowers this morning, and hoed another row of 
turnips, and expect to hill some of the celery this 
evening. Your old man at home is taking good care 
of one somebody's flower-slips, and they are looking 
very nicely. Yesterday I went into the kitchen and 
sealed some jars of tomatoes, and Hetty has put up 
many jars besides, of plums and other fruits, so that 
we shall be well supplied this winter. I hope they 
will keep well. ... I w^as invited a few days since to 

go to the Misses B 's and see some pagan idols 

which they had received. They were mostly paint- 
ings and some other devices, but (piite interesting. 
Among the various Chinese curiosities (for they do 
not all refer to worship) was an image consisting of 
a man in miniature in a sitting posture, with long 
ringlets of hair hanging from various parts of the 
face. The statue can be removed from the chair in 
which it sits, and is the best-finished piece of w^ork- 
nianship of the kind that I ever saw from a pagan 
land. It was taken from one of the churches in 
Canton after its capture, and is said to have been 


"I hope that my little somebody is feehng as 
lively as a lark ;" and in another letter he tells her 
that he wants her to be "as happy as a spring 

" October 17th. I have been wishing that you 
could see our beautiful forests in their autumnal glory. 
I have been greatly enjoying their beauty, but my 
pleasure would be much enhanced if you were with 
me. I have just been thinking how happy you must 
be in your old home, and it makes my heart happy 
too to think of the happiness of my little darling." 

" October 29th. This morning I buried ninety-nine 
heads of your cabbage for winter use." 

It was in the fall of 1859 that the celebrated John 
Brown raid was made upon the government stores at 
Harper's Ferry. Brown was a fanatic, w^ho conceived 
the idea that he could raise an insurrection in the 
South and emancipate the negroes. But he was ar- 
rested, convicted, and condemned to execution. Fear- 
ing that an attempt might be made to rescue him, the 
Governor of Virginia, Henry A. Wise, ordered out the 
troops, in which were included the corps of cadets of 
the Virginia Military Institute, and with their officers 
at their head they marched to the place of rendezvous. 
The following extracts from Major Jackson's letters 
will tell the part he had to take in the affair : 

'' Charlestown, Kov. 28th, 1859. 
"I reached here last night in good health and 
spirits. Seven of us slept in the same room. I am 



much more pleased than I expected to be; the people 
appear to be very kind. There are about one thou- 
sand troo]is here, and everytliing is quiet so far. AVe 
don't expect any trouble. The excitement is confined 
to more distant points. Do not give yourself any con- 
cern about me. I am comfortable, for a temporary 
militaiy i)ost." 

" December 2d. John Brown was hung to-day at 
about half-past eleven a. m. He behaved with un- 
flinching firmness. The arrangements were well 
made and Avell executed under the direction of Colonel 
Smith. The gibbet was erected in a large field, south- 
east of the town. Brown rode on the head of his 
coffin from his prison to the place of execution. The 
coffin was of black walnut, enclosed in a box of poplar 
of the same shape as the coffin. He was dressed in 
a black frock-coat, black pantaloons, black vest, black 
slouch hat, white socks, and slippers of predominat- 
ing red. There was nothing around his neck but his 
shirt collar. The open wagon in which he rode was 
strongly guarded on all sides. Captain AVilliams (for- 
merly assistant ])rofessor at the Institute) marched 
immediately in front of the wagon. The jailer, high- 
sheriff, and several others rode in the same wamm 
with the prisoner. Brown had his arms tied behind 
him, and ascended the scaffold with apparent cheer- 
fulness. After reaching the top of the platform, he 
shook hands with several who were standing around 
liim. The sheriff placed the rope around his neck, 
then threw a white cap over his head, and asked him 
if he wished a signal when all should be ready. He 
replied tliat it made no difference, provided he Avas not 


kept waiting too long. In this condition he stood for 
about ten minutes on the trap-door, which Avas support- 
ed on one side by hinges and on the other (the south 
side) by a rope. Colonel Smith then announced to the 
sheriff ' all ready ' — which apparently was not com- 
prehended by him, and the colonel had to repeat the 
oixler, Avhen the rope was cut by a single blow, and 
Brown fell through about five inches, his knees falling 
on a level Avith the position occupied by his feet before 
the rope was cut. With the fall his arms, below the 
elbows, flcAV up horizontally, his hands clinched ; and 
his arms gradually fell, but by spasmodic motions. 
There was very little motion of his person for several 
moments, and soon the Avind blew his lifeless body to 
and fro. His face, upon the scaffold, Avas turned a 
little east of south, and in front of him were the 
cadets, commanded by Major Gilman. My command 
Avas still in front of the cadets, all facing south. One 
howitzer I assigned to Mr. Trueheart on the left of 
the cadets, and Avith the other I remained on the 
right. Other troops occupied different positions around 
the scaffold, and altogether it was an imposing but 
A^ery solemn scene. I Avas much impressed Avith the 
thought that before me stood a man in the full \'igoY 
of health, Avho must in a fcAV moments enter eternity. 
I sent up the petition that he might be saA'ed. AAvful 
AA^as the thought that he might in a few minutes 
receive the sentence, ' Depart, ye Avicked, into ever- 
lasting fire !' I hope that he Avas prepared to die, but 
I am doubtful. He refused to have a minister Avith 
him. His Avife visited him last eA^ening. His body 
Avas taken back to the jail, and at six o'clock p. m. 
Avas sent to his Avife at Harper's Ferry. When it 


arrived, the coffin Avas opened, and his wife saw the 
remains, after which it was again opened at the depot 
before leaving for Baltimore, lest there should be an 
imposition. AVe leave for home via Eichmond to- 

This Avas the only expedition after our marriage in 
which he accompanied the cadets, until he took them 
to Eichmond at tlie opening of the war, in obedience 
to the call of the governor. Several trips were made 
by the corps to the capital and to Xorfolk, to grace 
state occasions ; but at such times he always requested 
that he might be permitted to have his holiday at 
home, Avhile he lent his sword, epaulets, and sashes 
to his brother-officers, who were more fond of display. 

The next letter is to his aunt, Mrs. Xeale, of Parkers- 
burg : 

"Lexington, Va., Jan. 21st, 18G0. 

^'I am living in my own house, I am thankful to 
say, as, after trying both public and private boarding, 
I have learned from experience that true comfort is 
onlv to be found in a house under your own control. 
1 wisli you could pay me a visit during some of your 
leisure intervals, if you ever have such. This is a 
l)eautiful country', just on the confines of the Virginia 
Springs, and we are about fourteen miles from the 
Natural Bridge. . . . What do vou tiiink about the 
state of the country? Viewing things at Washington 
from liuman ap])earances, I think we have great reason 
for alarm. ])ut my trust is in (iod ; and I cannot think 
that he will permit the madness of men to interfere 
so materially Avith tlie Christian labors of this country 
at home and abroad."" 


WAR CLOUDS— 18G0-1 861. 

Major Jackson's vacation in the summer of 1860 
was spent in Xew England — at Northampton, Massa- 
chusetts. This was once the home of Jonathan Eel- 
wards, and a large old elm-tree which was planted 
by him is still standing as a memorial of the great 
American theologian. In the old burying-ground, a 
time-AYorn, moss-covered tombstone bears the name 
of the saintly David Brainerd. On Eound Ilill is a 
hydropathic establishment, which attracted Major 
Jackson there. The hotel is built upon an elevation 
overlooking the town — the Connecticut Eiver winding 
through the loveliest of emerald valleys, with fine 
mountain scenery, embracing Mount Tom and Mount 
Ilolyoke — all together forming a landscape which 
Jenny Lind thought one of the most beautiful she 
had seen in America. 

The climate also is bracing and delightful, and there 
was much to contribute to our enjoyment, notwith- 
standing the inhospitable elements which Southerners 
felt in the Xorth at that time of great political ex- 
citement. As it was the summer before Mr. Lincoln's 
election, Major Jackson heard and saw enough to 
awaken his fears that it might portend civil war ; but 
he had no dispute with those who differed from him, 
treating all politely, and made some pleasant acquaint- 

134 Lll-'i^ <^>^' GENERAL THOMAS J. JACKSON. 

ances, among tliein a Baptist minister, avIio often 
joined us in our walks, when tiie conversations Avere 
always friendly. To our surprise, one day the wife 
of a gentleman from South Carolina repoi-ted that 
her husband had had a violent political dispute Avith 
this same minister, whom we had found so courteous. 
Although he was an abolitionist, and Major Jackson 
was a slave-holder, each had recognized in the other 
enough to be a bond of union, and their pleasant re- 
lations continued as long as they remained together. 

In front of the hotel was a large grove of forest 
trees, under which were seats here and there, and 
we literally lived out of doors. In strolling through 
this grove we came upon a reservoir, which we ex- 
pected to see filled with water, but to our surprise it 
was dry, and upon the floor were gambolling a large 
number of tame rabbits, white, brown, and spotted, 
and guinea-pigs of all sizes and ages — a sight that 
was quite an attraction to the guests of the hotel. 
The little animals were the pets of the children of the 
proprietor, and the old reservoir, having been aban- 
doned for a much larger one, made a secure and ex- 
cellent home for the pretty creatures. In these peace- 
ful surroundings ]\rajor Jackson's health improved 
wonderfully ; the baths with the exercise gave in- 
creased fulness as well as vigor to his manly frame. 
I too was greatly benefited by this novel treatment. 
I had gone there without a particle of faith in 
hydropathy, but as I was not strong, my husband 
persuaded me to try it, and it was astonishing how 
rapidly my strength developed. From not being able 
to walk a mile upon my arrival, hy degrees I came 
to walking five miles a day with ease, and kept it up 


until my departure. Indeed, I proved such an en- 
couraging subject to the skill of the doctor that at 
his suggestion, but sorely against my own Avill, I was 
left behind for a month after my husband had to re- 
turn to his professorial duties. But he " reported " 
to me as regularly as if I were his superior officer, 
though not exactly in military style, but after his do- 
mestic fashion : 

" Little one, I must tell you what is in your gar- 
den. First and foremost, there is a very long row of 
celery : this is due to Hetty, and I told her that as 
she had succeeded so well I wouldn't touch its cult- 
ure ; though when it comes upon the table, and my 
little pet is here to enjoy it with me, I do not expect 
to be so chary of it. You have also Lima beans, snap 
beans, carrots, parsnips, salsify, onions, cabbage, tur- 
nips, beets, potatoes, and some inferior muskmelons. 
Xow, do you think j^ou have enough vegetables ? I 
am just thinking and thinking about that little some- 
body away up there."' 

When the time arrived for me to return, he would 
have come for me, but he was so conscientious about 
his duty that he would not leave his chair even for a 
single day, except in case of absolute necessity, and so 
he writes : 

" September 2oth, 18G0. 

" In answer to your question how you are to come, 
I should say, with your husband, if no other arrange- 
ment can be effected. If you don't meet Avith an 
opportunity of an escort to ]^ew York or farther, see 
if the doctor can't get }ou one to Springfield, upon 


the coiiclitioii that you pay the expense. I don't 
want you to pass through Springfield alone, as you 
have to change cars there, and you might meet with 
some accident ; but as visitors invite the doctor to 
make excursions with them, can't you invite him to 
make one with you to Springfield, and after he sees 
you on the right train, sit in the same car until you 
reach the depot in Xew York, Avhere you may expect 
to find your esjposo waiting for you ? J^e sure to write, 
and also telegraph, as I would rather go all the way 
to liound Hill than for you to come through Spring- 
field alone. Your husband feels bright, and the light 
of his approaching little sunshine makes him still 
brighter. Whenever you write or telegraph for him, 
you may expect him to come for you in double-quick 

Having arranged for my escort to a place within 
driving distance of Lexington, he sends a last mes- 

'^ September 28th. I expect to set off with your 
rockaway and "Bay,'' and you must not be left behind. 
You may expect to have your dinner sent from home, 
so that in our homeward drive you can eat your own 

In Fel)ruary, 18(>1, I left him again for a brief 
period, to attend the wedding of my sister Susan, who 
married Mr. A. C. Avery, afterwards a Justice of the 
Supreme Court of Xorth Carolina. A few extracts 
will show the character of the letters that followed 
me on this trit) : 


" Home, February 18th, 1861. My precious little 
darling, your husband has returned from tlie Insti- 
tute, had his dinner all alone, and feels sad enough 
this afternoon ; but I trust that my little pet has had 
a pleasant day's travel, and that the kind providence 
of God has kept her from all accident and danger, 
and has spread out before her many enjoyments. I 
hope that you will be greatly prospered during all 
your absence. The day here has been very change- 
able, alternating between sunshine and sno\v. I hope 
the Richmond weather is better, for I have been, 
thinking you might be too much exposed in shopping. 
However, I hope you have taken a carriage, if neces- 
sary, and have taken good care of my little one." 

. . . '^ 19th. My darling pet, your husband feels a 
loneliness for which he can hardly account, but he 
knows if his darling were here he wouldn't feel thus. 
I have been busy, but still the feeling exists. I fol- 
low you in mind and heart, and think of you at the 
different points of your route." 

'' 23d. I was very thankful to our kind Heavenly 
Father for his protecting care extended over my little 
pet, as stated in your letter. I do delight to receive 
letters from my little woman. If Sue is approach- 
able on the Avery question, tell her she must be very 
litigious if she finds it necessary to engage the ser- 
vices of a member of the legal i)rofession for life I 
Tell her we have them here from a mere tyro up to a 
judge of the Federal court, though do not mention the 
subject to her if you think it would be at all unpleasant. 

" On Saturday I sent your boy, George, with 


your horse and wagon down to Thompson's landing, 
and brought up a barrel of nice Richmond sweet pota- 
toes. I have laid aside the best, and hope they will 
keep till my little pet gets home. 

'* AVhat think you ( I went down to your hen- 
house yesterday evening, jyursu ant to orders, and, look- 
ing into the nests, found nine fresh eggs besides the 
Deai'cr [a porcelain egg bought of a man of that 
name], and, appropriating eight of them, I returned. 
leaving one in each nest."' 

'* Feb. 2Tth. This is a beautiful day here, and I have 
been thinking how blissful Sue's married life will be 
if her bridal day is its true emblem. . . . 'We had 
quite a treat last night in the performance of a com- 
pany in Druidical costumes, makhig exquisite music 
upon instruments constructed of ox-horns, copied from 
the Druidical instruments in the British Museum." 

'• March 16th. Amy has gone to grace the wedding 
of one of her colored friends by her imposing presence. 

George left for C 's on the morning of March 1st, 

and I haven't seen his delectable face since. I am 
thankful to say that everything is working well at 
home. I expect to continue sending you letters as 
long as you stay away. You had better come home if 
you want to stop this correspondence. I have been 
working to-day at your garden fence to keep your 
chickens out, and also to prevent egress and ingress 
between our garden and that of Sefior Deaver. 

"Your peas are just beginning to make their appear- 
ance above gi'ound. . . . The colored Sabbath-school 
is greatly blessed in numbers and teachers, and is do- 


ing a good work. . . . Your friends here remember 
my darling with much interest." 

Durino' this visit of mine to Xorth Carohna, I was 
surprised to find the people of that State almost unani- 
mous for secession, for in my Virginia home the feel- 
ino^ was very much the reverse. After the election 
of Mr. Lincoln, South Carolina had boldly led off 
in withdrawing from the Union, and was followed 
by one after another of her sister States in solemn 
procession — including Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, 
Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Afterwards all the 
Southern States, except Kentucky, which remained 
neutral, followed suit ; and on the 9th of Februarj^, 
1S61, the first seven States formed a Confederacy, and 
established a provisional government at Montgomery, 
Alabama. Jefferson Davis was chosen President, and 
Alexander H. Stephens A^ice-President. 

At this time Major Jackson was strongly for the 
Union, but at the same time he was a firm States'- 
rights man. In politics he had always been a Dem- 
ocrat, but he was never a very strong partisan, and 
took no part in the political contest of 1860, except 
to cast his vote for John C. Breckinridge, believing 
that his election would do more to save the Union 
than that of any other candidate. He never was a 
secessionist, and maintained that it was better for the 
South to fight for her rights i?i the Union than out of 
it. The grand old State of Virginia, whose sons had 
done more than those of any other State to form tlie 
Constitution which drew all the States under one gen- 
eral government, was reluctant to withdraw from it, 
and was among the last of the Southern States to 


secede. South Carolina, after her secession, urgently 
solicited the Federal government for an equitable 
settlement of the rights she claimed as a State, and 
especially demanded the possession of Fort Sumter as 
her only fort for her local protection. In reply to 
this the governor of the State was informed by the 
United States government that the garrison of the 
fort would be reinforced — '• peaceal)ly if they could, 
forcibly if they must." This Avas regarded by the 
spirited secessionists as a call to arms, and they im- 
mediately bombarded Fort Sumter, which in a short 
time was reduced to ruins. President Lincoln then 
issued a proclamation, calling upon the States to fur- 
nish seventy-five thousand men to put down what he 
assumed to be a " rebellion " against the only author- 
ized government of the country. 

Virginia now hesitated no longer. On the ITth of 
April she seceded, and immediately began prepara- 
tions for the struggle which was inevitable. After 
the threat of coercion on the part of the Xorth, the 
South became almost a unit, and the enthusiasm with 
which men of all ages and classes rushed to arms was 
only equalled by that of the women at home. 

AVith his high sense of duty and devotion to his 
State, ]\rajor Jackson had been deeply impressed by 
the startling course of events, which had developed in 
such rapid succession. Some weeks before Virginia 
cast in her lot with the Southern Confederacy, a 
Peace Conference had been held in AVashington to 
devise some terms of mutual concession. The Gen- 
eral Assembly of Virginia had proposed this effort at 
conciliation, and delegates were sent from both the 
Free and tlie Slave States, but all tlivirattein])ts proved 


vain. After the failure of this Peace Conference, 
Major Jackson called upon his pastor and expressed 
these views: "If the general government should per- 
sist in the measures now threatened, there must be 
war. It is painful to discover with what unconcern 
they speak of war, and threaten it. They do not 
know its horrors. I have seen enough of it to make 
me look upon it as the sum of all evils." (However it 
may surprise those who knew him only as a soldier, 
yet it is true that I never heard any man express 
such utter abhorrence of Avar. I shall never forget 
how he once exclaimed to me, with all the intensity of 
his nature, " Oh, how I do deprecate war !") " Should 
the step be taken which is now threatened, we shall 
have no other alternative; we must fight. But do 
you not think that all the Christian people of the 
land could be induced to unite in a concert of prayer 
to avert so great an evil ? It seems to me that if 
they would thus unite in prayer, war might be prevent- 
ed and peace preserved.'' His pastor fully concurred 
with him, and promised to do his utmost to bring 
about the concert of prayer he proposed. " Mean- 
time," said he, " let us agree thus to pray." In his 
public prayers after this, his most fervent petition 
was that God would preserve the whole land from 
the evils of war. 

But while the storm was gathering which was soon 
to burst with such fury, Jackson exhibited no undue 
anxiety — praying only the more importunately, if it 
were God's will, that it might be averted, and that the 
whole land might be at peace. 

In a conversation with a friend he described the 
demoralization of civil strife upon a nation, which has 


since seemed sadly prophetic of the very evils that 
have come upon the country. But liis absohite trust 
in the Ruler of all things kept him from the agitation 
and fear wliieli weighed so lieavil}^ upon others. At 
this time the Rev. Dr. J. J]. Ramsey visited him and 
thus describes his frame of mind : 

" AValking with God in prayer and holy obedience, 
he reposed upon Ilis promises and pi-ovidence with a 
calm and untiinching reliance beyond any man 1 ever 
knew. I shall never forget the manner and tone of 
surprise and child-like contldence Avith which he once 
spoke to me on this subject. It was soon after the 
election in ISGO, when the country was beginning to 
heave with the agony and throes of dissolution. AVe 
had just risen from morning prayers in his own house, 
where at that time I was a guest. Filled with gloom, 
I was lamenting in strong language the condition and 
prospects of our beloved country. ' ^Vh}^' said he, 
' should Christians be disturbed about the dissolution 
of the Union ? It can come only by God's permis- 
sion, and will only be permitted if for His people's 
good ; for does He not say, '' All things work together 
for good to them that love God ?" I cannot see how 
we should be distressed about such things, whatever 
be their consequences.' That faith nothing could 
shake, because he dwelt in the secret place of the 
]\Iost High, under the pavilion of the Almighty.'' 

It lias been said that General Jackson ''fought 
for slavery and the Southern Confederacy Avith the 
unshaken conviction that both Avere to endure." 
This statement is true with regard to the latter, 
but I am very confident that he would never have 
fought for the sole object of })crpetuating slavery. It 


was for her constitutional rights that the South resist- 
ed the ]N"orth, and slavery was only comprehended 
amono^ those riHits. He found the institution a re- 
sponsible and troublesome one, and I have heard him 
say that he would prefer to see the negroes free, but 
he believed that the Bible taught that slavery was 
sanctioned by the Creator himself, who maketli men 
to differ, and instituted laws for the bond and the free. 
He therefore accepted slavery, as it existed in the 
Southern States, not as a thing desirable in itself, but 
as allowed by Providence for ends which it was not 
his business to determine. At the same time, the 
negroes had no truer friend, no greater benefactor. 
Those who were servants in his own house he treated 
with the greatest kindness, and never was more happy 
or more devoted to any work than that of teaching 
the colored children in his Sunday-school. 

At the time that the clouds of war were about to 
burst over the land, the Presbytery of Lexington held 
its Spring meeting in the church which Major Jackson 
attended. These ecclesiastical gatherings, with their 
interesting religious services and preaching, and the 
pleasant hospitalities incident to them, were regarded 
in Virginia as seasons of special social and religious 
privilege and enjoj^ment. Major Jackson was enter- 
taining some of the members of this body, but owing 
to the intense political excitement in the town, and 
the constant demands made upon him in militarj^ mat- 
ters, he found but little time to give to his guests, and, 
still more to his disappointment, none to the services 
of tlie sanctuary. The cadets were wild with youth- 
ful ardor at the prospect of wai', and the citizens were 
forming volunteer companies, drilling and equipping 


to enter the service. ^lajor Jackson's practical wis- 
dom and energy were nuicli sought after, and inspired 
hope and confidence. While the Presbytery was still 
in session, came the dreaded news from Richmond 
that Virginia had seceded from the Union, and cast in 
her lot with the Southern Confederacy. This was the 
death-knell of the last hope of peace. 

The governor of the State, '' honest John Letcher," 
as he was called, notified the superintendent of the 
Institute that he should need the services of the 
more advanced classes of the cadets as drill-masters, 
and they must be prepared to go to Eichmond at 
a moment's notice, under the command of Major 

Having been almost entirely absorbed all the week 
with his military occupations, to the exclusion of his 
attendance upon a single church service, Avhich he had 
so much desired, he expressed the earnest hope, on re- 
tiring late Saturday night, that the call to Richmond 
would not come before Monday, and that he might be 
permitted to spend a quiet Sabbath, without any men- 
tion of politics, or the impending troubles of the coun- 
try, and enjoy the privilege once more of commun- 
ing with God and Ilis people in His sanctuary. But 
Heaven ordered it otherwise. 

A])0ut the dawn of that Sabbath morning, April 
i^lst, our door-])ell rang, and the order came that 
Major Jackson should bring the cadets to Richmond 
immediatehj, AVitliout waiting for breakfast, he re- 
paired at once to the Institute, to make arrangements 
as speedily as possible for marching, but finding that 
several hours of preparation would necessarily be 
required, he ap])ointed the hour for starting at one 


o'clock P. M. He sent a message to his pastor, Dr. 
White, requesting him to come to the barracks and 
offer a prayer with the command before its departure. 
All the morning he Avas engaged at the Institute, al- 
lowing himself only a short time to return to his 
home about eleven o'clock, when he took a hurried 
breakfast, and completed a few necessary preparations 
for his journey. Then, in the privacy of our chamber, 
he took his Bible and read that beautiful chapter in 
Corinthians beginning with the sublime hope of the 
resurrection — " For we know that if our earthly house 
of this tabernacle be dissolved, we have a building of 
God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the 
heavens;" and then, kneeling down, he committed him- 
self and her whom he loved to the protecting care of 
his Father in heaven. I^ever was a prayer more fer- 
vent, tender, and touching. His voice was so choked 
with emotion that he could scarcely utter the words, 
and one of his most earnest petitions was that ''if con- 
sistent with His will, God would still avert the threat- 
ening danger and grant us peace !" So great was his 
desire for peace that he cherished the hope that the 
political difficulties might be adjusted without blood- 
shed, until he was convinced by stern reality that this 
hope was vain. Although he went forth so bravely 
from his cherished and beloved home, with a firm 
trust in God, yet he hoped confidently to be permit- 
ted to return again. His faith in the success of the 
cause of the South, which he believed to be a right- 
eous one, never wavered to the end of his life ; and if 
he ever had a thought that he should not survive the 
struggle, it was never expressed to his wife. Ah ! 
how the light went out of his home when he depart- 


ed from it on that beautiful spring day I But in tlie 
painful separation it was well for us that we could 
not know that this was the final break ing-up of our 
happy home, and tliat his footstep was never again to 
cross its threshold I 

A\'lien Dr. White went to the Institute to hold the 
short religious service which Major Jackson requested, 
the latter told him the command would march pre- 
cisely at one o'clock, and the minister, knowing his 
punctuality, made it a point to close the service at a 
quarter before one. Everything was then in readi- 
ness, and after waiting a few moments an officer ap- 
proached Major Jackson and said : '' Major, every- 
thing is now ready. May we not set out f The 
only reply he made was to point to the dial-plate of 
the barracks clock, and not until the hand pointed to 
the hour of one was his voice heard to ring out the 
order, '• Forward, march !" 

From this time forth the life of my husband be- 
longed to his beloved Southern land, and his private 
life becomes public history. 

After he had taken his departure for the army, our 
home grew more lonely and painful to me from day 
to day, and at the invitation of a friend, Mrs. William 
N. Page (one of the best and noblest of women, who 
had been as a mother to me during all my residence in 
Lexington), I went to her house and remained until 
my husband lost all hoj^e of an early return, when he 
advised me to go to the home of my father in North 
Carolina. I had not a relative in Lexington, but kind 
friends did all in their power to prevent my feeling 
this need, and all hearts were drawn together in one 
common bond of ti'ial and anxiety, for there was 


scarcely a houseliokl upon which had not fallen a part, 
at least, of the same Aveight of sadness and desolation 
which flooded my own home. It was a time of keen 
anguish and fearful apprehension to us whose loved 
<mes had gone forth in such a perilous and desperate 
undertaking, but one feeling seemed to pervade every 
heart, that it was a just and righteous cause ; and our 
hope was in God, who " could save by many or by 
few," and to Ilim the Christian people of the South 
looked and prayed. That so many united and fervent 
])rayers should have been offered in vain is one of 
those mysteries which can never be fathomed by finite 
minds. The mighty Kuler of the nations saw fit to 
give victory to the strong arm of power, and He 
makes no mistakes. But for two years I was buoyed 
up by hope, wdiicli was strengthened by my husband's 
cheerfulness and courageous trust; and when he be- 
came more and more useful in the service of his 
country, I felt that God had a work for him to ac- 
complish, and my trust and prayers grew more con- 
fident that his precious life would be spared through- 
out the war. It was well that I could not foresee the 
future. It w^as in mercy that He who knew the end 
from the beginning did not lift the veil. 



After marching to Staunton, the cadets were trans- 
ported by rail to Eichmond. The day after their de- 
parture, while they were still en route, and had stopped 
for a short time, ^[ajor Jackson wrote as follows : 

"April 22d, 1861. My little darhng, the command 
left Staunton on a special train at about a quarter-past 
ten this morning. AVe are now stopping for a short 
time on the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge. The 
train will hardly reach Richmond before night. The 
war spirit here, as well as at other points of the line, 
is intense. The cars had scarcely stopped before a re- 
quest Avas made that I would leave a cadet to drill a 


"RicmioxD, 23d. 

. . . "The cadets are encamped on the Fair grounds, 
which is about a mile and a half out of the cit\% on 
the left side of the road. We have excellent quar- 
ters. Colonel Robert E. Lee of the army is here, and 
has been made major-general. This I regard as of 
more value to us than to have General Scott as com- 
mander ; as it is understood that General Lee is to be 
our commander-in-chief, and I regard him as a better 
officer tlian General Scott. So far as we hear, (rod is 
crowning our cause with success, but I don't wish to 


send rumors to you. I will try to give facts as they 
become known, though I may not have time to write 
more than a line or so. The governor and others hold- 
ing responsible offices have not enough tnne for their 
duties, they are so enormous at this date.'' 

" Fair Grounds, 24th. 
..." I am unable to give you the information I 
Avould like respecting things here. The State troops 
are constantly arriving. The Fair grounds are to be 
made the place for a school of practice. AYilliam [my 
brother. Major W. W. Morrison, who had held an office 
under the United States government] passed through 
to-day on his way home, and looks very well. He says 
there is great uneasiness at AYashington. His resigna- 
tion was accepted, although they desired him to re- 
main. Major-General Lee is commander-in-chief of all 
the land and naval forces in the State." 

" 25th. The scene here, my darling pet, looks quite 
animated. Troops are continually arriving. Yester- 
day about seven hundred came in from South Caro- 
lina. ... I received your precious letter, in which 
you speak of coming here in the event of my remain- 
ing:. I would like verv much to see mv sweet little 
face, but my darling had better remain at her own 
home, as my continuance here is very uncertain.'' 

While in Eichmond he applied himself diligently to 
the drilling and discipline of the masses of untrained 
soldiers that were pouring into the city. One day a 
raw recruit, seeing by his uniform that he Avas an offi- 
cer, accosted him, and begged that he would give him 


some instruction as to his duties. He had just been 
assigned as corj)oral of the guard for the day, and was 
in total ignorance of wliat was required of him, his 
suj)eri(>r officer, ])roba]jly as ignorant as himself, not 
having explained what he was to do. Major Jackson 
at once went with him around the whole circuit of sen- 
trv posts, taught him all the ''salutes,'' the ''chal- 
lenges," and every detail of his position ; and the sol- 
dier was so impressed with his knowledge, and so 
grateful for his kindness, that he was heard to say that 
" he should always respect that man.'^ It was this read- 
iness to do all in his power for others that gave him 
such a strong hold u})on the hearts of his soldiers. 

Of course, he was anxious to begin active duty in 
some position worthy of his skill and experience ; 
hut his first appointment was a disappointment to 
him, being in the engineer department with the rank 
of major. It ^\as distasteful to him, because he felt 
that he could not render as much service in it as by 
more active service in the field. Some of his friends 
saw that the appointment was not one suited to him, 
and at their request the Executive AYar Council with- 
drew^ it, and he received a commission as colonel of 
the Virginia forces, and was ordered to take command 
at Harper's Ferry. The day after receiving his com- 
mission, wliich was the :i7th of April, when it was read 
out in the Convention for confirmation, a member of 
that bod}^ inquired, "Who is this ]\[ajor Jackson, that 
we are asked to commit to him so responsible a post?" 
'* lie is one," replied the member from Kockbridge, 
Hon. S. !McD. Aloore, '* who, if you order him to hold 
a post, will never leave it alive to be occupied by the 


His next letter was from Winchester, dated April 

27tli : 

'• I came from Richmond yesterday, and expect to 
leave here about half -past two o'clock this afternoon 
for Harper's Ferry. On last Saturday the Governor 
handed me my commission as Colonel of Virginia Vol- 
unteers, the post which I prefer above all others, and 
has given me an independent command. Little one, 
you must not expect to hear from me very often, as I 
expect to have more work than I have ever had in the 
same length of time before; but don't be concerned 
about your husband, for our kind Heavenly Father 
will give every needful aid." 

The first news from him after reaching Harpers 
Ferry was simply a line of Spanish, expressing all the 
love of his heart. The second was not much longer, 
but in it he said : " I am very much gratified with my 
command, and would rather have this post tlian any 
other in the State. I am in tolerable health, probably 
a little better than usual, if I had enough sleep. I 
haven't time now to do more than to tell you how 
much I love you.'' 

'' May 3d. I feel better this morning than I have 
for some time, having got more sleep than usual last 
night. Your precious letters have been reaching me 
from time to time, and gladden your husband's heart.'' 

''May 8th. At present I am living in an elegant 
mansion, with Major Preston in my room. Mr. 
Massie is on mv staff, and left this morning for Eich- 


mond as bearer of despatches, Init will return in a few- 
days. I am strengthening my position, and if at- 
tacked shall, with the blessing of Providence, repel 
the enemy. I am in good health, considering the 
great amount of labor which devolves upon me, and 
the loss of sleep to which I am subjected, but I hope 
to have a good sleep to-night, and trust that my habits 
will l)e more regular in the future. Colonels Preston 
and Massie have been of great service to me. Iluman- 
Iv speaking, I don't see how I could have accomplished 
the amount of Avork I have done Avithout them. . . . 
Oh, how I would love to see your precious face !*' 

In his next letter he advised me to make every nec- 
essary provision for the servants, and arrange all our 
home interests, so that I could return to my father's 
sheltering roof in North Carolina. Up to this period 
he had still hoped that the gathering storm might pass 
over Avithout bloodshed ; but Virginia had noAv adopt- 
ed the Constitution of the Confederate States, thus 
uniting her destiny Avitli theirs, and all hope of escap- 
ing Avar died even in the most sanguine hearts. 

Our serA^ants, under my supervision, had up to this 
time remained at home ; but Avithout the firm guidance 
and restraint of their master, the excitement of the 
times proved so demoralizing to them that he deemed 
it best for me to provide tliem Avith good homes 
among the permanent residents. After doing this, 
packing our furniture and closing our house, my bur- 
dened, anxious heart found sweet relief and comfort 
upon reaching the home of my kind parents, Avho had 
sent one of my young brothers to bring me to them 
just as soon as m\^ husband advised the remoA'al. 


Thenceforward my home was with them throughout 
the war, except during the few visits which I was per- 
mitted to pay my husband in the army. 

Harper's Ferry is surrounded by scenery of rare 
beauty and grandeur. The httle village occupies the 
slope of a ridge called Bolivar Heights, which runs 
along a tongue of land between the junction of the 
Potomac and Shenandoah rivers. The Potomac is the 
boundary line between Mar^dand and Virginia. The 
beautiful Shenandoah, whose signification in the In- 
dian language is " sparkling waters," flows forth from 
the grand and exquisite Yalley of Virginia, along the 
western base of the Blue Ridge, until it meets the Poto- 
mac, when they unite and rush through the mountains 
towards the ocean. Through the great cleft, worn 
ages ago by the waters forcing their passage through 
the range of mountains, a picture of surpassing beauty 
is revealed in verdant, undulating plains, stretching 
far away into the distance, presenting a striking con- 
trast to the wild and gigantic scenery of the fore- 
ground. East of the Shenandoah the Blue Ridge rises 
immediately from the waters, overlooking the village, 
and this eminence is called Loudoun Heights. N'ortli 
of it, and across the Potomac, a twin mountain of 
equal altitude bears the name of Maryland Heights, 
and commands a view of the whole upper valley of 
the Potomac. In consequence of the greatly superior 
elevation of the heights of Loudoun and Marjland to 
that of the Bolivar Heights, upon which the village is 
built, it will be seen that Llarper's Ferry was not at 
all a position that was strong for defence, if attacked 
by an army, unless it was held as a fortress by a 
large garrison, with heavy artillery to croAvn all the 


triangle of mountains that surround it, and to unite 
those crests with each other. Still, it was a matter of 
paramount importance to the Confederates to secure 
and hold this post. The place had long been used by 
the Federal government as a point at which to manu- 
facture and store fire-arms, and the banks of both 
streams w^ere lined with factories and arsenals where 
thousands of arms were annually made and stored. As 
soon as war became imminent, the possession of Har- 
per's Ferry, with its arms and munitions of war, be- 
came such a necessity to the A^irginians that the mili- 
tia companies of the surrounding country resolved to 
effect its capture; but while they were assembling 
for this purpose, the Federal officer in command of 
the place heard of their design, and, after setting ffre 
to the factories and store-houses, deserted the town. 
However, as the factories were saved by the efforts 
of the Virginians, and as they had already removed and 
secreted a large number of arms, he did not inflict 
such a blow as he had intended. Harper's Ferry now 
became the rendezvous of all the troops in the Valley 
of Virginia, and it was the command of these and 
others sent to reinforce them that Avas given to Colo- 
nel Jackson Avhen he received his commission in the 
service of Virginia. Many other companies of volun- 
teers flocked from the valley, all of whom w^ere filled 
with ardor and enthusiasm; but the majority Avere 
without training or disci})line, and many \vere unpro- 
vided with arms. Altogether the force at Harper's 
Ferry consisted of about twenty-live hundred men — 
four liundred Iventuckians and the rest Virginians — 
but volunteers from the South afterwards swelled the 
number to fortv-live hundi'ed men. There were eifirht 


companies of cavalry, and four battalions of field ar- 
tillery with fifteen light guns ; but all was a confused 
mass when Colonel Jackson came as a stranger to 
take command. However, with the aid of Colonels 
Preston and Massie and two cadets whom he had 
brouo-ht as drill-masters, and bv his own tireless en- 
ergy, order and consistency soon took the place of 
chaos and confusion. As matters then stood. Harper's 
Ferry was regarded as the most important position 
in Yiro-inia. Its command was the advance guard 
of all the Southern forces, and it was expected that 
blood would first be shed there, as a large force under 
General Patterson was threatening an attack, and 
through that pass it was surmised the invaders would 
pour into the State. Eegarding it as a necessity to 
the protection and defence of his post, Colonel Jack- 
son had taken possession of the Maryland Heights, 
which towered so far above the village and Bolivar 
Heights as greatly to endanger his force should they 
be seized by the enemy. In his despatches to the gov- 
ernment, he declared his determination, if attacked, to 
make such a resistance as should convince the enemy 
of the desperate resolution of the people of the South. 
From the very first, Colonel Jackson showed that 
reticence and secrecy as to his military operations 
tliat was so marked in all his campaigns, and con- 
tributed so greatly to his success. It was his maxim 
that, in war, mystery was the key to success. While 
in command at Harper's Ferry, on one occasion, he 
was visited by a committee from the Legislature of 
Maryland, whose object appeared to be to learn his 
plans. This dignified body w^as received with courtesy, 
as the co-operation of their State Avas earnestly de- 

156 I'll-l-^ <»!■' (iKXElLVL THOMAS J. JACKSON. 

sired by the South, and some of C'olonel Jackson's 
friends ^vere curious to see how lie would stand the 
test of being questioned upon miUtary matters and 
keep his secrets, while yet showing the utmost polite- 
ness to his guests. After pumping him for some time 
without an}^ satisfactory result, one of the delegation 
ventured to ask directly : '* Colonel, how many troops 
have you f ' lie })romptly replied : '• I should be glad 
if Lincoln thought 1 had fifteen thousand." 

I^pon the formal union of Virginia with the South- 
ern Confederacy, all her forces and armaments were 
turned over to that government. The capital of the 
Confederate States was transferred from Montcromerv, 
Alabama, to Eichmond, a city rich in historic associa- 
tions from the days of AVashington, and now destined 
to be the centre of the South in the momentous struo:- 
gle of the next four years. 

Among the very first notices of Colonel Jackson 
that appeared in the papers was the following : 

"The commanding officer at Harper's Ferry is 
worthy of the name he bears, for ' Old Hickory ' him- 
self was not a more determined, iron-nerved man than 
he. Born in A^irginia, educated at West Point, trained 
in the Mexican war, occupied since at the pet mili- 
tary institution of the Old Dominion, his whole life 
has been a preparation for this struggle. A brother 
officer says of him: 'Jackson does not know fear I' 
Above all, he is a devoted Christian, and the strongest 
man becomes stronger when his heart is pure and his 
liands are clean." 

ihiii of the lirst acts of the CVjnfederate authorities 


after taking possession at Ilichmond was to appoint 
General Joseph E. Johnston to the command at 
Harper's Feny, whose higher rank, age, and greater 
experience as an officer it Avas thought woukl render 
him a more suitable commander for this most impor- 
tant post than Colonel Jackson. Accordingly, General 
Johnston Avas sent on to take command, without any 
instructions to the latter from the government to turn 
it over to him ; and as he had been placed there by 
the authority of General Lee, as commander of the 
A^irginia troops, his fidelity as a soldier constrained 
him to hold his position until he should receive orders 
from the same source to resign it into other hands. 
This Avas an embarrassing situation for both officers, 
but fortunately a communication soon came from 
General Lee, in which he referred to General John- 
ston as commander at Harper's Ferry; and Colonel 
Jackson at once recognized this as official evidence 
that he Avas superseded, and as promptly yielded the 
command to General Johnston. The latter was too 
true and honorable a soldier himself not to appreciate 
the conduct of a man Avliose inexorable and unflinch- 
ing devotion to duty threAv him into a momentary 
collision Avith himself; and, ever after, both their 
official and social relations Avere cordial and pleasant, 
and the superior officer had no more faithful and zeal- 
ous supporter than his predecessor at Harper's Ferry. 
To this change of command Jackson thus alludes in 
his letters : 

'•Harper's Ferry, May 27th, 1861. 
" My precious darling, I suppose you have heard 
that General Joseph E. Johnston, of the Confederate 
army, has been placed in command here. You must 


not concern yourself about the change. Colonel Pres- 
ton will explain it all to you. I hope to have more 
time, as long as I am not in command of a post, to 
write longer letters to my darling pet." 

The A^irginia regiments at the different posts were 
now oriranized into a l)rio:ade, and Colonel Jackson 
was appointed its commander. lie Avrites : '' I am in 
command of the A^irginia troops stationed here, and 
am doing well. I have been supei^eded by General 
Johnston, 'as stated in a former letter, but so far as I 
have yet learned, I have not been ordered to the 
Northwest." He had a great desire to go to his native 
section of Virginia, and devote his energies to rescuing 
that part of the State, and saving it to the South. 

'* I am very thankful to an ever- kind Providence 
for enabling you so satisfactorily to arrange our home 
matters. I just love my business little woman. Let 
Mr. Tebbs have the horse and rockaway at his own 
price ; and if he is not able to pay for them, you may 
give them to him, as he is a tninister of the Gosjjel. . . . 
I have Avritten as you requested to Winchester, that 
if you were there, to come on ; but, ni}^ little pet, Avhilst 
I should be delighted to see you, yet if you have not 
started, do not think of coming. . . . My habitual 
prayer is that our kind Heavenly Father Avill give 
unto my darling every needful blessing, and that 
she may have that 'peace wdiich passeth all under- 
standing !' " 

The next letter touches upon the persistent secrecy 
and reticence in his militarv affairs which has already 


been noticed, and shows that even to his wife he did 
not confide his phms any more than to his comrades 
in arms : 

''June 4th. Little one, you wrote me that you 
wanted longer letters, and now just prepare yourself 
to have your wish gratified. You say that your hus- 
band never writes you any news. I suppose you 
meant military news, for I have written you a great 
deal about your esposo and how much he loves you. 
What do you want with military news? Don't you 
know that it is unmilitary and unlike an oihcer to 
write news respecting one's post ? You wouldn't wish 
your husband to do an unofficer-like thing, vrould you? 
I have a nice, green yard, and if you were only here, 
how much we could enjoy it together! But do not 
attempt to come, as before you could get here I might 
be ordered elsewhere. My chamber is on the second 
story, and the roses climb even to that height, and 
come into mj^ window, so that I have to push them 
out, when I want to lower it. I wish you could see 
with me the beautiful roses in the 3^ard and garden, 
and upon the wall of the house here; but my sweet, 
little sunny face is what I want to see most of all. 
Little one, you are so precious to somebody's heart ! I 
have been greatly blessed by our kind Heavenly Father, 
in health and otherwise, since leaving home. The 
troops here have been divided into brigades, and the 
Virginia forces under (leneral Johnston constitute the 
First Brigade, of which I am in command." 

This afterwards became the famous " StoneAvall Bri- 
gade." The Eev. Dr. William X. Pendleton, rector of 


the Episcopal Church at Lexington, a graduate of West 
Point, hail command of a battery of hght field-guns, 
which was manned chiefly by the young men of the 
college and town of Lexington. It was attached to 
the Stonewall Brigade, in which it Avas known as the 
Eockbridge Artillery. This battery contained seven 
Masters of Art of the University of Virginia, fortv- 
two other college graduates, nineteen theological stu- 
dents, and others (including a son of General Lee), 
who were among the noblest young men of the South, 
and a proportion of Christian men as surprisingly large 
as it was highly gratifying. The very best blood of 
the South was represented among these volunteer 
soldiers, many of them taking the place of privates. 

On the 16th of June General Johnston evacuated 
Harper's Ferry. Doctor Dabney's explanation of this 
movement was, that the Confederate commander 
speedih^ learned the untenable nature of his position 
there, and, having accomplished the temporary pur- 
poses of its occupation by the removal of the valuable 
machinery and materials for the manufacture of fire- 
arms,- he determined to abandon the place. "Win- 
chester, being the true strategic point for the defence 
of the upper regions of Virginia, thither General 
Johnston resolved to remove his army. In his retreat 
he offered battle, but did not think it prudent to attack 
the enemy, whose force Avas very greatly superior to 
his own. In his letters Colonel Jackson gives an ac- 
count of this march. June 14th he wrote from Har- 
per's Ferry : 

"We are about leaving this place. General John- 
ston has withdrawn his troops from the Heights 


(Maryland and Virginia), has blown up and burnt the 
railroad bridge across the Potomac, and is doing the 
same with respect to the public buildings. Yesterday 
morning, I was directed to get ready to evacuate the 
place, and in the evening expected to march, but up 
to the present time the order has not come. I am 
looking for it at any moment, and, as I am at leisure, 
will devote myself to writing to my precious pet. I 
am very thankful to our kind Heavenly Father for 
having sent Joseph [my brother] for you, and I trust 
that you are now safely and happily at Cottage 
Home [my father's place], and that you found the 
family all well. You speak of others knowing more 
about me than my darling does, and say you have 
heard throuo^h others that I am a brio^adier-^eneral. 
By this time I suppose you have found out that the 
report owes its origin to Madam Kumor." 

" June 18th. On Sunday, by order of General John- 
ston, the entire force left Harper's Ferry, marched 
towards Winchester, passed tlirough Charlestown, and 
halted for the night about two miles this side. The 
next morning we moved towards the enemy, who 
were between Martinsburg and Williamsport, Mary- 
land, and encamped for the night at Bunker Hill. 
Yesterday morning we were to have marched at sun- 
rise, and I hoped that in the evening, or this morning, 
we should have engaged the enemy ; but, instead of 
doing so. General Johnston made some disposition for 
receiving the enemy if they should attack us, and 
thus we were kept until about noon, when he gave 
the order to return towards Winchester. Near sunset 
we reached this place, which is about three miles 


north of Winchester, on the turnpike leading thence 
to Martinsburg. On Sunday, when our troops were 
marching on the enemy, they were so inspirited as 
apparently to forget the fatigue of the march ; and 
though some of them were suffering from hunger, this 
and other privations appeared to be forgotten, and 
the march continued at the rate of about three miles 
an hour. But when they were ordered to retire, their 
reluctance was manifested by their snail-like pace. 
I hope the general will do something soon. Since 
Ave left Harper's Ferry, an active movement towards 
repelling the enemy is, of course, expected. I trust 
that through the blessing of God we shall soon be 
given an opportunity of driving the invaders from 
this region." 

" Headquarters First Virginia Brigade, 
Camp Stephens, June 22cl. 

"My dsirlmg esj)osita, I am at present about four 
miles north of Martinsburg, and on the road leading 
to Williamsport, Maryland. General Johnston ordered 
me to Martinsburg on last Wednesday, and there ap- 
peared to be a prospect for a battle on Thursday, but 
the enemy withdrew from our side of the river. Our 
troops are ver}^ anxious for an engagement, but this is 
the second time the enemy have retreated before our 
advance. However, we may have an engagement any 
day. Eumor reports the Federal troops as concentrat- 
ing near Shepherdstown, on the Maryland side of the 
Potomac. A great number of families have left their 
homes. By order of General Johnston I have de- 
stroyed a large number of locomotives and cars on the 
Baltimore and Ohio Kailroad. ... I have just learned 


that the enemy are again crossing into Virginia at 
Williamsport, and I am making the necessary arrange- 
ments for advancing to meet them." 

"Monday morning, June 24:th. I advanced with 
Colonel Jo W. Allen's regiment and Captain Pendle- 
ton's Battery, but the enemy retreated across the river, 
and, after reconnoitring their camp, I returned to my 
present position, four miles north of Martinsburg. The 
Federal troops were in two camps, one estimated at 
about six hundred, and the other at nine hundred. 
You spoke of the cause of the South being gloomy. 
It is not so here. I am well satisfied that the enemy 
are afraid to meet us, and our troops are anxious for 
an engagement. A few days since Colonel A. P. Hill, 
who had been sent to Komney, despatched a detach- 
ment to burn a bridge eighteen miles west of Cumber- 
land. The enterprise was successful. The enemy lost 
two guns and their colors. I regret to see our ladies 
making those things they call ' Havelocks ' [a cover- 
ing to protect the head and neck from the sun], as 
their time and money could be much more usefully 
employed in providing haversacks for the soldiers, 
many of Avhom have none in which to carry their ra- 
tions. I have been presented with three Havelocks, 
but I do not intend to wear them, for, as far as I am 
concerned, I shall show that such protection is unnec- 
essary in this climate." 

"Berkeley County, June 28th. 

..." I am bivouacking. I sleep out of doors without 
any cover except my bedding, but have not felt any 
inconvenience from it that I am aware of in the way 
of impaired health. Last evening, opposite Williams- 


port, one of our men was shot in the abdomen by the 
enemy, but he is still living, and I trust will recover. 
I am inclined to think it was done by a Virginian 
rather than a Xortherner. There is a great deal of 
dislovalty in this county, although it has diminished. 
]\rr. Edwin Lee, son-in-law of General Pendleton, is 
my aid, and Sand}^ Pendleton is my ordnance officer 
and acting adjutant -general. Last night the news 
came, after I had retired, that the enemy had packed 
their wagons with baggage, thus indicating a move in 
some direction. I didn't trouble my command, but 
merely gave such orders as were necessary to prevent 
their approach without giving me timely notice ; but, 
in consequence, I had my rest disturbed, and am feel- 
ins: the effects of it to-day. Yesterdav Lieutenant 
Bowman, of the Eighth Regiment, Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers, who was captured some time since opposite 
Williamsport by Colonel J. E. B. Stuart, of the cav- 
alry, and now in Richmond on his parole of honor, sent 
a letter via here to Williamsport which required us 
to send a flag of truce. All went off well." 

The next letter was written upon a sheet which had 
been captured from the Federals. It was bordered all 
around with an edge of bright red, and at the top of 
the first page, in the left-hand corner, was a gaydy 
colored picture of the statue of Liberty, holding over 
her head a United States flag, and beneath her feet 
were the words " Onward to Victory !" 

" Darkesville, July 4th. 

'-' My precious darling, day before yesterday I 
learned that the enemy had crossed the Potomac and 


were advancing upon me. I immediately ordered my 
command under arms, and gave such instructions as I 
desired to have carried out until I should be heard from 
again, and with Captain Pendleton^s Battery and one 
regiment of Virginia volunteers advanced to meet the 
Fecleral troops. After proceeding to the locality Avhich 
had been indicated as occupied by them, and ascertain- 
ing the position of their advance, I made the necessary 
movement for bringing a small part of my force into 
action. Soon the firing commenced, and the advance 
of the enemy was driven back. They again advanced, 
and were repulsed. My men got possession of a house 
and barn, which gave them a covered position and an 
effective 'fire ; but finding that the enemy were en- 
deavoring to get in my rear and that my men were 
being endangered, I gave the order to their colonel 
that, if pressed, he must fall back. He obeyed, and 
fell back. The artillery of the foe opened upon me, 
and I directed Captain Pendleton to take a favorable 
position in rear and return their fire with one gun. 
His first ball cleared the road, which was occupied by 
the enemy." [It is said that, before firing this first 
ball upon the enemy, the reverend officer lifted his 
eyes to heaven and uttered the prayer, " Lord, have 
mercy upon their souls I''] '' I still continued to fall 
back, checking the enemy when it became necessary, 
so as to give time for my baggage to get into column 
at camp before I should arrive there, as one of my ob- 
jects in advancing was to keep the enemy from reacli- 
ing my camp before my wagons could get out of 
the way. Besides my cavalry, I had only one regi- 
ment engaged, and one cannon, though I had ordered 
up two other regiments, so as to use them if necessary. 


My cannon fired only eight times, while the enemy 
fired about thirty-five times ; but the first fire of Cap- 
tain Pendleton's Battery was probably worth more 
than all of theirs. 1 desired, as far as practicable, to 
save my ammunition. My orders from General John- 
ston required me to retreat in the event of the advance 
in force of the enemy, so as soon as I ascertained that 
he was in force I obeyed my instructions. I had twelve 
wounded and thirteen killed and missing. My cavalry 
took forty -nine prisoners. A number of the enemy 
were killed, but I do not know how many. As I 
obeyed my orders, and fell back, after ascertaining 
that the Federals were in force, the killed of the ene- 
my did not fall into our hands. My officers and men 
behaved beautifully, and were anxious for a battle, 
this being only a skirmish. [The affair Avas known as 
that of " Falling Waters."] I wrote out my official re- 
port last night, and think General Johnston forward- 
ed it to Eichmond. This morning one of his staff-offi- 
cers told me that the general had recommended me 
for a brigadier-general. I am very thankful that an 
ever-kind Providence made me an instrument in carry- 
ing out General Johnston's orders so successfully. . . . 
The enemy are celebrating the 4th of July in Mar- 
tinsburg, but we are not observing the day." 

Upon his return to Winchester he received the fol- 
lowing note from General Lee : 

"Richmond, Va., July 3d, 1861. 
" My dear general, I have the pleasure of sending 
you a commission of brigadier-general in the Provis- 
ional Army, and to feel that you merit it. May your 
advancement increase your usefulness to the State. 
" Yery truly, K. E. Lkk." 


His surprise and gratification at his promotion are 
expressed in the following letter : 

" I have been officially informed of my promotion 
to be a brigadier-general of the Provisional Army of 
the Southern Confederacy, but it was prior to my skir- 
mish with the enemy. My letter from the Secretary 
of War was dated 17th of June. Thinking it would 
be gratifying to you, I send the letters of Generals 
Lee and Johnston. From the latter you ^vill see that 
he desired my promotion for my conduct on the 2d 
and 3d instant. On the 3d I did nothing more than 
join General Johnston. My promotion was beyond 
what I anticipated, as I only expected it to be in the 
volunteer forces of the State. One of my greatest 
desires for advancement is the gratification it Avill 
give my darling, and [the opportunity] of serving my 
country more efficiently. I have had all that I ought 
to desire in the line of promotion. I should be very 
ungrateful if I were not contented, and exceedingly 
thankful to our kind Heavenly Father. May his bless- 
ing ever rest on you is my fervent prayer. Try to 
live near to Jesus, and secure that peace which flows 
like a river." 

In the next letter he alludes to the destruction of 
the property of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad by 
the command of General Johnston : 

..." It was your husband that did so much mischief 
at Martinsburg. To destroy so many fine locomotives, 
cars, and railroad property was a sad work, but I had 
my orders, and my duty was to obey. If the cost of 


the property could only have been expended in dis- 
seminating the gospel of the Prince of Peace, how 
much good might have been expected I . . . You must 
not be concerned at our falling back to this place 
[Winchester]. . . . One of the most trying things here 
is the loss of sleep. Last night I was awakened by a 
messenger from the house of a friend where some cav- 
alry had stopped. One of his fair daughters took it 
into her head that the cavalry belonged to the enemy, 
whereupon she wrote me a note, much to my discom- 
fort ; but the field-ofiicer of the day went over to ex- 
amine into the case, and found the oflScer in command 
was one of his friends. The people here are very kind ; 
so much so that I have to decline many invitations to 
accept their hospitalities. At present I am in a very 
comfortable building, but we are destitute of furni- 
ture, except such things as we have been able to 
gather together. I am very thankful to our Heavenly 
Father for having given me such a fine brigade." 

""Winchester, Juh' 16th. 
..." Last evening the enemy encamped at Bunker 
Hill, about ten miles from us, and this mornmg we 
would have given them a warm reception had they 
advanced, but we have heard nothing respecting their 
movements to-day. The news from the Northwest is 
unfavorable, as you have probably seen in the papers, 
but we must not be discouraged. God will, I am well 
satisfied, in His own good time and way, give us the 
victory. ... In reply to your queries, I am sleeping on 
the floor of a good room, but I have been sleeping out 
in camp several weeks, and generally found that it 
agreed with me well, except when it j-ained, and even 


then it was but slightly objectionable. I find that 
sleeping in the open air, with no covering but my 
blankets and the blue sky for a canopy, is more re- 
freshing than sleeping in a room. My table is rather 
poor, but usually I get corn-bread. All things consid- 
ered, however, I am doing Avell. ... As to writing', 
so as to mail letters which would travel on Sunday, 
when it can be avoided, I have never had occasion, 
after years of experience, to regret our system. Al- 
though sister I gets letters from her husband every 

day, is she any happier than my esjyositaf Look 
how our kind Heavenly Father has prospered us! I 
feel well assured that in following our rule, which is 
Biblical, I am in the path of duty, and that no evil can 
come nigh me. All things work together for my good. 
But when my sweet one writes, let the letters be long, 
and your e.^poso hopes to send you full ones in return ; 
and when the wars and troubles are all over, I trust 
that, through divine mercy, we shall have many happy 
days together." 

He always wrote and talked in the same hopeful, 
cheerful strain, never seeming to entertain a thought 
that he might fall ; or if he had such a thought, he was 
too unselfish to overshadow his w^ife's happiness by 
intimating it to her. With the apostle Paul, he could 
say that " living or dying he was the Lord's," but he 
never expressed a desire to live so strongly as not to 
survive his -wife. From the very thought of such a 
bereavement, his affectionate nature seemed to shrink 
and recoil more than from any earthly calamity, and 
he often expressed the hope, with the greatest fer- 
vor and tenderness, that whatever trial his Heavenly 


Father sent upon him, this might be spared. In sick- 
ness, he was the most devoted of nurses— his great and 
loving heart having not a fibre of selfishness in it, and 
there was no end to the self-sacrifice he would endure. 
Once, during a painful though not dangerous illness 
in his family, after exhausting every means he could 
think of for relief, his anxiety became so overpower- 
iner that he burst into tears, and his manlv frame 
shook with convulsive emotion. Such was the ex- 
quisite tenderness of heart of the man who, as a sol- 
dier, could bear every privation, and on the march and 
in the field set his men an example of the most heroic 
endurance. This mingling of tenderness and strength 
in his nature is illustrated by a letter to one of his ofii- 
cers who had obtained leave of absence to visit a strick- 
en household. A beloved member of his family had 
just died ; another was dangerously ill ; and he asked 
for an extension of his furlough. This was the reply : 

" My dear Major, — I have received your sad letter, 
and wish I could relieve your sorrowing heart; but 
human aid cannot heal the wound. From me you 
have a friend's sympathy, and I wish the suffering 
condition of our country permitted me to show it. 
But we must think of the living and of those who are 
to come after us, and see that, with God's blessing, we 
transmit to them the freedom we have enjoyed. What 
is life without honor? Degradation is worse than 
death. It is necessary that you should be at your 
post immediately. Join me to-morrow morning. 
^•Your sympathizing friend, T. J. Jackson."" 

Among the stores captured at Harper's Ferry, not 


the least valuable was a train of cars on the Baltimore 
and Ohio Eailroad, bound for Washington, loaded with 
horses for the government. This was a lawful prize, 
and was at once turned over to the Confederate army, 
except two which Jackson purchased ; and, hoping that 
hostilities would soon blow over, he selected the small- 
er one, which he called " Fancy," as a present for his 
wife, thinking his size and gait were admirably suited 
for the use of a lady. His name of " Fancy " seemed 
rather a misnomer, for he was anything but a fancy- 
looking animal ; but he was well formed, compactly 
built, round and fat (never " raw-boned, gaunt, and 
grim," as he has often been described), and his powers 
of endurance were perfectly wonderful. Indeed, he 
seemed absolutely indefatigable. His eyes were his 
chief beauty, being most intelligent and expressive, 
and as soft as a gazelle's. He had a i^eculiar habit of 
lying down like a dog when the command halted for 
rest. His master made a pet of him, and often fed him 
apples from his own hand. General Jackson had 
several other horses, one or two being superb creat- 
ures, which had been presented to him, but he prefer- 
red the little sorrel to them all, finding his gait, as he 
expressed it, " as easy as the rocking of a cradle.'' He 
rode him in nearly every battle in Avhich he was en- 
gaged. After being lost for a time, upon the fall of 
his master at Chancellors ville, he was found by a Con- 
federate soldier, and kindly sent by Governor Letcher 
to the family of General Jackson in North Carolina, 
and lived many years in Lincoln County on the 
farm of the Eev. Dr. Morrison, father-in-law of the 
general, and with whom his family made their home. 
Here he was treated to the greenest of pastures and 



the best of care, and did excellent service as a family 
horse, both in harness and under the saddle, and for a 
lono- time was the ridintr-horse of the venerable min- 


ister to his country churches. One of the young 
Morrisons used to say that Old Fancy (as he was called 
on the farm) "had more sense^ and was the greatest 
old rascal he ever saAV." He could make as good use 
of his mouth in hfting latches and letting down bars 
as a man could of his hands, and it was a frequent 
habit of his to let himself out of his stable, and then 
o-o deliberately to the doors of all the other horses and 
mules, liberate each one, and then march off with 
them all behind him, like a soldier leading his com- 
mand, to the green fields of grain around the farm — a 
fence proving no obstacle to him, for he could, with 
his mouth, lift off the rails one by one until the fence 
was low enough to jump over ; so that he was contin- 
uallv getting into mischief. But he was such a pet 


that he was allowed to do anything; and was often 
taken to county fairs, where he was an object of as 
much interest as one of the old heroes of the war. 
His hardiness was shown by his great longevity, for 
he was over thirty years of age when he died, in 1886, 
at the Soldiers' Home in Eichmond, Virginia ; and 
such was still the enthusiasm for the old war-horse 
that his body was sent to a taxidermist to be mount- 
ed. It now stands in a glass case in the library, 
where the veterans, as they look upon it, can im- 
agine that they see again their beloved commander as 
they have seen him so often on the field of battle. 



AYhile General Johnston's movements were going 
on in the lower Valley of Virginia, others of great im- 
portance were being made elsewhere in the State, the 
chief of which was the organization of an army by 
General Beauregard at Manassas Junction, to cover 
the approach to Richmond, the capital of the Confed- 
eracy. This Junction was about twenty-five miles 
from Alexandria, and was manifestly the strategic 
point for the defence of Xortheastern Virginia. The 
United States troops were now massed in and around 
Washington, preparing for an advance into Virginia, 
and all the energies of the Confederate authorities 
were concentrated upon preparations to repel the in- 
vaders. On both sides Manassas was the centre of 
expectation. Generals Beauregard and Johnston were 
acting in concert, and on the 18th of July Johnston 
received a telegram from Beauregard that the enemy 
was advancing in force upon Bull Run, and calling 
upon him to hasten to his assistance. General Mc- 
Dowell, with a large army, was marching forward to 
attack the Confederates with the confidence of an easy 
victory. They had already driven back General Beau- 
regard's advance guard, and seemed likely to carry all 
before them when the arrival of Johnston's troops 
turned the fortune of the dav. 


We will now let General Jackson give his account 
of the movements of his command at this juncture. 
He writes: 

'' On the ISth of July I struck my tents, rolled 
them up, and left them on the ground, and about noon 
marched through Winchester, as I had been encamped 
on the other side of the town. About an hour and 
a half after leaving, I had the following order from 
General Johnston published to my brigade : ' Our 
gallant army under General Beauregard is now at- 
tacked by overwhelming numbers. The commanding 
general hopes that his troops will step out like men, 
and make a forced march to save the country.' At 
this stirring appeal the soldiers rent the air with 
shouts of joy, and all was eagerness and animation 
where before there had been only lagging and unin- 
terested obedience. "We continued our march until 
we reached Millwood, in Clarke County, where we 
halted for an hour or so, having found an abundance 
of good water, and there we took a lunch. Eesuming 
the march, my brigade continuing in front, we arrived 
at the Shenandoah River about dark. The w^ater was 
waist-deep, but the men gallantly waded the river. 
This halting and crossing delayed us for some time ; 
but about two o'clock in the morning we arrived at 
the little village of Paris, where we remained sleep- 
ing until nearly dawn. I mean the troops slept, as 
my men were so exhausted that I let them sleep while 
I kept watch myself." 

After pacing around the camp, or leaning upon the 
fence, watching the slumbers of his men until nearly 


daylight, he yielded his post to a member of his staff. 
who insisted on relieving him, and he then threw his 
own wearied frame down upon a bed of leaves in a 
fence corner, and snatched an hour or two of sleep, 
after which he rose at dawn and roused his men to 
continue their march."^ 

* This Night-watch by the Commander has been celebrated 
in a poem, which appeared after his death, and is said to have 
been written by Mr. James R. Randall, 

" When the command halted for the night, and the officer of 
the day went to General Jackson and said, ' General, the men are 
all so wearied that there is not one but is asleep,' and asked if 
lie should not awaken some of them to keep guard, he replied, 
' No, let the poor fellows sleep, and I will watch the camp to- 
night,' And all those hours till the daylight dawned he walked 
around that camp, the lone sentinel for that brave but weary and 
silent body of Virginia heroes; and when the glorious morning 
broke, the soldiers awoke fresh and ready for action, all uncon- 
scious of the noble vigils kept over their slumbers. 

" The Lone Sentry. 

" Twas in the dying of tlie day, 

The darkness grew so still, 
The drowsy pipe of evening birds 

Was liushed upon the hill. 
Athwart the shadows of the vale 

Slumbered the men of might — 
And one lone sentry paced his ]-ounds, 

To watch the camp that night. 

" A grave and solemn man was he, 
With deep and sombre brow. 
Whose dreamful eyes seemed hoarding up 

Some unaccomplished vow. 
His wistful glance peered o'er the plains 
Beneath the starrv liuht, 


In his letter General Jackson continues : '• Bright 
and early we resumed the march, and the head of our 
column arrived at Piedmont, on the Manassas Gap 
Kailroad, about six o'clock in the morning. After get- 
ting our breakfast, the brigade commenced going 
aboard of the cars, and the same day all that could be 
carried arrived at Manassas about four o'clock in the 
afternoon, without much suffering to my men or to 
myself. The next day we rested, and the following 
day was the memorable 21st of July." 

'' Manassas, July 22d. 

" My precious Pet,— Yesterday we fought a great 

battle and gained a great victory, for which all the 

glory is due to God alone. Although under a heavy 

fire for several continuous hours, I recei ved only one 

And with the murmured name of God 
He watched the camp that night. 

" The future opened unto him 

Its grand and awful scroll ; 
Manassas and the Valley march 

Came heaving o'er his soul ; 
Eichmond and Sharpsburg thundered by 

With that tremendous fight 
Which gave him to the angel hosts 

Who watched the camp that night. 

" We mourn for him who died for us 

With that resistless moan, 
While up the valley of the Lord 

He marches to the Throne ! 
He kept the faith of men and saints, 

Sublime and pure and bright ; 
He sleeps— and all is well with him 

Who watched the camp that night." 



wound, the breaking of the longest linger of ray left 
hand; but the doctor says the finger can be saved. 
It was broken about midway between the hand and 
knuckle, the ball passing on the side next the fore- 
finger. Had it struck the centre, I should have lost 
the linger. My horse was wounded, but not killed. 
Your coat got an ugly wound near the hip, but my 
servant, who is very handv, has so far repaired it that 
it doesn't show very much. My preservation was en- 
tirely due, as was the glorious victory, to our God, to 
whom be all the honor, praise, and glory. The battle 
was the hardest that I have ever been in, but not near 
so hot in its fire. 1 commanded in the centre more 
particularly, though one of my regiments extended to 
the rig-ht for some distance. There were other com- 
manders on my right and left. Whilst great credit is 
due to other parts of our gallant army, God made my 
brigade more instrumental than an}" other in repulsing 
the main attack. This is for your information only — 
say nothing about it. Let others speak praise, not 

Though he was so reticent of his own part in the 
battle, it was well known that his brigade saved the 
day, the credit of which was justly given to its com- 
mander. At one moment it seemed as if all was lost. 
The troops of South Carolina, commanded by General 
Bee, had been overwhelmed, and he rode up to Jack- 
son in despair, exclaiming, " They are beating us back 1'' 
'' Then," said Jackson, " we will give them the bayo- 
net I" This cool reply showed the unconquered mind 
of one who never knew that he Avas beaten, and put 
fresh courage into the heart of hini who was almost 


ready to acknowledge defeat ; and, as he rode back to 
his command, he cried out to them to " look at Jack- 
son '/' saying, " There he stands like a stone wall ! 
Rally behind the Virginians !" The cry and the ex- 
ample had its effect, and the broken ranks were re- 
formed, and led to another charge, when their leader 
fell dead with his face to the foe. But with his last 
breath he had christened his companion in arras, in the 
baptism of fire, with the name that he was henceforth 
to bear, not only in the Southern army, but in history, 
of Stonewall Jackson, while the troops that followed 
him on that day counted it glory enough to bear on 
their colors the proud title of the " Stonewall Brigade." 

Soon after the battle he writes : 

" Mr. James Davidson's son, Frederick, and William 
Page (son of my dear friend) were killed. Young 
Riley's Hfe was saved by his Bible, which was in the 
breast-pocket of his coat. ... My finger troubles me 
considerably, and renders it very difficult for me to 
write, as the wind blows my paper, and I can only 
use my right hand. I have an excellent camping- 
ground about eight miles from Manassas on the road 
to Fairfax Court House. I am sleeping in a tent, and 
have requested that the one which my darling had 
the loving kindness to order for me should not be sent. 
If it is already made, we can use it in time of peace. 
. General Lee has recently gone to the western 
part of our State, and I hope we may soon hear that 
our God has again crowned our arms with victory." 

" August 5th. And so you think the papers ought to 
say more about your husband ! My brigade is not a 


brigade of newspaper correspondents. I know that the 
First Brigade was the first to meet and pass our retreat- 
ing forces — to push on with no other aid than the smiles 
of God ; to boldly take its position with the artillery 
that was under my command — to arrest the victorious 
foe in his onward progress — to hold him in check un- 
til reinforcements arrived — and finally to charge bay- 
onets, and, thus advancing, pierce the enemy's centre. 
I am well satisfied with what it did, and so are my 
generals, Johnston and Beauregard. It is not to be 
expected that I should receive the credit that Gen- 
erals Beauregard and Johnston would, because I was 
under them ; but I am thankful to my ever-kind Heav- 
enly Father that He makes me content to await His 
own good time and pleasure for commendation — know- 
ing that all things work together for my good. If my 
brigade can always play so important and useful a 
part as it did in the last battle, I trust I shall ever be 
most grateful. As you think the papers do not notice 
me enough, I send a specimen, which you will see from 
the upper part of the paper is a leader. ]My darling, 
never distrust our God, who doeth all things Tvell. 
In due time He will make manifest all His pleasure, 
which is all His people should desire. You must not 
be concerned at seeing other parts of the army lauded, 
and my brigade not mentioned. ' Truth is mighty 
and will prevail.' When the official reports are pub- 
lished, if not before, I expect to see justice done this 
noble body of patriots. My command consists of the 
Second, Fourth, Fifth, Twenty-seventh, and Thirt\^- 
third regiments of Virginia Volunteers, commanded 
respectively by Colonels James W. Allen, James F. 
Preston, Kenton Harper, W. W. Gordon, and A. C. 


Cummings ; and, in addition, we have Colonel Pendle- 
ton's Battery. My staff-officers are Lieutenant-colonel 
Francis B. Jones, acting adjutant-general ; Lieutenant- 
colonel J. ^V. Massie, aide; Lieutenant A. S. Pendle- 
ton, ordnance officer ; Captain John A. Harman, quar- 
termaster; and Captain W. J. Hawkes, commissary.'' 

Dr. Dabney says : " It is due to the credit of Jack- 
son's wisdom in the selection of his instruments, and to 
the gallant and devoted men who composed this staff, 
to state that all of them who survived rose Avith their 
illustrious leader to corresponding j)osts of usefulness 
and distinction." A number of other officers subse- 
quently served upon his staff, who deserve to be includ- 
ed in this eulogy. General Jackson continues : 

" August 10th. . . . Prince Napoleon passed here 
on the evening of the 8th, en route from Washington 
to Manassas. He spent the night with General John- 
ston, took a view of the battle-field yesterday morning, 
and then returned to Washington, passing here about 
eleven o'clock a.m. I only saw him at a distance." 

A day or two after the battle of Manassas, and be- 
fore the news of the victory had reached Lexington 
in authentic form, the post-office was thronged with 
people, awaiting with intense interest the opening 
of the mail. Soon a letter was handed to the Kev. 
Dr. White, Avho immediately recognized the well- 
known superscription of his deacon soldier, and ex- 
claimed to the eager and expectant group around him : 
" Xow we shall know all the facts." ITpon opening 
it the bulletin read thus : 


" My dear pastor, in m v tent last night, after a fa- 
ticruino: dav's service, I remembered that I had failed 
to send you my contribution for our colored Sunday- 
school. Enclosed you will find my check for that ob- 
ject, which please acknowledge at your earliest conven- 
ience, and oblige vours faithfully, T. J. Jackson." 

This little note is a revelation of character. It is 
remarkable, not so much for what it says as for what 
it does not say. Not a w^ord in it about the battle or 
about himself — he who turned the defeat into victory. 
In that hour of triumph his heart turned away from the 
field to the poor negro children whom he had been ac- 
customed to teach in the Sunday-school in Lexington. 

In his next letter General Jackson writes : " I have 
received a circular to the effect that two professors 
must return to the Institute at the opening of the 
session, the 1st of September, and that if that number 
do not consent to return, the Board of Visitors will 
designate two ; and if they decline, their seats w411 
thereby be declared vacant, and the board would fill 
them. I declined returning. How would you like 
going back to Lexington in September, and staying 
there for the remainder of the war ? . . . I am glad 
that the battle [First Manassas] was fought on your 
birthday, so 3^ou can never tell me any more that I 
forget your birthday. See if I don't ahvaj^s remem- 
ber it, though I do not my owm. If General Lee re- 
mains in the Northwest, I would like to go there and 
give my feeble aid, as an humble instrument in the 
hand of Providence in retrieving the downtrodden 
loyalty of that part of my native State. But I desire 
to be wlierever those over me may decide, and I am 


content here. The success of our cause is the earthly 
object near my heart ; and, if I know mysel all I am 
and have is at the service of my country. Abou 
this time he wrote to his friend, Colonel Bennett, First 
Auditor of the Commonwealth : 

" Mv hopes for our section of the State have greatly 
bri-htened since General Lee has gone there. Some- 
thing brilliant may be expected in that region. 
Should vou ever have occasion to ask for a brigade 
from this anny for the Northwest, I hope mine wil 
be the one selected. This of course is confidential, as 
it is my dutv to serve wherever I may be placed, and 
I desire to be always where most needed But it is 
natural for one's affections to turn to the home of his 
boyhood and family." 

August 17th he writes to his wife : 

" Tou want to know whether I could get a fur- 
lough Mv darling, I can't be absent from my com- 
mand, as mv attention is necessary in preparing my 
troops for hard fighting should it be required ; and as 
mv officers and soldiers are not permitted to go and 
se; their wives and families, I ought not to see my 
esposita, as it might make the troops feel that hey 
.4e badlv treated, and that I consult my own pleas- 
ure and comfort regardless of theirs: so you had 
better stav at Cottage Home for the present, as I do 
not know how long I shall remain here. 

From the time he entered the army at the begin- 
ning of the war he never asked or received a fur- 


lougli, was never absent from duty for a single day, 
whether sick or well, and never slept one night out- 
side the lines of his own command. 

Auofust 22d he wi'ites : " Don't you wish vour 
espow would get sick, and have to get a sick leave 
and go home, so that you couldn't envy sister Sue ? 
ISickness may compel me for a time to retire from 
camp, but, through the blessing of God, I have been 
able to continue in command of my brigade. . . . 
Still much remains undone that I desire to see effected. 
But in a short time I hope to be more instrumental in 
serving my country. Every officer and soldier who is 
able to do duty ought to be busily engaged in mil- 
itary preparation by hard drilling, in order that, 
through the blessing of God, we may be victorious in 
the battles which in His all-wise providence may await 
us. I wish my darling could be with me now and 
enjoy the sweet music of the brass band of the Fifth 
Regiment. It is an excellent band." 

He delighted in listening to music, both instrumental 
and vocal, but he had so little talent for it that it was 
with difficulty he could distinguish tunes. When he 
learned that the tune of " Dixie " had been adopted by 
the Confederates as a national air, he felt that he ouo^ht 
to be able to know it when he heard it, so durino- the 
first visit T paid him in camp he requested me to sing 
the air to liim until he could impress it upon his mem- 
ory, so as to be able to recognize it. It was a tedious 
service, and became so perfectly ridiculous from his 
oft-repeated command of "again" and "again" that 
it fmallv ended in hearty laughter on both sides. 


In liis letter he continues : 

" Don't put any faith in the assertion that tliere 
will be no more fighting till October. It may not be 
till then ; and God grant that, if consistent with His 
will, it may never be. Surely, I desire no more, if our 
country's independence can be secured without it. As 
I said before leaving my darling, so say I now, that it 
I fight for my country, it is from a sense of duty— 
a hope that through the blessing of Providence I 
may be enabled to serve her, and not merely because 
I prefer the strife of battle to the peaceful enjoyments 
of home. . . • Yesterday the enemy drove in our pick- 
ets and General Longstreet sent me a request to move 
forward with my brigade, and the consequence was 
that after advancing beyond Fairfax Court-House six 
miles it turned out that the enemy did not intend to 
attack, and I had a ride of twelve miles for nothing; 
and my wounded finger suffered from it, but I trust 
with the blessing of an ever-kind Providence, it will 
soon be well. I meet with a number of old army 
friends and some of my classmates, which is quite a 
pleasure The country about Fairfax Court House is 
beautiful As I came in sight of the place, the sun 
was near setting, and with its mellowed light greatly 
contributed to beautify the scenery. I am writing 
under a Siblev tent, which is of a conical form, so 
constructed as to allow fire to be used, having an 
openino- at the top for the escape of smoke; though 
as yet ! have had my fires in the house. The weather 
is quite cool at night. What do you think ^ Tins 
mornino- I had a kind of longing to see our lot-not 
our house, for I did not want to enter its desolate 


chambers, as it would be too sad not to Und my little 
sunshine there." 

From Camp Harnian, near Manassas, he wrote : 

'' Yesterday I received two letters from one little 
jewel of mine at Cottage Home, and 1 am just going 
to read them over and over again and answer. First, 
in reference to coming to see your ei<poso^ what would 
you do for privacy in camp { I tell you there are 
more inconveniences attending camp life for a lady 
than little pet is aware of; and worst of all is the 
danger 3^ou might encounter in such a trip, as the cars 
are so crowded with soldiers. But I would dearly 
love to have my darling here at this time, and think I 
miglit probably be able to get a room for you with a 
kind family in whose yard I have my tent. The 
family is exceedingly obliging, and we could have de- 
lightful times together, as I have to stay about quar- 
ters on account of my wounded finger. However, 
through the blessing of an ever-kind Providence, it is 
now much improved. Should there be a good escort 
coming on and returning, little one can come ; but you 
must not spare any expense in making your trip com- 
fortable. You must hire a carriage whenever you 
haven't a safe and good conveyance, in the event of 
your coming. Last Sabbath Dr. Pendleton preached 
at my headquarters in the morning, and Rev. Peyton 
Harrison preached in the evening. ... If the war is 
carried on with vigor, I think that, under the blessing 
of God, it will not last long, though we may frequently 
have little local troubles along the frontier. ... At 
present it would be improper for me to be absent 


from my brigade a single day, but just as soon as duty 
will permit I hope to see my sunshiny face. The rea- 
son of my changing my advice about your coming was 
probably in consequence of orders respecting a march. 
Within the last three weeks I have had to march off 
several times, but in each case I have been privileged 
to return to my present encampment, where I desii^e 
to stay as long as I am to remain inactive, for it is the 
best encampment I have had. We are blessed with 
excellent water and a good drill-ground. Little one 
can come on with the first good opportunity, if she is 
willing to bear the unexpected occurrences of war. I 
know not one day what will take place the next, but I 
do know that I am your doting esj)osoy 

It was my good fortune to find an escort to the army, 
and I joyfully set out, in compliance with my husband's 
somewhat doubtful permission, to pay him a visit. But 
he was not mistaken in apprehending the difficulties I 
should encounter, as will be seen \)y my experience in 
making this journey through a beleaguered country. We 
reached Richmond safely and without much discomfort, 
but no one was permitted to leave without a passport, 
which the government was exceedingly strict in grant- 
ing to men unless they were engaged in the service of the 
army or Avere going into it. Unfortunately, my young 
man did not come under either head (although he was 
going upon an inspecting tour with a view to finding- 
some position among his friends), so he was refused a 
passport ! Like most of the Southern ladies in ante- 
helium times, I was unaccustomed to travelling alone, 
and my husband was much opposed to my doing so. 
However, after coming so near to him (and yet so far !) 


I could not give up this long-coveted opportunity of 
seeing him, and I determined to venture on my way 
alone. So after telegraphing him to meet me at Ma- 
nassas, I started with my passport as bravely as I 
couk], yet filled wnth apprehension — the cars being 
crowded with soldiers, and scarcely a Avoman to be 
seen. An hour or two after leaving Eichmond, what 
was my joy and relief to see a friend from Charlotte, 
Korth Carolina, passing through the car I I sprang 
from my seat and rushed after him, and from that 
moment my mind was at ease, for Captain J. Harvey 
White (a gallant officer, who afterwards fell in defence 
of his country) verified in my case the old proverb, "A 
friend in need is a friend indeed." My husband failed 
to receive my telegram in time to meet me at Manas- 
sas, and, finding no accommodation there for a lady, 
Captain White was unwilling to leave me without pro- 
tection, and advised me to go on with him to Fairfax 
Station, thinking that point was still nearer to General 
Jackson's headquarters. However, my husband did 
arrive at Manassas very soon after we passed on, and it 
was then too late, and the distance too great for him 
to follow us that night. Fairfax Station we found 
converted into a vast military camp, the place teem- 
\wz with soldiers, and the only house visible from the 
depot being used as a hospital. Not a place to accom- 
modate a lady was to be found, so I was compelled to 
spend the night in the car in which I came up, the 
train remaining stationary there until the next morn- 
ing. One other female, a plain, good woman, who was 
in search of a sick relative among the soldiers, was of 
the party, and Captain White, our kind protector. A 
lady seemed to be a great curiosity to the soldiers, 


scores of whom filed through the car to take a look, 
until the annoyance became so great that Captam 
White locked the doors. The next morning was the 
Sabbath, and as Captain White was hastening to a 
sick brother, he was compelled to go on his mission, 
but he first procured for me a small room, which was 
vacated for a few hours just for my accommodation, in 
the house that was used as a hospital. There w^as no 
lock on the door, and the tramp of men's feet, as they 
passed continually to and fro and threatened entrance, 
was not conducive to a peaceful frame of mind ; and 
the outlook was still more dismal, the one small win- 
dow in the room revealing the spectacle of a number 
of soldiers in the yard, busily engaged in 7naUiig coffins 
for their dead comrades ! I was all alone, and had 
nothing to read, so it can be imagined that the few 
anxious and dreary hours spent in that little place of 
horrors seemed an age, and my relief and happi- 
ness were truly inexpressible when the brightest vision 
that could be to me on earth appeared in the person of 
my dear husband, whom I had not seen for five months. 
He drove up in an ambulance, and, taking me in, w^e 
w^ere speedily driven to his headquarters. Arrived 
there, Ave found his whole brigade assembled for di- 
vine w-orship, and the venerable Bishop Johns w^as just 
about to begin service in a small farm-house on the 
grounds. A delay was made in order to give us time 
to get into the house and be seated ; and all the staff- 
ofiicers, and it seemed to me a host of others, came 
forward to welcome their general's w^ife, much to my 
embarrassment, for I felt most unpresentable after my 
experience of the preceding night. 

The bishop conducted a delightful service in the 


porch of the house, and the soldiers swarmed around 
him like bees, standing and sitting in the grassy yard. 
It was an interesting and imposing scene. The bri- 
gade was encamped on a beautiful hill near Cen- 
treville. and General Jackson's tent was in the yard 
of the farm-house at which he secured lodging dur- 
ing my visit. It was a grand spectacle to view 
from the crest of the hill the encampment of that 
splendid Stonewall Brigade, especially at night, when 
the camp-fires were lighted. I met there for the first 
time General Joseph E. Johnston, and was much 
impressed with his soldierly appearance and pol- 
ished manners. Indeed, the officers and soldiers gen- 
erally made the impression of fine specimens of the 
Southern gentleman, and the grand review of the 
whole of General Johnston's command was the most 
imposing military display that I had ever witnessed. 
General Jackson was justly proud of his brigade, and 
their affection for him was beautiful to behold. They 
all felt so inspirited by the great victory they had just 
gained, and their general's part in it was rehearsed 
with pride by every one who called upon his wife, 
while he, with his characteristic modesty, gave all the 
credit to his noble men. 

He took me over the battle-field of Manassas. There 
was nothing remarkable about the ground, w^hich was 
somewhat undulating, with many open spaces and 
pine-trees. Bull Run is a small, insignificant stream. 
General Pendleton accompanied us in the ambulance, 
and both officers explained the different positions and 
movements of the two armies, and talked the battle 
over in a very interesting manner. Much of the debris 
of the conflict still remained : the old Henrv house 


was riddled with shot and shell ; the carcasses of the 
horses, and even some of the bones of the poor human 
victims, were to be seen. It was difficult to realize 
that these now silent plains had so recently been the 
scene of a great battle, and that here the Keaper 
Death had gathered such a harvest of precious lives, 
many of whom were the very flower of our Southern 
youth and manhood. 

All was quiet in the army during my visit, and al- 
though my husband was unremitting in his duties to 
his command, yet he had sufficient leisure to devote 
to my pleasure to make the time pass most delight- 
f\il\y. We had a nice room in a kind, obliging fam- 
ily named Utterbach, and I took my meals with him 
and his staff at their mess-table under the trees. The 
fare was plain, but, with the exception of the absence 
of milk, it was abundant and substantial. His staff- 
officers were all most agreeable and intelligent gentle- 
men. His cook at that time was a very black negro. 
a hired man named George, who so felt the importance 
of his position as the head of the culinary department 
at headquarters that his boast was : " I outranks all 
de niggers in dis army !" Every moment of the time 
I was privileged to remain was full of content and en- 
joyment, and that camp life had a charm for me that 
I never would have broken myself. But all things 
have to come to an end in this fleeting world, and my 
delightful visit shared this fate all too soon — the army 
being ordered to change its location in less than a fort- 
night after my arrival — and I was sent back sorrow- 
fully to North Carolina. 

My visit was made in September, and General Jack- 
son's next letter was written the 24th of that month : 


" I am going to write a letter to my darling pet esjpo- 
sita^ who paid me such a sweet visit, and whose dear 
face I can still see, though she is 'way down in the 
Old Xorth State. If my darling were here, I know 
she would enjoy General Jones's band, which plays 
very sweetly. We are still at the same encampment 
as when ^'ou left, and I have the promise of three 
more wall tents. Yesterdav Eev. Dr. William Brown 
visited Munson's Hill, and took a peep at the Yankees. 
. . . The Board of Visitors of the Institute met in Rich- 
mond, and decided if the professors did not return 
they would fill their places, superintendents and all. 
Suppose they ask you to go back. Are you going to 
do so, or will you let them fill your chair ? Colonel 
Echols returned this morning, but does not bring, to 
our finite minds, very good news. General Floyd was 
only about thirty miles west of Lewisburg, and General 
Wise was fifteen miles in advance of him. General Lee, 
with four regiments, had gone on to General Wise." 

" Monday morning. This is a beautiful and lovely 
morning — beautiful emblem of the morning of eter- 
nity in heaven. I greatly enjoy it after our cold, 
chilly weather, which has made me feel doubtful of 
my capacity, humanly speaking, to endure the cam- 
paign, should we remain long in tents. But God, our 
God. does, and will do, all things well ; and if it is His 
pleasure that I should remain in tlie field, He will give 
me the ability to endure all its fatigues. I hope my 
little sunshiny face is as bright as this lovely day. 
Yesterday I heard a good sermon from the chaplain 
of the Second Regiment, and at night I went over to 
Colonel Garland's regiment of Longstreet's Brigade, 


and heard an excellent sermon from the Eev. Mr. 
Granberry, of the Methodist chureh, of whom you 
may have heard me speak in times past." ... 

" 20th. I did not have room enough in my hist let- 
ter, nor have I time this morning, to write as much as 
I desired about Dr. Dabney's sermon yesterday. His 
text was from Acts, seventh chapter and lifth verse. 
He stated that the word God being in italics indicated 
that it was not in the original, and he thought it would 
have been better not to have been in the translation. 
It would then have read : ' Calling upon and saymg. 
Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.' He spoke of Stephen, 
the first martyr under the new dispensation, like Abel, 
the first under the old, dying by the hand of violence, 
and then drew a graphic picture of his probably broken 
limbs, mangled flesh and features, conspiring to height- 
en his a2:onizino; sufferino^s. But in the midst of this 
intense pain, God, in His infinite wisdom and mercy, 
permitted him to see the heavens opened, so that he 
might behold the glory of God, and Jesus, of whom 
he was speaking, standing on the right hand of God. 
Was not such a heavenly vision enough to make him 
forgetful of his sufferings ? He beautifully and forci- 
bly described the death of the righteous, and as forci- 
bly that of the wicked. ... 

'* Strangers as well as Lexino^ton friends are verv 
kind to me. I think about eight days since a gentle- 
man sent me a half -barrel of tomatoes, bread, etc., 
and I received a letter, I am inclined to think from 
the same, desiring directions how to send a second 
supply. I received from Colonel Ruff a box of beau- 
tifully packed and delicately flavored plums ; also a 


bottle of blackberry vinegar from the Misses B . 

AVliat I need is a more grateful heart to the ' Giver of 
every good and perfect gift.' " 

" Camp near Fairfax Court-House, Oct. 1st. 
'' Yesterday I rode down to the station, and while 
there President Davis, very unexpectedly to me, ar- 
rived in a single car ; the remaining part of the train, 
I suppose, stopped at the Junction to unload. He 
looked quite thin. 11 is reception was a hearty cheer 
from the troops. He took his seat in an ambulance- 
like carriage, and as he passed on his Avay to the Court- 
Ilouse the air rang with the soldiers' welcoming cheers. 
He Avas soon met by a troop of horse, and a horse for 
himself. Leaving his carriage and mounting his horse, 
he proceeded on his way, escorted by the cavalry, 
about four thousand of the First Corps (General 
Beauregard). The troops belonged to Generals Long- 
street, D. E. Jones, and Philip St. George Cocke. It 
was quite an imposing pageant." . . . 

" Yesterday I saw President Davis review. He 
took up his quarters with General Beauregard, where, 
in company with Colonels Preston, Harmon, and Ech- 
ols, I called upon him this morning at about half-past 
ten o'clock. He looks thin, but does not seem to be 
as feeble as yesterday. His voice and manners are 
very mild. I saw no exhibition of that fire which I 
liad supposed him to possess. The President intro- 
duced the subject of the condition of my section of the 
State, but did not even so much as intimate that he 
designed sending me there. I told him, when he 
spoke of my native region, that I felt a very deep in- 


terest in it. lie spoke hopefully of that section, and 
highly of General Lee." 

'• October 14th. I am going to write a letter to the 
very sweetest little woman I know, the only sweet- 
heart I have ; can you guess who she is ? I tell you, 
I would like to see my sunshine, even this brightest 
of days, ^ly finger has been healed over for some 
time, and I am blest by an ever -kind Providence 
with the use of it, though it is still partially stiff. I 
hope, however, in the course of time, tliat I shall be 
again blest with its perfect use. ... If I get into 
winter -quarters, will little ex -Anna Morrison come 
and keep house for me, and stay with me till the open- 
ing of the camjDaign of 1862 ? Now, remember, I don't 
want to change housekeepers. I w^ant the same one 
all the time. I am very thankful to that God who 
Avithholds no good thing from me (though I am so 
utterly unworthy and ungrateful) for making me a 
major-general in the Provisional Army of the Confed- 
erate States. The commission dates from the Tth of 
October." . . . 

" October 15th. The enemy are gradually approach- 
ing us." 

" Centreville, Oct. 21st. 

'' For several days your esposo has been here, and 
has an extra nice room, the parlor of a Mr. Grigsby, 
who has promised that he will also let me have another 
room for my chamber, and then I can use the parlor 
for my office. He has very kindly offered me the use 
of his library. The walls of his parlor are hung with 
pictures and paintings, including large portraits on 


opposite sides, I suppose of the e.yws-o and esjjom. The 
carpet has been removed, but an abundance of seats 
have been left, two settees among them. Mr. Grigsby 
is apparently a man of much character, and I am very 
much pleased with him. His wife is delicate, and two 
of his sons have typhoid fever, but are past the crit- 
ical stage of the disease, lie has not yet consented 
to my staff moving into the house, probably for fear 
of disturbing the sick. Colonel Jones has resigned 
and gone home, and Mr. Marshall Avent with him. 
They are both nice gentlemen.-' 

" Centreville, Oct. 22d. 
. . . '' I am going to tell you just where your esposo 
is living for the present. Starting from Mr. Utter- 
bach's on the "Warrenton road towards the battle- 
o^round of Manassas, a street turns off to the riofht 
from the Warrenton road. Following the street 
about one hundred yards brings you to a large stone 
house, with four chimneys, on the right-hand side of 
the road. Passing up a flight of steps of nearly eight 
feet brings you into the porch, after crossing which 
you enter a hall about ten feet wide, and you have 
only to come into the first door on your right if you 
wish to see your husband, seated on the left of a 
hickory fire, on the opposite side of the room, writ- 
ing to his sweetheart, or to his eqyostta, Avhichever 
you may choose to call her. Looking around the 
room, you will see upon the mantel a statuette of a 
mother with a child in her arms, an oil painting of 
a beautiful boy, a globe lamp, two candelabra, and 
two vases. Above the mantel are two rose ])ictures. 
On either side of the fireplace is a window, and on 


the left of the fire are a pair of bellows and a large 
shovel. On the right are a pair of tongs, and a hand- 
some feather broom for your esposo to sweep the 
hearth with. So far I have described only the south- 
ern wall. Turning yowv eyes to the right, you will 
see two Avindows on the western wall, looking 
towards the battle-ground of the 21st July. On the 
left end of this wall hangs the celebrated oil paint- 
ino-, ' Beatrice Cenci.' Between the windows is a 
large portrait (as I suppose) of Mrs. Grigsby. On 
the right of the right-hand window is a landscape 
painting. XJpon the northern wall to the left of the 
door is a picture, ' The Evening Prayer,' with the in- 
A^ocation, 'Defend us from all j)erils and dangers of 
the niofht.' Xear this hano-s a thermometer. On 
the right of the door are two other works of art, and 
between them is the library desk, which is kindly 
placed at my disposal. Upon the eastern wall, left 
end, is a picture of 'Holyrood.' Xear it, but on the 
right, is a large portrait of Mr. Grigsby. About 
the centre of the wall is a large mirror — on its right 
is a picture called 'Innocence' — and here is your 
loving husband I 

. . . '' Our success at Leesburg reflected credit upon 
Colonel Evans and his heroic brigade. 

..." I have written to Colonel Preston, of Lex- 
ington, to join me. My desire is to get a staff spe- 
cially qualified for their duties, and that will render 
the greatest possible amount of service to their 
country. Last night, Drs. White and McFarland 
reached here and are staying with me. They are 
just from Synod at Petersburg, and give a very 
gratifying account of things there. Dr. McFarland 


is a noble specimen of character/' Tliis was the Kev. 
Dr. Francis McFarhxnd. Dr. White (General Jack- 
son's pastor) had come at his invitation to preach 
to his command. Dr. Dabney thus describes the 
visit : 

'• They arrived at nightfall, and found the com- 
mander-in-chief on the spot, communicating in person 
some important orders. General Jackson merely 
paused to give them the most hurried salutation con- 
sistent with respect, and without a moment's dallying 
passed on to execute his duties. After a length of 
time he returned, all the work of the evening com- 
pleted, and renewed his welcome with a beaming 
face and warm abandon of manner, heaping upon 
them affectionate attentions, and incjuiring after all 
their households. Dr. White spent live days and 
nights with him, preaching daily. In the general's 
quarters he found his morning and evening worshij) 
as regularly held as it had been at home. Jackson 
modestly proposed to his pastor to lead in this 
worship, which he did until the last evening of his 
stay ; when, to the usual request of pra3^ers, he 
answered : ' General, you have often prayed with and 
for me at home ; be so kind as to do so to-night.' 
Without a word of objection, Jackson took the sacred 
volume, and read and pra3^ed. ' And never while life 
lasts,' said the pastor, ' can I forget that prayer. He 
thanked God for sending me to visit the army, and 
prayed that He would own and bless my ministra- 
tions, both to officers and privates, so that many 
souls might be saved. He gave thanks for what it 
had pleased God to do for the church in Lexington, 


"to which both of us belong" — specially for the re- 
vivals He had mercifully granted to that church, 
and for the many preachers of the Gospel sent forth 
from it. He then prayed for the pastor, and ever}^ 
member of his family, for the ruling elders, the 
deacons, and the private members of the church, 
such as were at home, and especially such as then 
belonged to the army. He then pleaded Avith such 
tenderness and fervor that God would baptize the 
whole army with His holy spirit, that my own hard 
heart was melted into penitence, gratitude, and praise. 
When we had risen from our knees he stood before 
his camp fire with that cahii dignity of mien and 
tender expression of countenance for which he Avas 
so remarkable, and said: "Doctor, I Avould be glad 
to learn more fully than I have 3^et done Avhat your 
views are of the prayer of faith ?•" A conversation 
then commenced, Avhicli Avas continued long after the 
hour of midnight, in Avhich, it is candidly confessed, 
the pastor received more instruction than he im- 

Dr. White Avas Avith him when he received his 
order to go to his ncAV command of the A^alle}^ Dis- 
trict, and after reading it he handed it to his pastor, 
saying : " Such a degree of public confidence and re- 
spect as puts it in one's po\A^er to serve his country 
should be accepted and prized ; but, apart from that, 
promotion among men is only a temptation and a 
trouble. Had this communication not come as an 
order, I should instantly have declined it, and con- 
tinued in command of my brave old brigade." 

To his Avife he Avrote on the ^tli of XoA^ember: 


'* This morning I received orders to proceed to 
AVincliester. I am assigned to the command of the 
militar}' district of the Xorthern frontier, between 
the Bkie Ridge and the Alleghany ^Mountains, and I 
hope to have my little dove with me this winter. 
How do you like the programme i I trust I may be 
able to send for you after I get settled. I don't ex- 
pect much sleep to-night, as my desire is to travel 
all night, if necessary, for the purpose of reaching 
Winchester ])efore day to-morrow. My trust is in 
God for the defence of that country [the A^alley]. 
I shall have great labor to perform, but, through the 
blessing of our ever-kind Heavenly Father, I trust 
that He Avill enable me to accomplish it. Colonel 
Preston and Sandy Pendleton go with me." 

One great trial to him in going to this new field 
of action was that he was to leave behind his " brave 
old Brigade,-' as they were not included in the order. 
An article in the Richmond Dispatch of that date 
thus describes the separation : 

'' Tlie writer never expects to witness a more touch- 
ing scene. Drawn up in close columns stood the sub- 
altern officers and men who had rushed with loud 
cheers into the very thickest of the bloody 21st of 
July day, and opposed with the combined courage 
and discipline of veterans the advance of the con- 
fident foe — tlie men who were all Virginia troops, and 
from that West Augusta to which Washington had 
looked in olden days as the last refuge of indepen- 
dence. Proudly had they vindicated the historic 
fame of their section at Manassas, and now thev had 


again formed to say ' good-by ' to their loved leader. 
The glow which brightened their faces and lit up their 
flashing eyes in the fire of battle was gone. They 
looked like children separating from a father; and 
striking indeed to those who saw those brave men in 
the battle was the contrast in their bearing then and 
to-day. Virginia has reason to be proud of all her 
troops, but to Jackson's brigade she owes her largest 
debt. The appearance of General Jackson was re- 
ceived with not the slightest applause. The officers 
and men he commanded knew for Avliat purpose they 
had been formed, and felt not like cheering. General 
Jackson briefly and feelingly addressed his assembled 
comrades as follows : ' Officers and soldiers of the 
First Brigade, I am not here to make a speech, but 
simply to say farewell. I first met you at Harper's 
Ferry in the commencement of this war, and I can- 
not take leave of you without giving expression to 
my admiration of your conduct from that da\^ to this, 
Avhether on the march, the bivouac, the tented field, 
or on the bloody plains of Manassas, where you gained 
the Avell-deserved reputation of having decided the 
fate of the battle. Throughout the broad extent of 
country over Avhich you have marched, by your re- 
spect for the rights and property of citizens, you have 
shown that you were soldiers, not only to defend, but 
able and Avilling both to defend and protect. You 
have already gained a brilliant and deservedly high 
reputation throughout the army and the whole Con- 
federacy, and I trust, in the future, by your own 
deeds on the field and by the assistance of the same 
kind Providence who has heretofore favored our 
cause, that you will gain more victories and add 


additional lustre to the reputation you noNv enjoy. 
You have already gained a proud position in the 
history of this our second ^var of independence. I 
shall look ^vith great anxiety to your future move- 
ments, and I trust whenever I shall hear of the First 
Brigade on the field of battle it will be of still nobler 
deeds achieved and higher reputation won.' 

'' Here General Jackson, rising in his stirrups, and 
casting Iiis bridle reins upon the neck of his steed, 
with an emphasis which seemed to thrill throughout 
the brigade, said: *In the Army of the Shenandoali 
3^ou were the First brigade ; in the Army of the 
Potomac you were the First brigade ; in the Second 
Corps of the army you were the Fird brigade ; you 
are the First brigade in the affections of your general : 
and I hope by your future deeds and bearing that 
3^ou will be handed down to posterity as the First 
brigade in this our second AVar of Independence. 
Farewell I' For a moment there was a pause, and 
then three loud and prolonged clieers rent the air. 
It was followed by three and three more. Unable to 
stand such evidence of affection any longer, General 
Jackson waved farewell and galloped away. The 
different regiments returned slowly to their quarters, 
and thus ended a scene not often witnessed, and 
which makes upon spectators impressions not easily 



AVe will now follow General Jackson to Winchester, 
which he made his headquarters during the winter of 
1861 -1S62. He had been ordered to the command of 
the Yalley District, without troops being assigned to 
him ; having, as we have seen, to leave behind him 
Jiis chief reliance in battle, his invincible Stonewall 
Bricrade. He found at Winchester only a small force, 
consisting of a part of three brigades of militia and a 
few companies of cavalry, all of which were imper- 
fectly organized and poorly equipped, and with but 
little training or experience. He lost no time in call- 
incr out all the remaining militia of the district, and 
in a few weeks his little army was increased to about 
three thousand men. To the instruction and drilling 
of these new recruits he devoted himself with the 
utmost energy ; and, already forming plans for a vig- 
orous forward movement, he sent a petition to the 
government for reinforcements. In response to this 
request he had the great gratification of having his 
own Stonewall Brigade sent to him, about the middle 
of November, together with the Rockbridge Battery, 
now commanded by Captain McLaughlin. 

The attachment which General Jackson felt for the 
men that had been trained under him, and his pride 
in them, were fully reciprocated ; as one of them ex- 


pressed it : " Wherever the voice of our brave and 
beloved general is heard, we are ready to follow. I 
Iiave read of the devotion of soldiers to their com- 
manders, but history contains no parallel case of devo- 
tion and affection equal to that of the Stonewall Bri- 
gade for Major-General Jackson. AVe do not look upon 
him merely as our commander — do not regard him as 
a severe discijilinarian, as a politician, as a man seek- 
ing popularity — but as a Christian ; a brave man who 
appreciates the condition of a common soldier ; as a 
fatherly protector ; as one who endures all hardships 
in common with his followers ; who never commands 
others to face danger without putting himself in the 
van. The confidence and esteem of the soldiers are 
always made known in exulting shouts whenever he 
makes his appearance." 

General Jackson was so captivated Avith the Yallev 
of Virginia, the more he saw of it in his campaigns, 
that he used to say that when tlie war was over he 
wanted to have a home in the Shenandoah ^"alley. 
and there indulge his taste for rural pursuits, and en- 
joy that domestic life which was so dear to him. The 
beauty and grandeur of the scenery, with its chains 
of mountains, limpid streams, fine forests, dales, and 
fertile fields, were to him charming beyond descrip- 
tion. The people of the Yalley were not unworthy of 
it. They enjoyed the free and easy lives natural to 
those living in a land of plenty, and dispensed their 
hospitalities with grace and generosity ; but it was in 
adversity that their noblest qualities were illustrated. 
Dispkiying a loyalty that death only could quench — 
patience under hardship and toil ; calmness and hero- 
ism amid the storms of war, which destroved and des- 


olatecl their homes and country ; the first to rally to 
the defence of the South, and the last to give it up— 
who can ever do justice to the nobleness and magna- 
nimity of those people of the Yalley ? But it seems 
unfair not to take in the whole of Virginia in this 
tribute, for it was the universal testimony of the Con- 
federate soldiers, from the beginning to the end of 
the war, that the Virginians, as long as they had a 
crust of bread, would share it with the soldiers from 
other States, and that the noble women of Virginia 
never wearied in their ministrations to their necessi- 
ties, especially in nursing the sick and wounded. 

On the 9th of November General Jackson wrote 
from Winchester to his wife :..."! trust that my 
darling little wife feels more gratitude to our kind 
Heavenly Father than pride or elation at my promo- 
tion. Continue to pray for me, that I may live to 
glorify God more and more, by serving Ilini and our 
country. ... If you were only here, 3'OU would have 
a very nice house, the description of which I Avill post- 
pone until after answering your letters ; and if there 
isn't room, it will be deferred for the next letter, as it 
will take nearly a whole letter to tell you how verv 
nice it is. And if your husband stays here this Avin- 
ter, he hopes to send one of his aides for one little 
somebody. You know very well who I mean by 
' little somebody.' 

'' And now for an answer to your questions ; and 
without stating ^^our questions, I Avill answer them. 
My command is enlarged, and embraces the Valley 
District, and the troops of this district constitute the 
Army of the Valley ; but my command is not alto- 


gether independent, as it is embraced in the Depart- 
ment of ]Vorthern Virginia, of Avliich General John- 
ston has the command. There are three armies in this 
department— one under General Beauregard, another 
under General Holmes, and the third under my com- 
mand. My headquarters are for the present at Win- 
chester. A major-general's rank is inferior to that of 
a full general. The rank of major-general does not 
appear to be recognized by the laws of the Confeder- 
ate States, so far as I have seen ; but there may be 
some law embraced in the Army Eegulations which I 
have not seen. At all events, the President appoints 
tliem in the Provisional Army of the Confederate 
States, and these appointments are only for the war. 
As the regulations of the army of the Confederate 
States do not require the rank of major-general, there 
is no pay and no staff appointed for it ; but I ex- 
pect to have two aides, and at least an adjutant- 
general. I am making up my staff slowly, in conse- 
quence of desiring to secure a good one, and some of 
them being at a distance. My promotion places me 
between a brigadier and a full general ; but I don't 
think that either a major-general or a full general 
will be paid any more than $301 per month (the pay 
of a brigadier), but as commander of an army my 
additional pay is 8100, making in all S-101 per month. 
I send you a check for $1000, which I wish invested 
in Confederate bonds, as I think, as far as possible, 
persons should take Confederate bonds, so as to re- 
lieve the government from any pecuniary pressure. 
You had better not sell your cou})ons from the bonds, 
as I understand they are paid in gold, but let the 
Confederacy keep the gold. Citizens should not re- 


ceive a cent of gold from the government Avhen it is 
so scarce. The only objection to parting with your 
coupons is, that, if they are payable in gold, it will be 
taking just so much out of the Treasury, when it needs 
all it has. Give my love and congratulations to Will- 
iam [his brother-in-law. Major W. W. Morrison] upon 
his promotion. I saw Captain Barringer at Manas- 
sas, and his regiment of cavalry presented a fine ap- 
pearance. I send you a letter announcing that Amy 
[his faithful old servant] has gone to a better world. 
The tears came to my eyes more than once while read- 

ing it.- 

The following extracts from letters to a gentleman 
in Lexington will show that he took time to attend 
both to the temporal and spiritual interests of his ser- 
vants, even in the midst of absorbing military occu- 
pations : 

'*■ I desire, if practicable, that my boys shall have 
the opportunity of attending the colored Sabbath- 
school in Lexington, if it is still in operation. I am 
glad to hear that they are both well, and I trust, 
through the blessing of an overruling Providence, they 
will serve you faithfully. It is gratifying to know that 
they are in such good hands as yours. . . . Should you 
not need George, please hire him to some suitable 
person, with the condition that, if in or near town, he 
be required to attend Sabbath-school ; and wherever 
he may be, let him be required to attend church at 
suitable times, as I am very desirous that the spiritual 
interests of my servants shall be attended to. . . . 
I thank you for your kindness in taking such good 


care of my lot. Any expense that you may incur in 
keeping up fences, etc., please let me know, and I will 
settle it. I did not expect to hear of the grass taking 
so well. Please sell the wheat and deposit the pro- 
ceeds in the Bank of Eockbridge.'' 

The new and enlarged field of labor to which Gen- 
eral Jackson had been promoted required some addi- 
tions to his statf , and in consequence he received many 
applications from persons desiring to secure these po- 
sitions either for themselves or their friends and rela- 
tives. In writing upon this subject he says : 

''My desire is to get a staff specially qualified for 
their specific duties, and that will render the greatest 
possible amount of service to their country.'' 

In response to another request his reply was: 
"' Your letter, and also that of my much-esteemed 

friend, Hon. Mr. in behalf of Mr. , reached 

me to-day ; and I hasten to reply that I have no 
place to which, at present, I can properly assign him. 
I knew Mr. personally, and was favorably im- 
pressed b}^ him. But if a person desires office in these 
times, the best thing for him to do is at once to pitch 
into service somewhere, and work with such energy, 
zeal, and success as to impress those around him with 
the conviction that such are his merits he must be 
advanced, or the interest of the public service must 

suffer. If Mr. should mention the subject to 

you again, I think you might not only do him, but the 
country, good service by reading this part of my letter 
to him. My desire is to make merit the basis of my 
recommendations and selections.'' 


He never appointed a man to a responsible position 
without knowing all about him. He would make 
the most minute inquiries. Was he intelligent i Was 
he faithful? Was he industrious? Did he get up 
early? This Avas a great point with him. K a man 
was wanting in any of these qualifications, he would 
reject him, liowever highly recommended. No feeling 
of personal partiality, no feeling of friendship, was 
allowed to interfere with his duty. He felt that the 
interests at stake were too great to be sacrificed to 
favoritism or friendship. 

To his wife he writes from Winchester, November 

" Don't you tremble when you see that you have 
to read such a long letter, for Tni going to write 
it just as full as it can hold. And you wish that I 
could have my headquarters at Mr. Grigsby's ? I tell 
you this is a much better place for my pet. You can 
have plenty of society of charming ladies here, and 
tlie Eev. Mr. Graham, our Presbyterian minister, lives 
in the second house from here, his door being only 
about thirty yards from our gate. This house be- 
longs to Lieutenant-Colonel Moore^ of the Fourth 
Virginia Volunteers, and has a large yard around it. 
The situation is beautiful. The building is of cottage 
style and contains six rooms. I have two rooms, one 
above the other. My lower room, or office, has a 
matting on the floor, a large fine table, six chairs, and 
a piano. The walls are papered Avith elegant gilt 
paper. I don't remember to have ever seen more 
beautiful papering, and there are five paintings hang- 
ing on the walls. H I only had my little woman 


here, the room would be set off. The ii|)i)er room is 
neat, but not a full story, antl is, I may say, only re- 
markable for being heated in a peculiar manner, by 
a flue from the office below. Through the blessing of 
our ever-kind Heavenly Father, I am quite comfort- 
able. I have much work to perform, and Avoukhrt 
have much time to talk to my darling except at night ; 
but then there is so much pleasant society among 
the ladies here that you could pass your time very 
agreeably. I hope to send for you just as soon as I 
can do so. with the assurance that 1 am in winter- 

It can readily be imagined with what delight 
General Jackson's domestic plans for the winter were 
hailed by me, and without waiting for the promised 
" aide '' to be sent on as my escort, I joined some 
friends who w^ere going to Eichmond, where I spent 
a few days to shop, procure a passport, and to await 
an escort to Winchester. The latter was soon found 
in a kind-hearted but absent-minded old clergyman, 
who occupied himself so assiduously in taking care of 
the little Avoman he had in charge that he entirely 
forgot to look after her baggage (a very necessary 
precaution in the upturned and disjointed condition 
in which the country then was), and the result was a 
lost trunk! ^Ye travelled l)y stage-coach from Stras- 
burg, and were told, before reaching Winchester, that 
General Jackson was not there, having gone with his 
command on an expedition to demolish Dam No. 5 
on the Chesapeake and Ohio ( ■anal. It was there- 
fore Avith a feeling of sad disappointment and loneli- 
ness that T alighted from the stao-e-coach in front of 


Taylor's Hotel at midnight in the early part of dreary, 
cold December, and no husband to meet me with a 
glad welcome. By the dim lamp-light I noticed a 
small group of soldiers standing on the sidewalk, but 
they remained as silent spectators, and my escort led 
me up the long stairway, doubtless feeling disap- 
pointed himself that he still had me on his hands. 
Just before reachino: the landinor I turned to look 
back, for one figure among that group looked start- 
lingly familiar, but as he had not come forward, I 
felt that I must be mistaken. However, my back- 
ward glance did reveal an officer muffled up in a 
military overcoat, and cap drawn dov*m over his eyes, 
following us in rapid pursuit, and by the time we 
were upon the top step a pair of strong arms caught 
me in the rear ; the captive's head was thrown back, 
and she Avas kissed again and again by her husband, 
before she could realize the delightful surprise he had 
given her. The good old minister chuckled gleefully, 
and was no doubt a sincere sharer in the joy and 
relief experienced by his charge. "When I asked my 
husband why he did not come forward when I got 
out of the coach, he said he wanted to assure himself 
that it was his o^vn wife, as he didn't want to com- 
mit the blunder of kissing anybody else's esposa. He 
had returned but a few hours before to spend the 
Sabbath in Winchester, and with the hope of my 
arrival upon the midnight stage. 

On Monday morning, bright and early, he sent a 
number of telegrams in search of the missing trunk, 
which, by the way, contained some valued treasures, 
and had also, while in Richmond, been replenished 
Avith numerous new and pretty additions to its ward- 


robe, just for that winter in AVinchester ; and in those 
war times of blockade and scarcity, such things were 
doubly prized. But the telegraj^li failed to bring any 
tidings of the trunk, and forthwith the aide who was 
to have been my escort was despatclied to Eichmond 
in pursuit of it. In a few days he returned with the 
discouraging report that he was unsuccessful in every 
effort to trace the lost piece of baggage. So, giving 
it up in despair, I addressed myself to the task of 
supplying the necessities of the situation. It was, of 
course, impossible to replace the beautiful Richmond 
outfit; but notwithstanding this great loss, my happi- 
ness was unalloyed so long as I was privileged to be 
with my husband and the charming friends I found 
in "Winchester. However, after the lapse of three 
whole weeks, what was my surprise one day to see 
my long-lost trunk safely placed within my room, and 
its recovery was all the more gratifying because my 
good husband, during all those weeks, had not ceased 
to continue the search for it, and his letters to officials 
and friends had proved instrumental in finding the 
trunk securely locked up in Richmond as lost bag- 
gage ! It Avas speedily sent on by express, the con- 
tents found to be intact, and were all the more 
appreciated on account of the deprivation endured by 
their temporary loss. 

My husband was fortunate enough to engage board 
for us both with the Rev. J. R. (rraham, in whose 
delightful Christian family we spent as happy a win- 
ter as ever falls to the lot of mortals on this earth. 
Winchester was rich in happy homes and pleasant 
people, in social refinement and elegant hospitality ; 
and the extreme kindness and appreciation shown to 


General Jackson by all, bound us both to them so 
closely and warmly that ever after that winter he 
called the place our " war home." 

Among the many excellent matrons there were 
two who specially won our hearts — Mrs. Kobert Y. 
Conrad and Mrs. Anne Tucker Magill. These ladies 
were conspicuous for their lovely Christian characters 
— being foremost in all good works, in tlie hospitals 
ministering to the soldiers — and wherever they went 
their lives were devoted to the relief of suffering and 
to doing good. Both were descended from old Vir- 
ginia families, true specimens of patrician blood. 
Mrs. Conrad, even in the decline of life, retained 
much beauty, of brunette style, and in manner was 
a most gentle and gracious lady. Several of her 
sons were gallant soldiers in the army, and her two 
young daughters inherited their mother's grace and 

Mrs. Magill was of the house of John Randolpli, of 
Roanoke, and a sister of Hon. John Randolph Tucker, 
Virginia's honored statesman — a man known not 
only in Virginia, but in all the South, as in the very 
front rank of Congress and of statesmen; and in 
social life a man " of infinite jest," but withal an 
earnest Christian. This family seemed to possess as 
an inheritance the richest vein of humor, in addition 
to high mental endowments. It would be difficult 
to describe the sunshine which irradiated the very 
presence as well as the whole life of Mrs. Magill, 
whom General Jackson designated as '* inimitable." 
I once heard the face of a woman, who united the 
rarest beauty to the utmost sweetness of disposition, 
described as ''a love letter to all the world." This 


would applv exactly to Mrs. Magill, who was the im- 
personation of love and kindness, and her natural 
buoyancy of temperament was heightened by her 
beautiful Christian faith and trust. In her General 
Jackson found a spirit congenial to his own, and so 
admired her bright and radiant disposition that he 
often said to his wife that when she grew to be an 
old lady, lie hoped she Avould be ''just like Mrs. 
Mairill!" She was the mother of mv hostess and 
friend, Mrs. Graham, and when I became a member 
of her daughter's family she said she must adopt me 
as her daughter too, and during all my sojourn she 
lavished upon me the loving attentions of a mother 
to a child. One day in every week our whole house- 
hold dined with her, and I shall never forget those 
deliirhtful reunions. She was blest with several 
daughters, whose cordial manners and sweet nmsic 
made their home charming to visitors. 

I recall a very amusing scene which occurred in 
Mr. Graham's parlor, showing Mrs. MagilFs playful 
humor. A number of visitors, including several 
young officers, were spending the evening, and as 
thev were about breaking up, Mrs. Magill and a 
young captain of artillery began to fight a most 
ridiculous battle— the captain seizing a chair as his 
cannon and pointing its back at Mrs. Magill. The 
fun became contagious, and soon everybody in the 
room took sides, drawmg out the chairs as pieces of 
artillery, amid such noise and laughter that General 
Jackson, who was in his room up-stairs, came down 
to see what it was all about. Taking in at a glance 
the broad humor of the occasion, he said, sharply : 
'• Captain Marye, when the engagement is ovei\ you will 


send in an official report." The uproar of this niirth- 
provoiving scene was heard far out into the street, and 
AYOuld not have been suspected as coming from a 
preacher's house, and yet, if I mistake not, his rever- 
ence was one of the most furious combatants on th(.' 
side of his mother-in-law I 

The Winchester ladies were among the most famous 
of Virginia housekeepers, and lived in a great deal of 
old-fashioned elegance and profusion. The old border 
town had not then chano-ed hands with the confiictino- 
armies, as it was destined to do so many times during 
the war. Under the rose -colored light in which I 
viewed everything that winter, it seemed to me that 
no people could have been more cultivated, attractive, 
and noble -hearted. The memories of that sojourn 
in our " war liome '' are among the most precious and 
sacred of my whole life. It Avas there that I was 
permitted to be the longest time Avitli my husband 
after he entered the army. He Avas in such fine health 
and spirits that, Avith the exception of the Eomney 
expedition, there Avas nothing to mar the perfect 
enjoyment of those three blessed months. 

Xo sooner had General Jackson, Avith his gallant 
Stonewall Brigade, taken up his headquarters at 
Winchester, than petitions came pouring in from the 
loyal people along the border counties of Virginia, 
praying for protection, and this he promised them so 
soon as he could get more reinforcements. In the 
small body of caA^alry Avhich he found at Winchester, 
a conspicuous officer AA'as Lieutenant-Colonel Turner 
Ashby, Avhom General Jackson placed in command of 
his cavalry after consolidating all the companies into 
a regiment. At the beginning of the war this young 


soldier raised a company of volunteers, and during 
the summer cam})aign he had been engaged in the 
first capture of Harper's Ferry, and distinguished 
himself by his gallantry and courage. He was as 
brave and chivalrous a gentleman as ever drew sword, 
and when he received his trust from General Jack- 
son he kept it with unwearied zeal until he fell in 
the cause to which he had given his life. His 
brother. Captain Eichard Ashby, whom he had loved 
with unusual tenderness and devotion, and who was his 
equal in courage and heroism, had fallen by the hand 
of the foe, and this terrible stroke inspired Turner 
Ashby with a fearful resolution to avenge his broth- 
er's death. With his sad, earnest gray eyes, jet- 
black hair and flowing beard, his lithe and graceful 
form mounted upon a superb steed, he was a typical 
knight of the Golden Horseshoe, and his daring and 
intrepid exploits soon shed a halo of romance around 
liis name, and made it one of terror to his enemies. 
The sound of his well-known yell and the shout of 
'• Ashby !" from his men were the signal for a tre- 
mendous charge that was generally victorious. He 
was an invaluable auxiliaiy to General Jackson in 
guarding the outposts of the army — his coolness, dis- 
cretion, and untiring vigilance being as remarkable 
as his daring and bravery. 

Before proceeding further with an account of Gen- 
eral Jackson's movements, a ])rief glance will be given 
at the situation in Northwestern Virginia. The cam- 
paigns of the Confederates in that region had been at- 
tended with disaster almost f j'om the beginning, which 
had been a source of great grief to General Jackson ; 
and his anxietv to be sent as a defender to the loved 


'' home of his boyhood and family " has ah-eady been 
shown in his letters. General McClellan, crossing the 
Ohio, had attacked a small force under General Eob- 
ert S. Garnett, who was killed in one of the first en- 
gagements of the war. After his death and the de- 
feat of his troops, the Confederate government sent 
out a larger force, under General Eobert E. Lee, to 
oppose Kosecrans, who had succeeded McClellan. The 
high reputation of General Lee raised great hopes of 
success ; but owing to the nature of the country, the 
mountains, the condition of the roads, and the superior 
numbers of the enemy, these hopes Avere doomed to 

After this second failure of the campaign even in 
hands so competent as General Lee's, that distin- 
guished officer Avas assigned to a more important 
command, and was succeeded in the Northwestern 
Department by Brigadier-General Loring. Brigadier- 
General Henry R. Jackson and Colonel Edward John- 
son, of this command, had each gallantly repulsed the 
enemy ; but their successes proved to be fruitless on 
account of their forces being too small to hold any 
ground the}^ had gained ; and the enemy having occu- 
pied the counties of Hardy and Hampshire, thereby 
threatening the rear of the Confederates, they were 
finally forced to retreat to a position on the Shenan- 
doah Mountain, forty miles to the rear. 

Such was the situation in the Northwest when Gen- 
eral Jackson arrived at Winchester. And so anxious 
was he to engage in the work of protecting his native 
region that he urged the government to let him have 
the troops under Generals Loring and Johnson, and, if 
his request were granted, that there should be no delay 


in hurrying them at once to him ; and with these rein- 
forcements he proposed to undertake a vrinter cam- 
paign, lie remembered the saying of Xapoleun, that 
"an active Avinter's can'ipaign is less hable to produce 
(hsease than a sedentary hfe by camp-tires in winter- 
quarters" — and seeing the imminent dangers that 
were threatening the country from dela}", together 
with the immense resources of the Northern Army, 
he was ■ eager to do all in his power, feeling that 
the issues involved jiistihed him in making the ex- 
periment. The government ])artly acceded to his 
request, but did not furnisli him with all the troops 
he desired, and so restricted hihi, buth in force and 
authority, that it was impossible for him to accom- 
plish all that he hoped and expected. A letter to 
the War Department will show how much he had 
reflected upon this subject, and what bold plans he 
had formed: 

'•Headquarters, Valley District, Nov. 20tli, 18G1. 

'' llox. J. P. Eexjamix, Secretary of AVar : 

'' Sir, — I hope you will pardon me for requesting 
that at once all the troops under General Loring be 
ordered to this point (Winchester). Deeply impressed 
with the importance of absolute secrecy respecting 
military operations, I have made it a point to say but 
little respecting my proposed movements in the event 
of sufficient reinforcements arriving; but since con- 
versing witli Lieutenant -Colonel J. T. L. Preston, 
upon his return from (leneral Loring, and ascertain- 
ing the disposition of the general's forces, I venture 
to respectfully urge tliat after concentrating all his 
troops here, an attempt should be made to captui-e 


the Federal forces at Komney.^- The attack on 
Komney Avould probably induce McClellan to believe 
that the Army of the Potomac had been so weakened 
as to justify him in making an advance on Centre- 
ville; but should this not induce him to advance, I 
do not believe anything will during the present 
winter. Should the Army of the Potomac be at- 
tacked, I would be at once prepared to reinforce it 
with my present volunteer force, increased by General 
Lorings. After repulsing the enemy at Manassas, 
let the troops that marched on Komney return to 
the Yalley and move rapidly westward to the waters 
of the Monongahela and Little Kanawha. Should 
General Kelly be defeated, and especially should he 
be captured, I believe that by a judicious disposition 
of the militia, a few cavalry, and a small number of 
field -pieces, no additional forces would be recpiired 
for some time in this district. I deem it of great im- 
portance that Northwestern Virginia be occupied by 
Confederate troops this winter. At present it is to 
be presumed that the enemy are not expecting an 
attack there, and the resources of that region neces- 
sary for the subsistence of our troops are in greater 
abundance than in almost any other season of the 
year. Postpone the occupation of that section until 
spring, and w^e may expect to find the enemy pre- 
pared for us, and the resources to which I have 
referred greatly exhausted. I know that what I 
have proposed will be an arduous undertaking, and 
cannot be accomplished w^ithout the sacrifice of much 
personal comfort ; but I feel that tlie troops will be 

* General Kelly was then at Romney with a force reputed to 
be five thousand men, to cover repairs on the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad. 


prepared to make this sacrifice when animated by 
the prospect of important results to our cause and 
distinction to themselves. It may be urged airainst 
this plan that the enemy will advance on Staunton 
and Iluntersville. I am well satisiied that such a step 
would but make their own destruction more certain. 
Again, it may be said that General Floyd will be cut 
off. To avoid this, if necessary, the general has only 
to fall back towards the Virginia and Tennessee Kail- 
road. When Northwestern Virginia is occupied in 
force, the Kanawha Valley, unless it be the lower 
part of it, must be evacuated by the Federal forces, 
or otherwise their safety Avill be endangered by forc- 
ing a column across the Little Kanawha, between 
them and the Ohio Kiver. Admittins: that the season 
is too far advanced, or that from other causes all 
cannot be accomplished that has been named, yet 
through the blessing of God, who has thus far so 
wonderfully prospered our cause, much more may be 
expected from General Loring's troops according to 
this programme than can be expected from them 
where they are. If you decide to order them here, I 
trust that, for the purpose of saving time, all the 
infantry, cavalry, and artillery will be directed to 
move immediately upon the reception of the order. 
The enemy, about five thousand strong, have been for 
some time slightly fortifying at Romney, and have 
completed their telegraph from that place to Green 
Spring Depot. Their forces at and near Williams- 
port are estimated as high as five thousand, but as 
yet I liave no reliable information oi' their strength 
beyond the Potomac. 

" Your most obedient servant, 

"T. J. Jackson, ^Majoi'-Gencral. P. A. C. S.'' 


General Johnston endorsed this letter as follows : 

" Centreville, Nov. 21st. 
" Kespectf ully forwarded. I submit that the troops 
under General Loring might render valuable services 
by taking the field with General Jackson, instead of 
going into winter-quarters, as now proposed. 

" J. E. Johnston, General." 

The Secretary of AVar, in sending General Jackson's 
letter to General Loring, and expressing concurrence 
in the opinion that it would be the destruction of the 
enemy for him to advance at that season upon Mon- 
terey and Staunton, said : 

" In opposition to all this, we have the views of 
General Lee and yourself impliedly given in the 
recommendation to guard the passes through the 
winter. AYe do not desire, under such a state of 
things, to direct the movement above described, with- 
out feaving you a discretion, and the President wishes 
you to exercise that discretion. If upon full con- 
sideration you think the proposed movement objec- 
tionable and too hazardous, you will decline to make 
it, and so inform the department. If, on the contrary, 
you approve it, then proceed to execute it as promptly 
and secretly as possible, disguising your purpose as 
well as you can, and forwarding to me by express an 
explanation of your proposed action to be communi- 
cated to General Jackson." 

In the meantime, while awaiting the result of this 
decision, General Jackson determined not to remain 


inactive, and taking the small force then under his 
command, early in December, he went to work to 
destroy Dam No. 5 on the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal, which ran down the Potomac from Cumber- 
land, Maryhmd, to AVashington. This canal was of 
great importance to the enemy in affording them the 
means of transporting their supplies and troops, 
especially since the railroad bridge at Harpers Ferry 
had been burned. As General Banks, with a large 
force, Avas upon the other side of the Potomac, 
General Jackson despatched his militia to make a 
feint upon Williamsport, while he, with the rest of 
his troops, repaired to the dam, the destruction of 
which was accomplished, but at the expense of great 
personal discomfort and suffering to his men. How- 
ever, they proved themselves true soldiers — many of 
them volunteering to enter the chill waters of the 
Potomac, and working like beavers for four cold winter 
days and still colder nights, Avaist-deep in water, with 
the Federal cannon-balls booming over their heads ; 
but only one poor fellow lost his life from the guns 
of the enemy. Captain Ilolliday (afterwards an hon- 
ored Governor of Virginia), of the Thirty-third Eegi- 
ment, and Captain Eobinson, of the Twenty-seventh 
(all Virginia troops), volunteered, with the companies, 
to f^o into the river and cut out the cribs. This was 
done under fire from the Maryland bank. 

General Loring decided to join General Jackson, 
and with his troops, numbering about six thousand 
men, arrived in Winchester the latter part of December. 
The government did not send Colonel Edward John- 
son's troops also, as Jackson had rcnpiested, and directed 
Loring to retain command of his own forces, but to act 

NEW YEAR'S DAY, 1862. 223 

under orders from Jackson. The enemy having pos- 
session of the towns of Bath, Hancock, and Romney, 
which gave them control of the fertile valley of the 
south branch of the Potomac, Jackson's plan was to 
move swiftly upon the first two named vilhiges, and 
then to attack Romney, which was their strongest 

The morning of IS'ew Year's Day of 1862 dawned 
upon Winchester with all the glory and mildness of a 
spring day, and, the roads being in good condition. 
General Jackson started out with his little army of 
about eight thousand five hundred men, five battal- 
ions, and a few companies of cavalry, all moving for- 
ward with alacrity and fine spirits. Bat the weather, 
which on the first day had been so propitious, on the 
second " suddenly changed to be very severe, and the 
snow and sleet made the roads almost impassable for 
loaded wagons, unless the teams were specialh^ shod 
for the purpose." The sufferings of the troops were 
terrible, as the frozen state of the roads rendered it 
impossible for the wagons to come up in time, and 
for several nights the soldiers bivouacked under the 
cold Avinter sky without tents or blankets. All these 
hardships and privations Jackson shared with the 
troops, and tried to encourage them in patient en- 
durance, and inspire them to press on. His own 
command bore up with great fortitude and without 
murmuring, but the adverse weather had tlie effect 
of greatly intensifying the discontent and disgust of 
Loring and his men, who had from the first been dis- 
inclined to a A\ inter campaign ; and an unfortunate 
jealousy springing up between the two commands, 
caused an immense amount of trouble and disappoint- 


ment to Jackson, and frustrated much of the success 
for Avhicli he had reason to hope. Many of the 
malcontents left their posts on the plea of sickness 
and returned to AYinchester, and taunted ''Jackson's 
pet lambs." as they called the Stonewall Brigade, for 
their foolhardiness in following a leader Avhoni they 
did not hesitate to denounce as rash and severe, in 
drao-crino- men throuo-h a Avinter cam]>aii>:n in such 
arctic weather. Nevertheless, this much-abused man 
and his brave followers pressed on, and at the end 
of a three days' hard march they reached Bath, but 
found the enemy had fled without stopping to make 
any resistance, leaving behind them all their stores 
and provisions. The Confederates pursued the fugi- 
tives, and soon overtook them near Hancock, and 
drove them into that village. Colonel Ash by was 
sent on the morning of the 5th to summon the i:>lace 
to surrender, and was led blindfold through the streets 
into the presence of the Federal commander. His 
name had so often caused dismay and confusion 
among their troops that their curiosity was greatly 
aroused at a sight of the dashing young cavalryman, 
and as they thronged around him he heard whispers 
of '• That is the famous Asliby." The Federal com- 
mander refused to surrender, Avhereupon General 
Jackson cannonaded the town, and speedily drove the 
Federal forces out of it. It was his design to cross 
the Potomac and enter Hancock, but he says in his re- 
port : '' On the 6th the enemy were reinforced to such 
an extent as to induce me to believe that my object 
could not be accomplished without a sacrifice of life, 
which I felt unwilling to make, as Itomney, the great 
object of the expedition, might require for its recovery. 


and especially for the capture of the troops in and near 
there, all the force at my disposal. ... As the United 
States troops had repeatedly shelled Shepherdstown, 
and had even done so while there were no troops in 
the place, and it was not used as a means of defence, 
I determined to intimate to the enemy that such out- 
rages must not be repeated, and directed a few rounds 
from McLaughlin's battery to be fired at Hancock. 
The invader having been defeated and driven across 
the Potomac, the telegraph line broken at several 
points, and the railroad bridge across Great Cacapon 
destroyed, thus throwing material obstacles in the 
way, not only in transmitting intelligence from Rom- 
ney to Hancock, but also of receiving reinforcements 
from the east, arrangements were made for moving on 

" The next day, the 7th, the command was put in 
motion. . . . Before night a despatch reached me giv- 
ing inteUigence of our disaster that morning at Hang- 
ing Rock, where the enemy not only defeated our 
militia under Colonel Monroe, but captured two guns. 
. . . The enemy evacuated Romney on the 10th, and 
the town was soon occupied by Sheetz's and Shand's 
companies of cavalry, which were subsequently fol- 
lowed by other troops. The Federal forces, abandon- 
ing a large number of tents and other public property, 
which fell into our possession, retreated to a point 
between the railroad bridge across Patterson's Creek 
and the northwestern branch of the Potomac, which 
was as far as they could retire without endangering 
the safety of the two bridges. Our loss in the ex- 
pedition in killed was four ; in wounded, twenty-eight. 
The Federal loss in killed and wounded not ascer- 


tained. Sixteen of tliem were captured. After the 
arrival in Romney of General Loring's leading bri- 
gade, under Colonel Taliaferro, I designed moving 
with it, Garnett's brigade, and other forces on an im- 
portant expedition against the enemy, but such Avas 
the extent of demoralization in the lirst-named bri- 
gade as to render the abandonment of that enterprise 
necessary. Believing it imprudent to attempt further 
movements with Loring's command against the Fed- 
erals, I determined to put it in winter-quarters in the 
vicinity of Romney." 

On hearing of the approach of Jackson, even when 
they were over a day's march distant, the Federals, 
though superior in numbers, tied from Romney in such 
haste that they left their tents standing, and much of 
their equipage behind them. In their track of retreat 
they left ruin and desolation everywhere. The dwell- 
ings of the rich and poor alike, the factories, mills, 
and churches were burned or wantonly desecrated ; 
widows and orphans driven from their homes, and the 
torch applied to them ; and even the domestic ani- 
mals — everything that could be useful to man — were 
either taken away or shot down. For fifteen miles it 
was one continuous scene of smoking ruins and dev- 
astation. In his official report General Jackson thus 
alludes to these atrocities : 

" I do not feel at liljerty to close this report Avith- 
out alluding to the conduct of the reprobate Federal 
commanders, who, in Hampshire County, have not 
only burned valuable mill jU'operty, but also many 
private houses. The track from Romney to Hanging 


Rock, a distance of fifteen miles, was one of desola- 
tion. The number of dead animals h'ing along the 
roadside, where they had been shot by the enemy, exem- 
plified the spirit of that part of the Northern army." 

General Jackson's estimate of the value of the 
fruits of this expedition will be shown by a quota- 
tion from his report : 

" On eTanuary 2d there was not, from the informa- 
tion I could gather, a single loyal man in Morgan 
County who could remain at home with safety. 
Within less than four days the enemy had been de- 
feated, their baggage captured ; and by teaching the 
Federal authorities a lesson, that a town claiming 
allegiance to the United States lay under our guns ; 
Shepherdstown protected, which had repeatedly be- 
fore, though not since, been shelled ; the railroad com- 
munication with Hancock broken ; all that portion of 
the county east of the Great Cacapon recovered ; 
Eomney and a large part of Hampshire County evac- 
uated by the enemy without the firing of a gun ; the 
enemy had fled from the western part of Hardy, had 
been forced from the offensive to the defensive — 
under these circumstances, judge what must have 
been my astonishment at receiving from the Secre- 
tary of War the following despatch : ' Our news in- 
dicates that a movement is being made to cut off 
General Loring's command. Order him back to 
Winchester immediately.' " 

From the report of General Loring and his com- 
mand, it seems that the military circles of the Con- 
federacv at Eichmond had been made to believe that 


they were tlie victims of a crazy leader, whose mad 
career must he stopped at once for the safety of Lor- 
ing and his men, if not for the country. General 
Jackson, Avith the Stonewall Brigade, had returned to 
'Winchester, leaving Loring's force, which Avas the 
larger part of his command, in winter-quarters near 
Romney, with the confident expectation that, since he 
had cleared out all that region of the enemy, Loring 
would be safe, and able to defend himself against any 
future attack, and, besides, he was near enouHi to o-o to 
him in case of danger. It can readily be seen, there- 
fore, how inex})licable to him seemed this order from 
tlie AVar Department. In his report he continues : 

'• I promptly complied with the order, but in do- 
ing so forwarded to the Secretary of War my con- 
ditional resignation. Up to that time, God, who has 
so wonderfully blessed us during the war, had given 
great success to the efforts for ^irotecting loyal citizens 
in their rights, and in recovering and holding territory 
in this district which had been overrun by the enemy. 
It is true that our success caused much exposure and 
suffering to the command. Several nights the troops 
had to bivouac, notwithstanding the inclemency of the 
weather, their tents not coming up on account of the 
bad condition of the roads ; yet every command, except 
part of General Loring's, bore up under these hardshi])s 
with the fortitude becoming patriotic soldiers. 

. . . '* General Loring's evacuation of Eomney and 
return to the vicinitv of Winchester was the beo'innimi: 
of disasters. The enemy, who up to that time had been 
acting on the defensive, suddenly changed to the offen- 
sive and advanced on Eomney ; next, drove our troops 


out of Moorefield on the 12th of this month [Febru- 
ary] ; two days after forced our mihtia from Bloomery 
Pass, thus coming to within twenty-one miles of Win- 
chester, and capturino- a number of prisoners." 

Perhaps the honorable Secretary of War was, in 
his turn, somewhat surprised at receiving the follow- 
ing reply to his peremptory order to General Jackson : 

" Headquarters, Valley District, Jan. 31st, 18G2. 
'' Hon. J. P. Bexjamin : 

'' Sir, — Your order requiring me to direct General 
Loring to return with his command to Winchester 
has been received and promptly complied with. With 
such interference in my command, I cannot expect to 
be of much service in the field, and I accordingly re- 
spectfully request to be ordered to report for duty to 
the Superintendent of the Virginia Military Institute 
at Lexington, as has been done in the case of other 
professors. Should this application not be granted, I 
respectfully request that the President will accept my 
resignation from the army. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" T. J. Jackson, 
" Major-General, P. A. C. S." 

This letter was, of course, submitted to General 
Johnston, the chief commander of the department, 
who, in forwarding it, wrote upon it this endorsement : 

'' Headquarters, Cextreyille, Feb. 7tb, 1862. 
" Eespectfully forwarded with great regret. I don't 
know how the loss of this officer can be supplied. 
General officers are much wanted in this department. 

'' J. E. Johnston, General." 


General Jolinston iilso wrote the following letter to 
General Jackson : 

" FebrufiiT 3d. 

" Major-General Jackson : 

'' My dear Friend, — I have just read, and with pro- 
found regret, your letter of January 31st to the Secre- 
tary of War asking to be relieved from your present 
command, either by an order to the Virginia Military 
Institute or the acceptance of your resignation. Let 
me beg you to reconsider this matter. Under ordi- 
nary circumstances, a due sense of one's own dignity, 
as well as care for professional character and official 
rights, would demand such a course as yours ; but the 
character of this war, the great energy exhibited by 
the government of the United States, the danger in 
which our very existence as an independent people 
lies, require sacrifices from us all who have been edu- 
cated as soldiers. I receive my information of the 
order of which you have such cause to complain from 
your letter. Is not that as great an official wrong to 
me as the order itself is to you? Let us dispassion- 
ately reason with the government on this subject of 
command, and if we fail to influence its practice, then 
ask to be relieved from positions the authority of 
which is exercised b}^ the War Department while the 
responsibilities are left to us. I liave taken the liber- 
ty to detain your letter to make this appeal to your 
patriotism, not merely from warm feelings of personal 
regard, but from the official opinion which makes me 
regard you as necessary to the service of the country 
in your present position. 

'^ Very truly yours, 

'* J. E. Johnston.'' 


General Jackson also addressed the following note 
to General Johnston's adjutant-general : 

" Headquarters, Valley District, Feb. 1st, 1862. 
'' Major Thomas G. Khett, Assistant Adjutant-General : 
" Major,— The Secretary of War stated, in the order 
requiring General Loring's command to fall back to 
this place immediately, that he had been informed that 
the command was in danger of being cut off. Such 
danger, I am well satisfied, does not exist, nor did it, 
in my opinion, exist at the time the order Avas given, 
and I therefore respectfully recommend that the order 
be countermanded, and that General Loring be re- 
quired to return with his command to the vicinity of 

" Eespect fully, 

" T. J. Jackson, 
" Major-General, P. A. C. S., commanding." 

" Endorsement : 

" Centreville, Feb. 6tb, 1862. 

" Kespectfully referred to the Secretary of War, 
whose orders I cannot countermand. 

" J. E. Johnston, General." 

In his late expedition. General Jackson had received 
but little aid from the government. The disaffection 
of General Loring and his men had been enough to dis- 
courage and seriously affect the success of the enter- 
prise. Jackson had endured with his command all the 
rigors and hardships of an exceptionally severe winter. 
And yet, in the face of all these obstacles, he had with 
his heroic little band succeeded in driving the enemy 


from every point he liacl attacked, and had recovered 
his entire district. AVhen it was urged upon him that 
he should be wiUing to make sacrifices to serve his 
country in her time of sore need, he exclaimed : '' Sac- 
rifices I liave I not made them ? What is my life here 
but a daily sacritice ? Xor shall I ever withhold sacri- 
fices for my country, where they avail anything. I 
intend to serve her anywhere, in any way in which I 
am jDermitted to do it with effect, even if it be as a 
private soldier. But if this method of making war is 
to prevail, which they seek to establish in my case, the 
country is ruined. My duty to her requires that I 
shall utter my protest against it in the most energetic 
form in m}^ power, and that is to resign." He also 
wrote to Governor Letcher, requesting him to use his 
influence in having him ordered back to the Institute, 
saying the order from the War Department "Avas 
given without consulting me, and is abandoning to the 
enemy what has cost much preparation, expense, and 
exposure to secure, and is in direct conflict with my 
military plans, and implies a want of confidence in my 
capacity to judge when General Loring's troops should 
fall back, and is an attempt to control military opera- 
tions in detail from the Secretary's desk at a distance. 
I have, for the reasons set forth in the accompanying 
paper, requested to be ordered back to the Institute, 
and if this is denied me, then to have my resignation 
accepted. I ask as a special favor that you will have 
me ordered back to the Institute. As a single order 
like that of the Secretary's may destroy the entire 
fruits of a campaign, I cannot reasonably expect, if 
my operations are thus to be interfered with, to be of 
much service in the field. A sense of duty brought 


me into the field, and has thus far kept me. It now 
appears to be my duty to return to the Institute, and 
I hope that you will leave no stone unturned to get 
me there. If I ever acquired, through the blessing of 
Providence, any influence over troops, this undoing my 
work by the Secretary may greatly diminish that in- 
fluence. I regard the recent expedition as a great suc- 
cess. ... I desire to say nothing against the Secre- 
tary of War. I take it for granted that he has done 
what he believes to be best, but I regard such a policy 
as ruinous. 

'' Yery truly your friend, 

"T. J. Jackson." 

A gentleman who had an interview with him at 
this critical moment thus gives the result : " Xever 
can I forget an interview held with him the night 
that he forwarded his resignation. When urged to 
withhold it, upon the ground that the country could 
not spare his services — that his name was alike a ter- 
ror to our enemies and a tower of strength to our 
cause, insj^iring confidence and arousing enthusiasm, 
even among the doubtful and wavering — 'Xo, no,' 
said he, ' you greatly overestimate my capacity for use- 
fulness. A better man will soon be sent to take my 
place. The government have no confidence in my 
capacity, or they would not thus countermand my 
orders, and throw away the fruits of victory that have 
been secured at such a sacrifice of the comfort of my 
noble troops in their hurried march through the storm 
of snow and sleet. No, sir, I must resign, and give 
my place to some one in whom they have more confi- 
dence.' " 


"When urged that perhaps the government had been 
misinformed as to the facts, he responded : 

" Certainly they have ; but they must be taught not 
to act so hastily without a full knowledge of the facts. 
I can teach them this lesson now by my resignation, 
and the country Avill be no loser by it. If I fail to do 
so, an irreparable loss may hereafter be sustained, 
when the lesson might have to be taught by a Lee or 
Johnston.'' This was nearly his exact language, as we 
well remember it. But little he knew that when his 
services were lost to the cause — or, as General Lee 
afterwards expressed it, that he had lost his right arm 
— the whole army would be paralyzed, and the cause 
itself lost. But our far-seeing and sagacious governor 
knew the worth of Stonewall Jackson to the army, 
and wrote at once, begging him to reconsider his de- 
cision, and sent one of his most influential officials to 
remonstrate with him in person against his leaving the 
army. The same protests poured in from other quar- 
ters, from persons of all grades, both in public and 
private life, among them some aged ministers of the 
Gospel — all imploring him to withdraw his resignation. 
In reply to a second letter from Governor Letcher, he 
wrote : 

"Winchester, Feb. 6th, 1862. 

" His Excellency John Letcher, Governor of Yirmnia : 
" Governor, — Your letter of the ith instant was re- 
ceived this morning. If my retiring from the army 
would produce tliat effect upon our country which you 
have named in your letter, I, of course, would not de- 
sire to leave the service ; and if, upon the receipt of this 
note, your o]iinion remains unchanged, you are author- 
ized to withdraw my resignation, unless the Secretary 


of War desires that it should be accepted. My reasons 
for resigning were set forth in my letter of the 31st 
ultimo, and my views remain unchanged ; and if the 
Secretary persists in the ruinous policy complained of, 
I feel that no officer can serve his country better than 
by making his strongest possible protest against it, 
which, in my opinion, is done by tendering his resigna- 
tion, rather than be a wilful instrument in prosecuting 
the war upon a ruinous principle. I am much obliged 
to you for requesting that I should be ordered to the 

" Yery truly your friend, 

" T. J. Jackson.'' 

Upon receiving assurances from the government 
that it did not intend to interfere with his military 
plans. Governor Letcher deemed it best to Avithdraw 
his resignation in the name of Virginia ; and to this 
he yielded with true soldierly obedience, and it was 
thus that Stonewall Jackson was preserved to the 

KERXSTOWX, Mcdowell, and Winchester— 1 862. 

After all the hardships and trials of the late ex- 
pedition, General Jackson returned from Romney to 
"Winchester so full of animation and high spirits, gal- 
loping along on his little sorrel with such speed through 
the mud and slush, that one of his elder staff-officers 
laughingly said to him : '' AVell, general, / am not so 
anxious to see Mrs. Jackson as to break my neck keep- 
ing up with you, and with your permission I shall fall 
back and take it more leisurely." As they were not 
in pursuit of the enemy, the request was granted, and 
this officer, with some others, did not reach AVinches- 
ter until the day following, Avhile General Jackson, 
with tlie younger members of the staff, rode the whole 
forty miles in one short winter day. After going to 
a hotel and divesting himself of the mud which had 
bespattered him in his rapid ride, and making as per- 
fect a toilet as possible, he rang the door-bell of Mr. 
Graham, who admitted him, and in another moment 
he came bounding into the sitting-room as joyous and 
fresh as a schoolboy, to give his wife a surprise, for 
he had not intimated when he would return. As soon 
as the first glad greetings w^ere over, before taking his 
seat, with a face all aglow Avith delight, he glanced 
around the room, and was so impressed with the cosy 
and cheerful aspect of Mr. Graham's fireside, as we all 


sat round it that winter evening, that he exclaimed : 
" Oh ! this is the very essence of comfort /" The bright 
picture of home-life was exceedingly refreshing to him 
after all the discomfort and exposure through which 
he had passed since he left us three weeks before. He 
never looked better and more radiant than on that 
evening. Mr. Graham had an interesting little family 
of children, who afforded him much pleasure, and it 
was the special privilege of one of the little boys to 
ride down-stairs in the mornings upon the back of the 
general, the performance provoking as much glee on 
his part as it did on that of the child.'-^ 

In making tlie trip from Eomney, he was more than 
ever charmed with '^ Little Sorrel," whose powers of 
endurance proved quite remarkable. After bearing 
him along with so much fleetness and comfort, he said 
the horse seemed almost as fresh and unwearied at the 
end of the journey as at the beginning. 

When the Loring troubles came, and General Jack- 
son thought he might be ordered back to the Institute, 
the anticipation of returning home gave him unbound- 
ed happiness— the only consideration marring it being 
a feeling that his paramount duty was to be in the 
field when his country was in danger. Duty alone con- 
strained him to forego the happiness and comforts of his 
beloved home for the daily hardships of a soldier's life. 

For the next month after his return he remained 
quietly in Winchester. After Loring^s evacuation of 
Eomney the Federal troops again took possession, and 

* It is an interesting item of the fomily liistory that the little 
youngster who was thus honored, when he grew to manhood, be- 
came a minister of the Gospel, and, as the Hev. Alfred T. Graham, 
was married to Miss Isabel Irwin, a niece of Mrs. Jackson. 


spread in such numbers along the border as to threat- 
en Winchester on ev^ery side ; and the difficulties of 
General Jackson's position Avere greatly enhanced by 
a diminution of his small army, Loring and all his 
troops that were not Virginians having been or- 
dered elsewhere ; and in order to induce re-enlist- 
ment, furloughs had Ijeen freely granted ; so that, 
at the time of the most imminent danger. General 
Jackson's force was reduced to about four thousand 
effective men, exclusive of militia. He informed the 
commander-in-chief that his position required at least 
nine thousand men for its defence, threatened as it was 
by Banks on one side and Lauder on the other. But as 
Johnston was himself preparing to retreat before the 
advance of McClellan, he had no troops to spare. To 
a friend in the Confederate Congress Jackson wrote : 

''"What I desire is, to hold the country as far as 
practicable until we are in a condition to advance ; 
and then, with God's blessing, let us make thorough 
work of it. But let us start right. ... In regard to 
your question as to how many troops I need, you will 
probably be able to form some idea when I tell you. 
that Banks, who commands about thirty-five thousand, 
has his headquarters in Charleston, and that Kelly, 
who has succeeded Lander, has probably eleven thou- 
sand, with his headquarters near Paw -Paw. Thus 
you see two generals, whose united force is near forty- 
six thousand troops, already organized for three years 
or the war, opposed to our little force here ; but I 
do not feel discouraged. Let me have what force 
you can. McClellan, as I learn, was at Charleston on 
Friday last; there may be something significant in 


this. You observe, then, the impossibility of saying 
how many troops I shall require, since it is impossible 
for nie to know how many will invade us. I am de- 
lighted to hear j^ou say Virginia is resolved to conse- 
crate all her resources, if necessary, to the defence of 
herself. IN'ow we may look for war in earnest. You 
ask me for a letter respecting the Yalley. I am well 
satisfied that you can say much more about it than I 
can, and in much more forcible terms. I have only to 
say this, that if this valley is lost, Virginia is lost. 

*' Yery truly your friend, T. J. Jackson." 

Jackson meanwhile remained at Winchester, watch- 
ing closely the advance of Banks, and doing what was 
possible to impede it. General Johnston thus describes 
the duty assigned to him : " After it had become evi- 
dent that the Yalley Avas to be invaded by an army 
too strong to be encountered by Jackson's division, 
that officer was instructed to endeavor to employ the 
invaders in the Yalley, but without exposing himself 
to the danger of defeat, by keeping so near the enemy 
as to keep him from making any considerable detach- 
ment to reinforce McClellan, but not so near that he 
might be compelled to fight." General Jackson sent 
his stores, baggage, and the sick to the rear, but con- 
tinued to hold his position to the last moment. Early 
in March, when he found that he would be compelled 
to retire from Winchester, although his heart was 
yearning to stay and defend the place, he thought it 
was no longer safe for me to remain, and I was sent 
away on the same train which conveyed the sick to a 
place of safety. In the midst of all this terrible men- 
tal strain my husband maintained the most perfect 


self-control and cheerfulness, throwing off (^when in 
my presence at least) the heavy burden under which 
he labored — talking as little as j^ossible about military 
matters, and showing much of his old home playful- 
ness and abandon. lie told me tliat when his ''sun- 
shine*' was gone out of the room which had been to 
us the holy of hohes on earth that winter, he never 
wanted to enter it again; and yet to the last mo- 
ment he lingered at the door of the coach in which I 
left Avith bright smiles, and not a cloud upon his peace- 
ful brow. For thirteen months we did not meet again. 

Xever, as long as life lasts, can I forget the harrow- 
ing scenes of that day upon Avhich I left Winchester. 
Many of the poor soldiers looked as if they were almost 
at the point of death. Some were so helpless that they 
had to be carried on the backs of their comrades — their 
pale, emaciated, and despairing faces and moans of suf- 
fering being pitiful and heart-moving beyond descrip- 
tion. At Manassas there w^as a delay of an hour or 
more in transferring them to another train, and as I 
sat and watched that procession of concentrated mis- 
ery, with my own lieart so heavy and anxious, I was 
never so impressed with tlie horrors of war. 

Xo i^y of sunshine lightened the gloom. As I jour- 
neyed sadly along, my attention was attracted by the 
conversation of a lady and gentleman Avho sat imme- 
diately in front of me. He was a Confederate officer, 
and she was plying him v»'ith questions about the army, 
its officers, etc. After freely discussing Lee, Johnston, 
and others, the lady asked : '• And what do you think 
of Old Stonewall f^ I almost held my breath, but 
could not have been more gratified when the answer 
came, for it Avas this: "I have tJie iiiod iinpllcU conji- 


d.eiiee hi him, madam. At first I did not know Avhat 
to think of his bokl and aggressive mode of warfare ; 
but since I I'now the man, and have witnessed his abil- 
ity and patriotic devotion, / v:oiold follow Mm any- 
ichereP How my heart warmed to tliat stranger, 
who little knew that General Jackson's wife was a 
listener. to a commendation which could not have been 
more satisfactory if it had been given for her benefit! 
This was to me the brightest gleam of sunlight on that 
dreary journey. 

To show General Jackson's extreme reluctance to 
retreat from the loyal old town of Winchester Avithout 
striking a blow in its defence, he conceived the bold 
idea of becoming the attacking party himself, and to 
this end he called a council of his chief officers, and 
proposed to them a night attack upon Banks. In the 
meantime, while they were assembling, he went, all 
booted and spurred, to make a hasty call on his friend 
Mr. Graham, whose family he found oppressed with 
the gloom which overspread the whole town. He was 
so buoyant and hopeful himself that their drooping 
spirits were revived, and after engaging with them 
in family worship he returned to meet his council of 
war. However, his proposition was not approved, and 
he hurried back to correct the impression he had made 
upon his friends by his cheering words and sanguine 
predictions ; his countenance and bearing, v\'hich at 
that time beamed with hope and the fire of patriotic 
devotion, were now changed to deepest perplexity and 
depression. Still, he was so loath to give up his coveted 
scheme that he said, with slow and desperate earnest- 
ness: ''But — let me think — can I not yet carry my 
plan into execution ?" As he uttered these Avords he 


grasped the liilt of his SAvord, raised his face with a 
look of determination, and the light of battle glowed 
in his eyes ; but the next moment he dropped his head, 
and, releasing his sword, said : '' Xo; I must not do it; 
it may cost the lives of too many brave men. I must 
retreat, and wait for a better time." 

On the Tth of March General Banks approached 
within four miles of AVinchester, and General Jackson 
drew up his little force in line of battle to meet him ; 
but the former withdrew without attacking. The ac- 
tivity of Ashby and the boldness with wdiich Jackson 
maintained his position impressed his adversary with 
the conviction that the Confederate force Avas much 
larger than it Avas in reality. Banks advanced in a 
cautious and wary manner, refusing to attack, but 
pushing forward his left Aving so as to threaten Jack- 
son's flank and rear. By the 11th of March this move- 
ment had gone so far that it Avas no longer safe to hold 
Winchester. Jackson remained under arms all day, 
hoping for an attack in front, but none Avas made; and 
late in the afternoon his little army Avithdrew from the 
toAvn, and it Avas occupied by the Federals the next day, 
March 12th. The Confederates continued to retreat 
sloAvly to Woodstock and Mount Jackson, forty miles in 
rear of Winchester, and Shields's diAision Avas thrown 
forward in pursuit to Strasburg on the ITth. 

To his Avife General Jackson Avrote on the 10th of 
March from Winchester : 

'' My darling, you made a timely retreat from here, 
for on Friday the Yankees came Avithin five miles of 
this place. Ashby skirmished for some time Avith 
them, and after they fell back he followed them until 


they halted near Bunker Hill, which is twelve miles 
from here, where they are at present. The troops 
are in excellent spirits. . . . How God does bless ns 
wherever we are ! [This was in reference to the kind- 
ness we had received in Winchester.] I am very 
thankful for the measure of health with which He 
blesses me. I do not remember having been in such 
good health for years. . . . My heart is just overflow- 
ing Avith love for my little darling wife." 

"Woodstock, Marcli ITtli, 1862. 
" The Federals have possession of Winchester. They 
advanced upon the town the Friday after you left, 
but Ashby, aided by a kind Providence, drove them 
back. I had the other troops under arms, and marched 
to meet the enemy, but they did not come nearer than 
about five miles of the town, and fell back to Bunker 
Hill. On last Tuesday they advanced again, and 
again our troops were under arms to meet them, but 
after coming within four miles of the town they 
halted for the night. I was in hopes that they would 
advance on me during the evening, as I felt that God 
would give us the victory ; but as they halted for the 
night, and I kneAV they could have large reinforce- 
ments by morning, I determined to fall back, and sent 
my troops back the same night to their wagons in 
rear of "Winchester, and the next morning moved still 
farther to the rear." 

The retirement of Jackson and the unopposed occu- 
pation of the lower valley by Banks relieved McClel- 
lan of all fears in that direction ; and in pursuance of 
President Lincoln's requirement, Banks was ordered 


to intrench liimself in the vicinit}^ of Manassas, in or- 
der to guard the approaches to AVashington. Sliields's 
division was accordingly recalled from Strasburg, and 
the Federals began their movement towards Manassas 
on the 2<ith of March. On the evening of the 21st 
Ash by reported that the enemy had evacuated Stras- 
burg. Jackson, divinino- that this meant a withdrawal 
towards AVashington, at once ordered pursuit with 
all his available force. The whole of his little army 
reached Strasburg on the afternoon of the :^2d, the 
greater part after a march of twenty-two miles. Mean- 
time the indefatigable Ashby Avas following close be- 
hind the retreating enemy, and late in the afternoon 
of tlie 22d, as Jackson was entering Strasburg, Ashby 
was attacking the Federal pickets one mile south of 
Winchester. After the skirmish, Ashl^v camped for 
the night at Ivernstown, three miles south of Win- 
chester. General Shields, w4io commanded the troops 
Ashby had attacked, and who was himself Avounded 
in the skirmish, had displayed but a small part of his 
force; and this fact, combined Avith information ob- 
tained Avithin the Federal lines, misled the Confeder- 
ates. The reports brought out led Ashby to believe 
that all but one brigade had gone, and that it expected 
to leave for Harper's Ferry the next day ; but the fact 
was that Shields's division of three brigades still re- 
mained. This information caused Jackson to push on 
AA^ith all haste the next morning. At daylight he sent 
three companies of infantry to reinforce Ashby, and 
followed Avitli his Avhole force. After a march of four- 
teen miles he reached Kernstown at 2 p.m. Shields 
had made his disposition to meet attack, and Ashby 
kept up an active skirmish with the adA^ance of 


Shielcls's force during the forenoon. But though thus 
making ready, the Federal generals did not expect an 
attack in earnest, beheving that Jackson coukl not be 
tempted to hazard himself so far from his main sup- 
port. When he reached Kernstown his troops were 
very weary. Three fourths of them had marched 
thirty-six miles since the preceding morning. He 
therefore gave directions for bivouacking, and says in 
his report : '' Though it was very desirable to prevent 
the enemy from leaving the Valley, yet I deemed it 
best not to attack until morning. But subsequently 
ascertaining that the Federals had a position from 
Avhich our forces could be, seen, I concluded that it 
would be dangerous to postpone the attack until the 
next day, as reinforcements might be brought up dur- 
ing the night.'' Jackson, therefore, led his men to the 
attack. His plan was to gain the ridge upon which 
the Federal right flank rested, turn that flank, and get 
command of the road from Kernstown to Winchester 
in the rear. He gained the top of the ridge, but 
Shields held him in check until he could hurry other 
troops to that flank, when Jackson in turn became 
the attacked party. For three hours of this Sunday 
afternoon the sanguinary and stubborn contest con- 
tinued. But bravely as the Confederates fought, they 
were finally overcome by the superior numbers of the 
enemy, and were compelled to retreat. Weary and 
dispirited vras the little army which had marched four- 
teen miles in the morning to attack a force more than 
double its own, and which had for three hours wrestled 
for victory in so vigorous a manner as to astonish and 
deceive the enemy. Baffled and overpowered, it slow- 
ly retraced its path for six miles more, and sank to 


rest. In the fence corners, under the trees, and around 
the wagons, the soldiers threw themselves down, many 
too tired to eat, and forgot in slumber the toils, dan- 
gers, and disappointments of the day. Jackson shared 
the open-air bivouac with his men. His faithful com- 
missary, Major Hawks, made a roaring fire, and was 
making a bed of rails, when the general wished to 
know what he was doing. '' Fixing a place to sleep,'' 
was the reply. '' Yon seem determined to make your- 
self and those around 3^ou comfortable,'' said Jack- 
son. Knowing the general had fasted all day, the 
major soon obtained some bread and meat from the 
nearest squad of soldiers, (ind after they had satisfied 
their hunger they slept soundly on tlie rail bed in a 
fence corner. 

The Federals picked up two or three hundred pris- 
oners, and as they marched them through the streets 
of Winchester the inhabitants turned out almost en 
masse to show them their sympathy, and many of 
their friends and kindred were recognized among the 
captives. The next day the citizens asked and obtained 
permission to bury the Confederate dead on the battle- 
field, and persons of all ages and conditions flocked 
thither, for there was scarcely a family in the county 
which had not a relative in Jackson's command ; and 
Avith torturing anxiety the women looked into the 
face of every prostrate form, fearing to find it one of 
their own loved ones. The wounded had been taken 
off the battle-field by their general, who ordered his 
medical director. Dr. McGuire, to send them to the 
rear. As the army was retreating, the surgeon said : 
" But that requires time. Can you stay to protect 
us ?" '' Make yourself easy about that." replied he ; 


'' this army stays hero until the hast wounded man is 
removed." And then with deep f'eehng he said : " Be- 
fore I will leave them to the enemy I will lose many 
more men." The next morning after the battle, Gen- 
eral Jackson gradually retired before the advancing 
enemy, once more, to Mount Jackson. 

To his wife he wrote on the 24th of March : 

" Yesterday important considerations, in my opin- 
ion, rendered it necessary to attack the enemy near 
Winchester. The action commenced about 3 p.m. and 
lasted until dark. Our men fought bravely, but the 
superior numbers of the enem}^ repulsed me. Many 
valuable lives were lost. Our God was my shield. 
His protecting care is an additional cause for grati- 
tude. I lost one piece of artillery and three caissons. 
The loss of the enemy in killed and wounded was 
probably superior to ours." 

" March 2Sth. N^ear Mount Jackson. ... My lit- 
tle army is in excellent spirits. It feels that it inflicted 
a severe blow upon the enemy. I stayed in camp last 
night bivouacking. To-day I am in the house of a 
Mr. Allen, where I am quite comfortable. This is a 
beautiful country. The celebrated Meem farm is near 
here, and is the most magnificent one that I know of 
anywhere. After God, our God, again blesses us with 
peace, I hope to visit this country with my darling, 
and enjoy its beauty and loveliness." 

"April Tth. My precious pet, your sickness gives 
me great concern ;• but so live that it, and all your tri- 
als, may be sanctified to you, remembering that ' our 


light afflictions, which are but for a moment, work out 
for us a far more exceeding and eternal Aveight of 
glory/ I trust you and all I have in the hands of 
a kind Providence, knowincj that all thino:s work to- 
gether for the good of His people. 

'" Yesterdav was a lovelv Sabbath dav. Altliouofh 
I had not the privilege of hearing the word of life, 
yet it felt like a holy Sabbath day, beautiful, serene, 
and lovely. All it wanted was the church-bell and 
God's services in the sanctuarv to make it complete. 
. . . Our gallant little army is increasing in numbers, 
and my prayer is that it may be an army of the living 
God as well as of its country." 

" x\pril 11th. I am very much concerned at having 
no letter this week, but my trust is in the Almighty. 
How precious is the consolation flowing from the 
Christian's assurance that ^all things work together 
for good to them that love God I' . . . God gave us a 
glorious victory in the Southwest [at Shiloh], but the 
loss of the great Albert Sidney Johnston is to be 
mourned. I do not remember having ever felt so sad 
at tlie death of a man whom I had never seen. . . . 
Although I was repulsed in the attempt to recover 
Winchester, yet the enemy's loss appears to have been 
three times that of ours. In addition to this, the great 
object which required me to follow up tlie enemy, as 
he fell back from Strasburg, seems to have been ac- 
complished very thoroughly. I am well satisfied with 
the result. Congress has jmssed a vote of thanks, and 
General Johnston has issued a very gratifj^ing order 
upon the suljject, one which will have a fine effect 
upon my command. The great object to be acquired 


by tbe battle demanded time to make known its ac- 
complisbments. Time bas sbown tbat wbile tbe field 
is in possession of tbe enemy, tbe most essential frnits 
of tbe battle are ours. For tins and all of our Heav- 
enly Fatber's blessings, I wisb I could be ten tbousand 
times more tbankful. Sbould any report be publisbed, 
my views and object in iigbting and its fruits v^'ili 
tben become known. You appear mucb concerned at 
my attacking on Sunday. I was greatly concerned, 
too ; but I felt it my duty to do it, in consideration of 
tbe ruinous effects tbat migbt result from postponing 
tbe battle until tbe morning. So far as I can see, my 
course was a wise one ; tbe best tbat I could do under 
tbe circumstances, tbougb very distasteful to my feel- 
ings ; and I bope and pray to our Heavenly Fatber 
tbat I may never again be circumstanced as on tbat 
day. I believed tbat so far as our troops were con- 
cerned, necessity and mercy botb called for tbe battle. 
I do bope tbe war will soon be over, and tliat I sball 
never again bave to take tbe field. Arms is a pro- 
fession that, if its principles are adbered to for suc- 
cess, requires an officer to do what be fears may be 
wrong, and yet, according to military experience, must 
be done, if success is to be attained. And tbis fact of 
its being necessary to success, and being accompanied 
witb success, and tbat a departure from it is accom- 
panied witb disaster, suggests tbat it must be rigbt. 
Had I fougbt tbe battle on Monday instead of Sun- 
day, I fear our cause would bave suffered ; Avbereas, 
as tbings turned out, I consider our cause gained mucb 
from tbe engagement." 

His bold attack at Kernstown, tbouofb unsuccess- 


ful, led to many important results. Its first effect 
was the accomplishment of one of the principal ob- 
jects of the Confederates — the recall of the Federal 
troops then marching from the Valley towards 
Manassas. It had also the effect of chantrinir the 
disposition of several of their divisions and corps, 
and producing such consternation at AVashington 
that President Lincoln did not consider his capital 
secure, and detained McDowell's corps in front of 
the city, although General McClellan had left over 
forty thousand troops for its defence ! 

For this achievement at Kernstown the Confederate 
Congress passed the following resolution of thanks : 

" 1. Besolved by the Congress of the Confederate 
States, that the thanks of Congress are due, and are 
hereby tendered, to Major-General Thomas J. Jack- 
son, and the officers and men under his command, 
for gallant and meritorious services in a successful 
engagement with a greatly superior force of the 
enemy near Kernstown, Frederick County, Virginia, 
on the 23d of March, 1S62. 2. Resolved, that these 
resolutions be communicated by the Secretary of 
War to Major-General Jackson, and by him to his 

The noble women of Winchester, during the whole 
war, devoted themselves to nursing the sick and 
wounded soldiers with tender care and self-sacrilice, 
and their compassion failed not even in administer- 
ing to the wounded of the enemy. And after the 
war Avas over, from the midst of saddened and deso- 
late homes, they continued their self-denying care for 


the ashes of the brave men to whose comfort and 
encouragement they had contributed so freely in life, 
and by whose suffering cots they had often watched 
in sorrow, danger, and death. Under the leadership 
of Mrs. Philip Williams, they gathered the thousands 
of Confederate dead from the surrounding battle- 
fields and placed them in the *' Stonewall Cemetery " 
— a memorial not more to the patriotism of man than 
to the devotion of woman. They also erected a hand- 
some monument to '' The Unknown Dead " — and the 
State of Maryland, in the year 1880, likewise placed 
a beautiful monument in this cemetery in memory of 
her brave soldiers who fell in defence of the South. 
It is said that the State of jS'orth Carolina has more 
soldiers buried upon Virginia battle-fields than any 
other Southern State — a fact which speaks for itself 
in showing the heroic part borne by the good Old 
North State in the struggle for independence. 

The next m^onth after the battle of Kernstown was 
to General Jackson one of comparative inaction. He 
spent it in recruiting his forces and reorganizing his 
regiments, his ranks filling up under the new impe- 
tus given to enlistment b}^ a new conscription bill, 
and by the return of furloughed men, which nearly 
doubled the number of his troops since the battle, 
but even yet he had only about five or six thousand 
men. His great desire to press into service every 
available man in Virginia will be seen by the fol- 
lowing letter, which he wrote on the 21st of March to 
Governor Letcher's aide-de-camp, Colonel French : 

''CoLoxEL, — Please request the governor to order 
three thousand muskets to Staunton at his earliest 


convenience for the militia of this district. Xone of 
the mihtia beyond the county, except five Imndred 
from Augusta, liave yet arrived, but they are turning 
out encouragingly. There are tliree religious denom- 
inations in this military district who are opposed to 
v:ar. Eighteen [men] were recently arrested in endeav- 
oring to make their escape through Pendleton County 
to the enemy. Those who do not desert will, to some 
extent, hire substitutes, others will turn out in obedi- 
ence to the governor's call ; but I understand some of 
them say they will not ' shoot.' They can be made 
to iire, but can very easilv take bad aim. So. for the 
purpose of giving to this command tlie highest degree 
of efficiency, and securing loyal feelings and co-opera- 
tion, I have, as these non-combatants are said to be 
good teamsters and faithful to their promises, deter- 
mined to organize them into companies of one hundred 
men each, rank and file, and after mustering them, 
with the legal number of company officers, into ser- 
vice, assign them to the various staff departments 
without issuing arms to them ; but if at any time 
they have insufficient labor, to have them drilled, so 
that in case circumstances should justify it, arms may 
be given them. If these men are, as represented to 
me, faithful laborers and careful of property, this ar- 
rangement will not only enable many volunteers to 
return to the ranks, but will also save many valuable 
horses and other public property, in addition to arms. 
. . . All I have pledged myself is that, as far as prac- 
ticable, I will employ them in other wavs than fighting, 
but witli the condition that they shall act in good 
faith with me, and not permit ])crsons to use their 
names for the purpose of keeping out of service." 


On the 2Stli of April, General Jackson applied to 
General Lee, then acting as commander-in-chief under 
President Davis, for a reinforcement of five thousand 
men, which addition to his force he deemed necessary 
to justify him in marching out and attacking Banks. 
Kext day he was informed that no troops could be 
spared to him beyond the commands of Generals Ewell 
and Edward Johnson, the latter of whom was seven 
miles west of Staunton, at West View, with a brigade. 
General J. E. Johnston had transferred the mass of his 
army to the front of Kichmond, where he had taken 
command in person. EwelFs division alone remained 
on the Rappahannock to watch the enemy, and to 
aid Jackson in case of need. This division was now 
near Gordonsville, and a good road from that point to 
Swift Tarn Gap placed it in easy reach of Jackson. 
Banks followed Jackson but slowly. He reached 
Woodstock on April 1st, and having pushed Ashby's 
cavalry back to Edinburg, five miles beyond, ho 
attempted no further serious advance until the 17th. 
He then moved forward in force, and Jackson retired 
to Harrisonburg, and, crossing the main fork of the 
Shenandoah, took up his position at the western base 
of the Blue Eidge, in Swift Pam Gap. This camp 
the Confederates reached on the 20th of April, and 
here they remained through ten days more of rain 
and mud. 

On the 16th of April, General Jackson wrote to 

his wife as follows : 

" Kear New ]\Ls.eket. 

"This morning is warm and spring-like, and this 
country is one of the most beautiful that I ever 
beheld. . . . On last Wednesday the enemy advanced 


on me at one o'clock a, m., and I fell back to this 
place, where I arrived on Friday. My route Avas 
through Xew Market and Harrisonburg. I am about 
midway between Harrisonburg and Stannardsville. 
The enemy did not advance as far as Harrisonburg 
on the Valley turnpike. The advance of the two 
armies is within a few miles of each other. ... I do 
want so much to see my darling, but fear such a priv- 
ilege Avill not be enjoyed for some time to come.'' 

'• Swift Run Gap. 

..." Dr. Dabney is here, and I am very thankful 
to God for it. He comes up to my highest expecta- 
tions as a staff-officer." 

'• Stauntox, May 5th. 

" Since I last wrote to my darling I have been 
very busy. On Wednesday last I left my position 
near Swift Eun Gap, and moved up the south fork 
of the Shenandoah to Port Eepublic, which is about 
three miles from Weyer's Cave. I w^ould like to see 
the cave, for I remembered that my little pet had 
been there, and that gave me a deeper interest in the 
great curiosity. The road up the river was so treach- 
erous that 1 could only advance about six miles per 
day, and to leave the road was at the risk of sinking 
yet deeper in the quicksands, in which that locality 
abounds. The countr}^ is one of the loveliest I have 
ever seen. On Saturday the march was resumed, 
and we crossed the Blue Kidge at what is known as 
Brown's Gap, and thus entered into Eastern Virginia. 
I stopped with a very agreeable family named Pace. 
Here I expected to pass the Sabbath, but on Sunday 
morning I received a despatch stating that part of the 


enemy's force had arrived Avithin one day's march of 
Brigadier-General Edward Johnson's camp. Under 
the circumstances I felt it incumbent upon me to 
press forward, and I arrived here last evening, where 
I am stopping at the Virginia House. The troops are 
still coming in. The corps of cadets of the Virginia 
Mihtary Institute is here." 

General Edward Johnson was seven miles west of 
Staunton with about thirty-five hundred men. Gen- 
eral Jackson had about six thousand troops, and Gen- 
eral Ewell, with an equal force, was in the vicinit}^ of 
Gordonsville. Such was the Confederate position. On 
the other hand, Banks, with the main body of his force 
of about twenty thousand men, occupied Harrisonburg, 
twelve or fifteen miles in front of General Jackson. 
Schenck and Milroy, commanding Fremont's advance 
of six thousand men, were in front of Edward John- 
son, their pickets already east of the Shenandoah 
mountain, and on the Harrisonburg and Warm Springs 
turnpike. Fremont was preparing to join them from 
the Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad with nearly ten thou- 
sand men, making the total of Fremont's movable 
column some fifteen thousand ; so, with a force of 
about sixteen thousand men (including Ewell and Ed- 
ward Johnson), General Jackson had on his hands the 
thirty-five thousand under Banks and Fremont. The 
Warm Springs turnpike afforded Banks a ready mode 
of uniting with Milroy and Schenck, in which case 
Staunton would be an easy capture. Fremont was 
already preparing to move in that direction. Jackson 
determined to anticipate such a movement, if possible, 
by uniting his own force to that of Johnson, and fall- 


ing upon Milroy, while Ewell kept Banks in check. 
TJien lie Avoiild join Ewell, and with all his strength 
attack l]anks. To accomplish this, Ewell was ordered 
to cross the mountain and occupy the position Jackson 
had held for ten days at Swift Eun Gap, thus keep- 
ing up the menace of Banks's flank. As Ewell ap- 
proached, Jackson left camp on the 30th of April, and 
marched up the east bank of the Shenandoah to Port 
Eepublic, and on the 5th of May he reached Staunton 
with his army, after a toilsome march through the 
mud and frequent quicksands. The movement of this 
devious route mystified friends as Avell as foes. The 
good people of Staunton were almost as much aston- 
ished when General Jackson made his sudden appear- 
ance in their town as if an angel had dropped down 
from the clouds ; for, like Banks, they thought he had 
Avithdrawn from the valley and disappeared into East- 
ern Virginia, no one knew Avhither. lie gave his 
troops one day to rest, and on the next he hurried for- 
ward, united eTohnson's force with his own, drove in 
the Federal pickets and foraging parties, and camped 
twenty-five miles west of Staunton. On the morrow 
(May 8th) he pushed on to McDowell, seized Sitling- 
ton's Hill, which commanded the town and enemy's 
camp, and made his dispositions to seize the road in 
rear of the enemy during the night. But Milroy and 
Schenck had united, and seeing their position unten- 
able, made a fierce attack in the afternoon to retake 
the hill or cover their retreat. For three or four hours 
a bloody struggle took place on the brow of Sit ling- 
ton's Hill. The Federals, though inflicting severe loss, 
were repulsed at every point, and at nightfall quietly 
withdrew. This was known as the battle of McDow- 


ell. The enemy lit their camp-fires, and in the dark- 
ness evacuated the town, retreating twenty-four miles 
to Franklin, in Pendleton County, where they met 
Fremont advancing with the main body of his forces. 
Jackson followed to this point ; but, finding it impos- 
sible to attack to advantage, deemed it inadvisable to 
attempt anything further in this difficult country, with 
his ten thousand men against Fremont's fourteen or 
fifteen thousand. Screening completely his move- 
ments with cavalry, he turned back (May 13tli), 
marched rapidly to within seventeen miles of Staun- 
ton, then turned towards Harrisonburg, and sent a 
despatch to General Ewell that he was on his way to 
attack Banks with their united forces. On the 12th 
of May he wrote thus to his wife : 

" Headquarters, Valley District, near Franklin. 

" My precious darling, I telegraphed 3^ou on the 9th 
that God had blest us with victory at McDowell. I 
have followed the enemy to this place, which is about 
three miles from Franklin. The enemy has been rein- 
forced, and apparently designs making a stand beyond 
Franklin. I expect to reconnoitre to-day, but do not 
know as yet whether I will attack him thus reinforced. 
"We have divine service at ten o'clock to-day (Monday) 
to render thanks to Almighty God for having crowned 
our arms with success, and to implore His continued 


"Near Harrisonburg, May 19tli. 

..." How I do desire to see our country free and 

at peace ! It appears to me that I would appreciate 

home more than I have ever done before. Here I am 

sitting in the open air, writing on my knee for w^ant 



of a table. . . . Yesterday Dr. Dabney preached an 
excellent sermon from the text : ' Come unto me, all 
ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I Avill give you 
rest.' It is a great privilege to have him with me.'' 

Before beginning his march on his return, he grant- 
ed his soldiers a rest of half a day on Monday, and 
issued the following order : 

'' Soldiers of the Army of the Valley and Northwest : 
'' I congratulate you on your recent victory at Mc- 
Dowell. I request you to unite with me this morn- 
ing in thanksgiving to Almighty God for thus having 
crowned your arms with success, and in praying that 
He will continue to lead you on from victory to vic- 
tor/, until our independence shall be established, and 
make us that people whose God is the Lord. The 
chaplains will hold divine service at ten o'clock a.m. 
this day in their respective regiments." ^ 

The day after the battle he sent the following brief 
announcement to the government at Richmond : 

* A writer thus describes this scene: "Tlierc, in tlie beautiful 
little valley of tlie South Branch, with the blue and towering 
mountains covered with the verdure of spring, the green -sward 
smiling a welcome to tlie season of flowers, and the bright sun, 
unclouded, lending a genial, refreshing warmth — that army, 
equipped for the stern conflict of war, bent in humble praise and 
thanksgiving for the success vouchsafed to their arms. While 
this solemn ceremony was progressing in every regiment, the ene- 
my's artillery was occasionally belching forth its leaden death ; 
yet all unmoved stood that worshipping army, acknowledging 
the supremacy of tlie will of llim who controls the destinies of 
men and nations, and chooses the weak things of earth to con- 
found the mighty." 


" God blest our arms with victory at McDowell 
Station yesterday. 

" T. J. Jackson, Major-General." 

About the time General Ewell received the message 
from General Jackson to join him at Harrisonburg, 
an order came from General Johnston calling him with 
his force back to Gordonsville. But Ewell, knowino- 
what a disappointment it would be to Jackson to thus 
have all his plans destroyed by want of his support, 
determined to have an interview with Jackson before 
moving in any direction. He accordingly rode a day 
and night to see him, and in the conference both were 
sorely perplexed as to w^hat was their duty under the 
circumstances ; Jackson not questioning the right of 
superior authority, and saying regretfully : " Then 
Providence denies me the privilege of striking a de- 
cisive blow for my country, and I must be satisfied 
with the humble task of hiding my little army among 
these mountains to w^atch a superior force." But Ewell 
proposed that if Jackson, as his ranking officer, would 
take the responsibility, he would remain until the 
condition of affairs could be represented to General 
Johnston, which was decided upon, and meantime they 
united in a vigorous pursuit of Banks. Ashby had 
followed close on Banks's heels, and now occupied 
his outposts with constant skirmishing, while he com- 
pletely screened Jackson. The latter, having marched 
rapidly to New Market, as if about to follow the foe 
to Strasburg to attack him there, suddenly changed 
his route, crossed the Massanutton Mountain to Luray, 
where Ewell joined him, and poured down the narrow 
Page Yalley by forced marches towards Front Ptoyal. 


The Confederates marched from Franldin to Front 
Eoyal, a distance of one hundred and twenty miles, 
by Jackson's route, in ten days, and arrived at the 
latter place on the 23d of May. Front Royal was 
held by about one thousand Federals under Colonel 
Kenly, who had charge of large stores, and of the 
railroad and the important railroad bridges on the 
Shenandoah. This force covered the flank and rear 
of Banks's position at Strasburg. Kenl}^ was taken 
by surprise, but after making what resistance he could, 
was forced across the bridges which he vainly attempt- 
ed to destroy, and fled to Winchester. Jackson, too im- 
patient to wait for his tired infantry, placed himself at 
the head of a few companies of cavalry, and pushed 
after the foe, whom he overtook, attacked, and dis- 
persed so effectually, that of those who were not killed 
or wounded, the greater part were taken prisoners. 

Exhausted nature could do no more. The weary 
and march-worn army sank down to rest. General 
Banks, amazed at this irruption, by which his flank was 
turned and his communications threatened, began dur- 
ing the night a precipitate retreat from Strasburg to 
Winchester. Jackson anticipates this, and pressed on 
the next morning to Middletown, a village between 
Strasburg and Winchester, to find the road filled with 
Federal trains and troops. Capturing or scattering 
these in every direction, he followed on after the main 
body, which had already passed him, towards Winches- 
ter, lie overtook them in the afternoon — pushed 
Banks's rear-guard before him all night, giving the 
main body of his troo})s only one hour to rest upon 
their arms. The advance regiment, under Colonel 
Baylor, Avere not allowed to lie down at all, while their 


vimlant and untirino: commander stood sentinel him- 
self at the liead of the column, listening to every sound 
from the front. At dawn, he gave in an undertone 
the command, " Forward ! March !" wdiich w^as passed 
down the command, and by daylight on the 25th of 
May he reached Winchester to find the Federal forces 
drawn up across the approaches to the town from the 
south and southeast. A vigorous attack was at once 
made by the Confederates, which for a short time was 
bravely resisted, but the Federal lines soon began to 
yield, and, seeing himself about to be overwhelmed, 
Banks retreated through Winchester. General Jack- 
son pressed closely, and the Federals emerged from 
the town a mass of disorganized fugitives, making 
their way with all speed towards the Potomac. See- 
ing the enemy break, Jackson set spurs to his horse, 
and, bounding upon the crest of a hill, shouted to his 
men : '' Forward ! After the enemy !" and with a face 
aflame with animation and triumph, he galloped 
amidst the foremost pursuers. The Confederate in- 
fantry foUoAved for several miles, capturing a large 
number of prisoners, and had the cavalry been as effi- 
cient, but few of Banks's troops would have escaped. 
The troopers who proved derelict at this crisis had 
yielded to the temptation of the rich spoils they had 
captured from the enemy, and, as General Jackson 
expressed it, ^'.forgetful of their high trust as the ad- 
vance-guard of a pursuing army, deserted their colors 
and abandoned themselves to pillage to such an ex- 
tent as to make it necessary for the gallant Ashby to 
discontinue further pursuit." This was a painful dis- 
appointment to General Jackson, and as he w^atched 
the flight of the multitude of fugitives, and saw^ the 


golden opportunity for cavalry to make the victor}^ 
complete, he exclaimed with bitter regret : '' Oh that 
my cavalry were in place ! Xever was there such a 
chance for cavalry I'' In his official report he says : 
"Kever have I seen an opportunity Avhen it was in 
the power of cavalry to reap a richer harvest of the 
fruits of victory I'' 

Banks halted on the north side of the Potomac, and 
Jackson allowed his exhausted men to rest at Win- 
chester. In forty-eight hours the enemy had been 
driven between fifty and sixty miles, from Front Eoyal 
and Strasbui-g to the Potomac, w^ith the loss of more 
than one third of his entire strength. His army had 
crossed that river a disorganized mass. Hundreds of 
wagons had been abandoned or burned. An immense 
quantity of quartermaster, commissary, medical, and 
ordnance stores had fallen into the hands of the victor. 
These stores were estimated by the Confederate quar- 
termaster as worth $300,000, and proved of inesti- 
mable value to the Confederacy. Some twenty-three 
hundred prisoners were taken to the rear when Gen- 
eral Jackson fell back, besides seven hundred and fifty 
wounded, sick, paroled, and left in the hospitals at 
Winchester and Strasburg, making a total of about 
three thousand and fifty. The victory was glorious, 
even if the weary and march-Avorn command had not 
achieved all that their tireless and indomitable lead- 
er thought possible. Winchester, having for several 
months been in the hands of the enemy, the joy of the 
inhabitants knew no bounds when they caught sight 
of the victorious Confederates, whom they welcomed 
as their deliverers and greeted with the wildest enthu- 
siasm. Universal rejoicing was manifested by all ages 


and sexes. That historic old town and its beautiful 
environs presented, by the afternoon of May 25th, an 
aspect of quiet and repose strangely in contrast with 
the storm}^ scenes of the morning. 

Mondav, the day after the en fj^a elements around 
Winchester, was spent, according to General Jack- 
son's custom, in religious services and thanksgiving, 
the following general order being issued by him on 
the morning of that day : 

" Within four weeks this army has made long and 
rapid marches, fought six combats and two battles — 
signally defeating the enemy in each one — capturing 
several stands of colors and pieces of artillery, with 
numerous prisoners, and vast medical, ordnance, and 
army stores ; and, finalh", driven the boastful host 
which was ravaging our beautiful country into utter 
rout. The general commanding would warmly ex- 
press to the officers and men under his command his 
joy in their achievements, and his thanks for their brill- 
iant gallantry in action and their patient obedience 
under the hardships of forced marches, often more 
painful to the brave soldier than the dangers of battle. 
The explanation of the severe exertions to which the 
commanding general called the army, which Avere en- 
dured by them with such cheerful confidence in him, is 
now given in the victory of yesterday. He receives 
this proof of their confidence in the past with pride 
and gratitude, and asks only a similar confidence in 
the future. But his chief duty to-day, and that of the 
army, is to recognize devoutly the hand of a protecting 
Providence in the brilliant successes of the last three 
days — which have given us the results of a great vie- 


tory without great losses — and to make the oblation of 
our thanks to God for His mercies to us and our coun- 
try in heartfelt acts of religious worship. For this pur- 
pose the troops wiJl remain in camp to-day, suspending 
as far as possible all military exercises, and the chap- 
lains of regiments will hold divine service in their sev- 
eral charges at four ox-lock r.M." 

The next day was devoted to rest ; and on the third 
he moved on again towards Harper's Ferry, in order, 
by the most energetic diversions possible, to draw 
away troops from Richmond. 

The total rout of Banks at AYinchester created such 
a panic in Washington that President Lincoln sent a 
despatch to McDowell to lay aside for the present his 
movement upon Richmond, and put twenty thousand 
men in motion at once for the Shenandoah, to meet 
the forces of Jackson and Ewell. And in a despatch 
to McClellan, of the 25th of May, he says : 

"Banks ran a race with them, beating them into 
Winchester yesterday evening. This morning a battle 
ensued between the two forces, in Avhich Banks was 
beaten back in full retreat towards Martinsburg, and 
probably is broken up in a total rout." 

A favorite aphorism of General Jackson's was: 
" Kever take counsel of your fears." While President 
Lincoln was thus "taking counsel of his fears" and 
promptly ordering troops from all directions to over- 
whelm Jackson, the latter Avas resting from the fa- 
tigues of his forced marches at AVinch ester. His loss 
during the Avliole expedition was four hundred men. 


The entire strength of his force was not over fifteen 
thousand men. All the energy of a great government 
was now expended in gathering about him a force of 
between fifty-five and sixty thousand men. Fremont, 
who had been quietly resting at Franklin while Gen- 
eral Jackson was making forced marches after Banks, 
was startled by the tidings of the Federal rout, as he 
himself was ordered by the President to take up his 
march, and come to the rescue in saving the national 
capital from the grasp of the redoubtable Confederate 
leader. On the 26th of May General Jackson wrote 
thus to his wife from Winchester : 

"My precious darling, an ever -kind Providence 
blest us with' success at Front Koyal on Friday, be- 
tween Strasburg and Winchester on Saturday, and 
here with a successful engagement on yesterday. I 
do not remember having ever seen such rejoicing as 
was manifested by the people of Winchester as our 
army yesterday passed through the town in pursuit of 
the enenw. The people seemed nearly frantic with 
joy; indeed, it would be almost impossible to describe 
their manifestations of rejoicing and gratitude. Our 
entrance into Winchester was one of the most stirring 
scenes of my life. The town is much improved in 
loyalty to our cause. Your friends greatly desired to 
see you with me. Last night I called to see Mr. and 
Mrs. Graham, who were very kind. . . . Time forbids 
a longer letter, but it does not forbid my loving my 



Aftek liis victory at Winchester, General Jackson 
despatched a trusted messenger to Richmond to ask 
for reinforcements, and even that he shoukl he given 
a force sufficient to march on Washington, beheving 
that this Avoukl be the surest way to break the for- 
midable lines which the enemy were now drawing 
round the Confederate capital. " Tell them," he said, 
" that I have but fifteen thousand effective men. If 
the present opening is improved, as it should be, I 
must have forty thousand." But the government de- 
cided that it would be unsafe to withdraw any troops 
from the defence of Eichmond, but directed him to 
carry out his plan to the extent of making a feint of 
an invasion of Maryland, and of a move upon Wash- 
ington, and to retreat when he became too much en- 
dangered by overwhelming numbers. lie marched to 
Harper's Ferry, closely Avatching the approach of the 
enemy, and concluded on the 30th of May that it was 
time to withdraw his small army if he would pass 
between the converging armies of Fremont and Mc- 
Dowell. By his march to Harper's Ferry he had in- 
tensified the panic at Washington, but he had now 
carried out his instructions to the extreme point con- 
sistent with safety. 

The movements of the kirge bodies of troops which 


President Lincoln had been for some days urging with 
such haste towards his rear, now demanded his atten- 
tion. Shields was pouring down from the mountain- 
pass to Front Koyal to cut him off. The combined 
forces of McDowell and Fremont, Avhich were nearly 
three times that of the Confederates, were hastening 
from opposite directions to intercept his retreat ; and 
once at Strasburg, the way would be barred. From 
the Potomac side the combined forces of Banks and 
Saxton amounted to fourteen thousand men, that 
were ready to close in on his retreat. In this peril- 
ous situation, Jackson decided to occupy Strasburg 
in advance, and to pass swiftly between the two 
principal armies gathering for his destruction. It 
was a case in which supreme audacity was the most 
consummate skill. He lost no time in escaping 
from the dangers that threatened him — sending for- 
w^ard his twenty -three hundred prisoners under a 
guard ; then his long trains, many loaded with capt- 
ured stores, followed by his whole army of scarcely 
fifteen thousand men. The march Avas made without 
molestation, the main body of his troops camping at 
Strasburo' on the nio;ht of the 31st. Of these the 
larger part had marched twenty-five miles the day 
before, and the rear-guard, under General Winder, 
which had kept up a running skirmish with the 
enemy between Harper's Ferry and AYinchester, had 
marched thirty-five miles. Thus, in a single day, 
Jackson had put thirty miles between himself and the 
slow columns of Saxton and Banks, and took position 
directly between the armies of Fremont and McDow- 
ell, which had been sent to crush him. Fremont had 
orders from Mr. Lincoln to enter Strasburg that after- 


noon, but be stopped several miles sbort of tbe town, 
bindered probably by a violent rain-storm ; but, wbat- 
ever tbe cause, tbe result was tbe loss of all oppor- 
tunity to cut otf Jackson's retreat. 

Tbe next morning Fremont made a feeble effort to 
advance, but evidently besitated to bring down tbe 
wbole of Jackson's force on bimself, wliile uncertain 
tbat McDowell was in supporting distance. Tbe lat- 
ter, on coming up, said be found '' it was too late to 
get abead of Jackson tben." Sbields was sent in pur- 
suit in anotber direction to "bead off" Jackson, but 
tbe latter bad gained a day's start, and witb bis entire 
force continued to retreat towards Harrisonburg. 

Between Friday morning (wben Jackson was in 
front of Harper's Ferry) and Sunday nigbt be bad 
marcbed a distance of between fifty and sixty miles, 
tbougb encumbered witb prisoners and captured 
stores, and reacbed Strasburg before eitber of bis ad- 
versaries, baving passed safely between tbem, while be 
beld Fremont at bay by a sbow of force, and blinded 
and bewildered McDowell b}^ tbe rapidity of bis move- 
ments. In order to prevent tbe pursuit of Sbields by 
tbe Luray Valley, and bis " beading off," Jackson de- 
spatcbed a detacbment of cavalry to burn tbe tbree 
bridges over tbe Soutb Fork of tbe Sbenandoab, wbicb 
was effected vritbout opposition. Having taken tbis 
measure to free bimself for tbe time from one of bis 
pursuers, be fell back more leisurely before tbe otber. 

On Monday (June 2) be retreated to Mount Jack- 
son. On tbis day be wrote bis wife these few hurried 
lines : 

" I am again retiring before tbe enemy. They en- 


deavored to ^et in my rear by moving on both flanks 
of my gallant army, but our God has been my guide 
and saN^ed me f roni their grasp. You must not expect 
long letters from me in such busy times as these, but 
ah\^ays believe that your husband never forgets his 
little darhng.'' 

On the 3d he fell back to Is'ew Market. Ashby, 
who had received his commission as brigadier-general 
at Winchester a few days before, was now placed in 
command of all the cavalry, and to him was commit- 
ted the duty of protecting the rear. The Confederates 
were closely followed by Fremont's advance, with 
whom Ashby constantly skirmished, checking them 
whenever they came too near; and by burning the 
bridge over which the Confederates crossed, their ad- 
vanc'e was held back for a day. Jackson continued 
his retreat, and on the 5th reached Harrisonburg. 

Here he changed his line of march, and, leaving the 
valley turnpike, moved in the direction of Port Ee- 
public and Brown's Gap. His first care was to pre- 
vent a union of the forces of Fremont and Shields, for 
which he burned the only bridge over the Shenandoah 
by which they could cross, while he held the only 
readv means of communication between them, the 
bridge at Port Ptepubhc. By destroying the other 
bridges he had placed a barrier between his two pur- 
suers, and noAV he occupied the point where their two 
routes converged. Xo farther to the rear would the 
Shenandoah serve as a barrier to their junction, for 
south of Port Kepublic its head-waters are easily ford- 
able. General Jackson sent his sick and wounded to 
Staunton, having overcome what was thought an in- 


surmountable obstacle in having a ferry constructed 
to convey them over the swollen river. 

On the Gth Ashby was attacked by a body of Fre- 
mont's cavalry, under command of Colonel Sir Perc}^ 
^yndham. an English officer who had taken service 
in the Union army, and now rushed into the fray, 
without sufficient knowledge of the situation, and was 
defeated and taken prisoner with sixty-three of his 
men. As soon as the news of his re23ulse was received 
at Fremont's headquarters, a strong force was ordered 
forward to hold the farther end of the town and the 
approaches on that side. Ashby, in disposing his troops 
to meet this formidable advance, seemed to the spec- 
tators to be instinct with unwonted animation and 
genius. A fierce combat ensued, in which his horse 
fell; but extricating himself, and springing to his feet, 
he saw his men Avavering, and shouted, " Charge, men I 
for God's sake charge!" and waved his sword, when a 
bullet pierced him full in the breast, and he fell dead. 
The regiment took up the command of their dying 
general and rushed upon the enemy, pressing them 
back, and pouring volleys into them until they were 
out of musket range. 

The interest attaching to this fight between Jack- 
son's rear-guard and Fremont's advance does not 
grow mainly out of the engagement itself, which was 
comparatively unimportant, but out of the fact that 
it was the occasion of the fall of General Turner 
Ashby, who was truly the ideal of a soldier in whom 
the qualities that excite admiration were united to 
those that win affection and devotion. Insensible to 
danger, the more daring an enter])rise the greater was 
its attraction for him. With such qualities were 


united the utmost generosity and unselfishness ; a 
dehcacy of sentiment and feehng hke a woman's ; and 
a respect for the rights of others Avhich permitted 
^yithin tlie hmits of his authority no outrage on 
friend or foe. Says General Jackson in his report : 

" An oiRcial report is not an appropriate place for 
more than a passing notice of the distinguished dead ; 
but the close relation which General Ashby bore to 
my command for most of the previous twelve months 
will justify me in saying that, as a partisan officer, I 
never knew his superior. His daring was proverbial, 
his powers of endul^ance almost incredible, his tone of 
character heroic, and his sagacity almost intuitive in 
divining the purposes and movements of the enemy „" 

After the remains of the young hero had been pre- 
pared for burial in Port Eepublic, General Jackson 
came to the room and requested to see them. He 
was admitted alone, and after remaining for a time 
in silent communion w4th the dead, came forth with 
a countenance of unusual solemnity and elevation. 
Ashby 's widowed mother lived in Fauquier, but her 
home being now within the Federal lines, she was de- 
nied the comfort of receiving the remains of this, her 
second gallant son who fell in defence of his country. 
He w^as taken to Charlottesville for temporary inter- 
ment. Slowly and sadly the funeral cortege passed 
on its way through that exquisitely beautiful valley. 
The storm of battle even seemed to have ceased out 
of respect for the dead. An escort of the brave com- 
rades of Ashby, with bowed heads and solemn mien, 
their arms reversed, accompanied the hearse. Behind 


it came the chieftain's horse and trappings, led by his 
negro servant, whose grief was most demonstrative. 
His personal staff next followed. The whole, as it 
wound alono' the country road in the broad sunlio:ht 
of a perfect summer day, seemed to recall some rite of 
ancient chivalry ; and surely no braver, truer knight 
was ever borne to a glorious tomb. After the war 
his remains were removed aud placed beside those of 
his brother. Captain Eichard Ashby, in the " Stone- 
wall Cemetery " at Winchester. 

" Brief, brave, and glorious was his young career ; 

His mourners were two hosts, liis friends and foes. 
And fitly may the stranger, lingering here, 

Pray for his gallant spirit's bright repose, 

For he was Freedom's champion ; one of those, 
The few in number, who had not o'erstept 

The charter to chastise which she bestows 
On such as wield her weapons. He had kept 
The whiteness of his soul, aud tlius men o'er him wept." 

And now for two days — the 6th and 7th of June^ 
Jackson's army enjoyed a sorely needed rest. In the 
twenty -four days that had intervened between the 
time that he had withdrawn from Fremont's front 
at Franklin and his arrival at Port Republic, it had 
ma^rched three hundred miles, besides driving Banks 
over the Potomac. Lying on the north side of the 
Shenandoah, along Mill Creek, a few miles in front of 
Port liepublic, these exhausted and march-worn men 
refreshed themselves, and at the end of two days were 
as ready as ever for battle. 

Meantime Jackson, having prevented the junction 
of his two opponents by burning the bridges across 
the South Foi'k of the Shenandoah, below Port Re- 


public, was preparing to take advantage of their en- 
forced separation. He adapted his strategy to the 
character of the country and the rivers. Fremont 
was equal to Jackson in force, Shields was inferior. 
Together thev largely outnumbered him. His effec- 
tive force at this time could not have exceeded thir- 
teen thousand men, and he determined to retreat no 
farther, but to hght them in detail while separated. 
To retire towards Brown's Gap was to allow his 
enemies to unite. To concentrate on the east side at 
once against Shields as the weaker, and burn the 
bridge to keep Fremont back, was to run the risk of 
having the battle-field in the plain on the eastern side 
commanded by Fremont's guns, Avhich would then 
crown the heights on the left bank. While it might 
not thus entirely paralyze Fremont in the struggle 
with Shields, it Avould certainly prevent Jackson from 
returning in case of success to attack Fremont. The 
Confederate commander therefore took the other 
plan remaining to him, and, having sent off his prison- 
ers to the railroad at Waynesboro' and removed his 
trains to Port Republic, placed his army in position 
on the north side of the river ; General Ewell's divi- 
sion at Cross Keys, half-way on the road to Harrison- 
burg, and General Winder's division on the heights 
above the bridge along the river. Here artillery was 
at hand to command the town and bridge and plain 
by which Shields must approach. Fremont was well 
closed up, and his vigorous pursuit of the last few 
days indicated a prompt attack without waiting for 
the co-operation of Shields. The latter was not so 
well up as Fremont, but his advance came within six 
miles of Port Republic on Saturday evening, June 


7th. Jackson thus took a position where he might 
receive the attack of Fremont, while it was in the 
power of a small part of his force to hold Shields in 
check. His position, if the latter attempted to attack 
in aid of Fremont, was impregnable. The Federal 
General Tyler thought it ''one to defy an army of 
fifty thousand men." Defeat by Fremont would 
have rendered Jackson s condition precarious, but this 
contingency he did not anticipate. His sagacity was 
made manifest, and his strategy approved, by the 
movements of his adversaries. Fremont had failed to 
seize the Confederate line of retreat at Strasburg 
when it was possible, and had permitted Jackson, 
encumbered Avith prisoners, to pass by him unmo- 
lested. His pursuit of the retreating Confederates 
had emboldened him, and now, having followed them 
over fifty miles farther, he was ready to attack in 
a chosen position the army Avhich he had hesitated 
to fight when hampered by its trains and captures. 
Then McDowell was within reach to aid ; now an im- 
passable river prevented all co-operation. Shields, on 
the other hand, condemned by the burning of the 
bridges to make his toilsome Avay along the muddy 
roads of the Luray A'alley, had halted at Columbia, 
and sent forward his advance brigades to harass Jack- 
son's flank, with orders to go as far as AVaynesboro, 
and break the railroad. The mass of Shields's forces 
were known to be miles away, and Jackson's cavalry 
scouts were expected to give timely warning of his 
api)roach. Jackson had placed his headquarters on 
the southwestern outskirts of the village. 

Sunday morning, June 8th, was bright w^ith all the 
glory of summer in the Valley of the Shenandoah. 


Quiet reigned tliroughout the Confederate camp, and 
men and animals alike seemed to enjoy the rest, 
which for a day or two had followed the excessive 
toils and marches of the campaign. Jackson was just 
mounting his horse to ride to the front, when a bold 
and unexpected dash by the enemy opened the fight 
at Port Republic itself, and for a few moments threat- 
ened such disaster that Shields sent a despatch to Fre- 
mont saying, '' I think Jackson is caught this time." 

Jackson, followed by his staff, rode rapidly through 
the town towards the bridge and his troops stationed 
on the hills around it. The enemy boldly crossed the 
bridge, and rode so quickly into the middle of the 
town as to intercept the two hindmost members of 
Jackson's staff, and make them prisoners; but both 
were soon released, one by being left in town when 
the Federals subsequently retreated, and the other 
by capturing the soldier in whose care he was placed 
and bringing him back as a prisoner. The enemy 
promptly placed one piece of artillery at the bridge, 
so as to command the approaches to it, and with 
another piece prepared to attack Jackson's train 
lying just outside of the town. Their unexpected ap- 
proach threw teamsters and camp-followers into great 
confusion. But soon a gun from a Confederate bat- 
tery was brought and placed so as to rake the main 
street of the village, and a charge was poured into the 
rear column of Federal troopers, and their movement 
was checked. Meantime Jackson had reached his troops 
nearest the bridge, and ordered three batteries in- 
stantly to the brow of the terrace overlooking the 
river. Taliaferro's brigade, of Winder's division, was 
the nearest infantry. General Taliaferro had tliem 


drawn up for inspection. Ordering tlieni forward, 
Jackson placed himself at the head of the leading 
regiment, and the first of Poague's guns that was ready, 
and rushed at a double-quick towards the bridge. At 
the word from Jackson, Poague fired a charge which 
disconcerted the enemy, then followed a volley from 
the infantry, and an immediate charge with the bay- 
onet. In a moment the Federal gunners were dow^n, 
their gun was captured, and the bridge was again in 
Jackson's possession. The Confederates lost two men 
wounded, and the Federals their chance of destroying 
the bridge. Carroll (the Federal colonel), seeing him- 
self attacked from both ends of the village, rode out 
of it as rapidly as he entered it, and in his flight aban- 
doned another piece of artillery to the Confederates. 
He soon met his infantry coming to his support; 
but the three Confederate batteries w^ere now in posi- 
tion on the bluff on the north side, and they so rained 
fire on all the approaches to the town and bridge 
from the south and east side that any further attempt 
was futile, and Carroll's whole force was obliged to re- 
treat. To avoid the galling fire they moved some 
distance towards the mountain before turning down 
the river. The Confederate batteries followed on the 
bluff, and continued to shell them until they were en- 
tirely out of range, some two and a half miles below. 
The affair had only occupied about one hour, and quiet 
once more succeeded to the noise of battle. 

To guard against any repetition of this attack, 
Jackson now stationed Taliaferro's brigade in the vil- 
lage to hold the fords of South River, and placed the 
Stonew^all Brigade on the north side of the main 
river, to observe the enemy and impede by artillery 


any renewed advance. The remainder of Winder's 
division Avas held in reserve to assist Ewell, if need be. 
While these arrangements were being made, the battle 
opened along EwelFs front. 

On Saturday evening, Fremont had made a recon- 
noissance, and having found the Confederates in force 
near Cross Keys, gave orders for a general advance 
the next morning. General Ewell selected for his 
position one of the ridges with which the comitry is 
filled, the Federals occupying a lower parallel ridge. 
Fremont disposed his forces for attack. Blenker's 
division, his left wing, was placed opposite Trimble. 
For a time a spirited lire was maintained between the 
opposing batteries, ^vhen the infantry was brought 
into play. General Trimble's brigade met the first 
assault, which it gallantly repulsed, and drove down 
the hill and back into the woods from which they 
advanced. The Confederates awaited another attack, 
but the repulse had been too bloody to invite a speedy 
renewal. Trimble waited a short time, and, perceiving 
no indications of a new advance, determined to move 
against the enemy. Several other regiments joined him 
eii Toide^ and after a short and sharp struggle the 
Federals were forced to yield ; the artillery limbered 
up and retired ; and in a few minutes their Avhole left 
wing was retreating towards the position which it held 
before the opening of the battle. Meantime, Milroy 
had advanced against the Confederate centre. A 
fierce artillery duel was here the principal feature of 
the contest. The Confederate batteries were in good 
position, and, in spite of the loss of men and horses 
in some of them, kept up so spirited a fire that no 
serious attempt was made on this part of the line. The 


Federals drove in the Confederate skirmishers and felt 
the lines behind them, but there was no real attack. 
Thus, at the centre of the contending armies, the 
hours 23assed in which the fate of the day was being de- 
cided on Blenker s front. Schenck was last to take his 
post in the Federal line. He arrived on the tield at 
one p. M., and moved in rear and to the right of 
Milroy, to take position to attack the Confederate 
left. General Ewell, seeing the movement of troops 
towards his left, strengthened and extended his line 
on the same flank. This delayed Schenck's aggressive 
movements, and before he was ready to attack in ear- 
nest the battle had been decided by the defeat of 
Blenker; and Fremont, alarmed by the disaster on his 
left wing, ordered both centre and right to Avithdraw. 
Ewell, conscious of his inferiority of force, and antici- 
pating an attack from Schenck on his left, had been 
content with the advantages already gained until his 
enemy's purposes were developed. As the Federal 
right and centre withdrew, he followed, pushing for- 
ward his skirmishers and occupying the ground in 
front of the field. Kiglit was at hand, however, and 
General Ewell decided to bivouac in the position he 
lield rather than risk a night attack on the enemy. 
Thus ended the battle of Cross Ke\^s. Ewell had 
repulsed Fremont so decisively on one wing as to 
paralyze his army and to secure all the advantages of 
victory. This had been done, too, with but a small 
part of the force at command. The losses were great- 
ly disproportioned, EwelFs being but two hundred and 
eighty-seven, while that of Fremont was six hundred 
and sixty-four. 

Durina* this en":a(!:ement the advance force of 


General Shields continued quiet on the east side of 
the river. Jackson, emboldened by his slowness to 
advance, and the easy I'epulse of Fremont, conceived 
the bold design of attacking- his two opponents in 
succession the next day, Avith the hope of overwhelm- 
ing them separately. For this purpose he directed 
that during the night a temporary bridge, composed 
simph^ of planks laid upon the running-gear of wagons, 
should be constructed over the South River at Port 
Republic, and ordered Winder to move liis brigade at 
dawn across both rivers and against Shields. Ewell 
was directed to leave Trimble's brigade and part of 
Patton's to hold Fremont in check, and to move at 
an early hour to follow Winder. Taliaferro's brigade 
was left in charge of the batteries along the river, 
and to protect Trimble's retreat if iiecessar}^ In case 
of an easy victory over Shields in the morning, Jack- 
son proposed to return to the Harrisonburg side of 
the river and attack Fremont in the afternoon. In 
case, however, of delay, and a vigorous advance on 
Fremont's part, Trimble was to retire by the bridge 
into Port Republic, and burn it to prevent his an- 
tagonist from following. Jackson superintended in 
person the construction of the foot-bridge over South 
River, and before five o'clock in the morning Winder 
was already crossing. After two brigades had crossed, 
Jackson moved at once against the Federals at Lewis- 
ton, leaving orders for the remaining troops to follow 
as rapidly as possible. The foot-bridge proving defec- 
tive, a good deal of time was lost in getting the troops 
over. Impatient of delay, Jackson, without waiting 
for the remainder of his forces, ordered an attack, as 
soon as Winder had come up, upon Tyler, whose 


position was an admirable one, on tlie second terrace 
from the Shenandoah. The ground held by his left 
and centre was elevated, and commanded all the avail- 
able approaches from Port Kepublic. Here he had 
six guns planted. A dense and almost impenetrable 
forest protected his flank, and made all direct ap- 
proach to it difficult, while the batteries there placed 
covered a large part of the front and enfiladed 
Winder s advance. In this position General Tyler 
disposed his force. He seems, though on the alert, 
not to have been a^vare of Jackson's rapid approach 
until the latter was deploying in his front, but he 
was altogether ready to meet the attack. Winder de- 
ployed his skirmishers, and, advancing on both sides 
of the road, drove in the outposts. He soon found 
that the Federal batteries commanded the road and 
its vicinity completely. Jackson then directed him 
to send a force to his right through the Avoods to 
turn the Federal left flank. Winder, with less than 
twelve hundred men, found himself unable to cope 
with the force before him, and sent to Jackson for 
reinforcements, which the latter hurried forward as 
fast as possible. A most determined and stubborn 
conflict now took place. Jackson, linding the resist- 
ance of the enemy so much more obstinate than he 
had expected, and that his first attacks had failed, 
determined to concentrate his whole force and ffive 
up all intention of recrossing tlie river. He there- 
fore sent orders to Trimble and Taliaferro to leave 
Fremont's front, move over the bridge, burn it, and 
join the main body of the army as speedily as pos- 
sible. Meanwhile the bloody Avork went on, the 
Federals for a time proving the victors ; but a rein- 


forcement to the Confederate batteries in aid of the 
infantry enabled them to carry their position, and 
capture five of the enemy's guns. The Federals had 
made a most gallant tight, both Avith their guns and 
to save them, but they could not resist the combined 
attack. They Avere pushed back at every point, and 
were soon in full retreat. Xot a moment too soon had 
they yielded the field, for the remainder of Jackson's 
force was arriving, and in a short time they must have 
been entirely overwhelmed. Colonel Carroll, who 
covered the Federal rear, says : '• As soon as we com- 
menced the retreat, the enemy turned and opened 
upon us portions of Clark's and Huntington's bat- 
teries that they had taken from us, which threw the 
rear of our column in great disorder, causing them to 
take to the woods and making it, for the earlier part 
of the retreat, apparently a rout. . . . Their cavalry 
also charged upon our rear, increasing the confusion." 
The Confederate infantry pressed the enemy for sev- 
eral miles, and the cavalry followed three miles more. 
About four hundred and fifty prisoners, a few wag- 
ons, one piece of abandoned artillery, and eight hun- 
dred muskets were the trophies of the pursuit. Some 
two hundred and seventy-five of the Federal wounded 
were paroled in the hospitals near the battle-field. 
About two hundred others were carried off. 

In the series of engagements on the Gth, 8th, and 
9th of June the losses were : 

Confederate. Fkderal. 

On June 6 70 Over 155 

8 287 704 (including Carroll's). 

9 816 Say 916 

1173 1775 


During the forenoon Fremont had advanced against 
Trimble on the north side of the river, and was driv- 
ing him slowly back, when the Litter was ordered to 
rejoin Jackson at Lewiston. He, Avith Taliaferro, 
then withdrew as rapidly as ])ossible, crossed the 
bridge without loss, and succeeded in burning it in 
the face of the advancing Federals. Fremont's army 
arrived on the heights overlooking Lewiston only in 
time to Avitness the retreat of Tyler, and Avere pre- 
A^ented by the river from giving him any assistance. 

Xext day the Confederates rested in camp. Ex- 
hausted nature demanded repose, and Jackson noAv 
gave it to his tired and battle-Avorn troo])s. Both 
Shields and Fremont continued to retreat down the 
A^alley. '• Significant demonstrations of the enem}^'' 
as Fremont expressed it, caused him to Avithdraw far- 
ther, and he joined Banks and Sigel at Middletown, 
Avhile Jackson moved out from his confined biA'ouac, 
and camped in the noble park-like forest betAveen 
Weyer's Cave and Mount Meridian. Here for five 
days of that splendid June he rested and refreshed his 
army. On the 13tli he issued this order: ''The forti- 
tude of the troops under fatigue and their A^alor in 
action have again, under the blessing of Divine Provi- 
dence, placed it in the poAver of the commanding gen- 
eral to congratulate them upon the victories of June 
8th and 9th. Beset on both flanks by two boastful 
armies, you have escaped their toils, inflicting success- 
ively crushing blows upon each of your pursuers. Let 
a few more such efforts be made, and you may confi- 
dently hope that our beautiful valley will be cleansed 
from the pollution of the invader's presence. The 
major-general commanding invites you to obser\'e to- 


morrow, June 14th, from three o'clock p. m., as a sea- 
son of thanksgiving, by a suspension of all military 
exercises, and by holding divine service in the several 
regiments/' The next day, being the Sabbath, the 
Lord's Supper was administered in a woodland grove, 
nature's own great temple, to a large company of 
Christian soldiers from all the army, with whom their 
general took his place, and received the sacred em- 
blems from the hands of a regimental chaplain. 

The following extracts are from letters to his wife : 

'•Near Port Republic, June 10th. 
" On Sunday, the 8th, an attack was made upon us 
by a part of Shields's command about seven o'clock 
A. M., which a kind Providence enabled us to repulse. 
During the same morning Fremont attacked us from 
the opposite side, and after several hours' fighting he 
also was repulsed. Yesterday morning I attacked that 
part of Shields's force which was near Port Kepublic, 
and, after a hotly contested field from near six to ten 
and a half a. m., completely routed the enemy, who 
lost eight pieces of artillery during the two days. 
God has been our shield, and to His name be all the 
glory. I sent you a telegram yesterday. How I do 
wish for peace, but only upon the condition of our 
national independence 1" 

"Near Weyer's Cave, June 14tli. 
'• When 1 look at the locaHty of the cave, I take ad- 
ditional interest in it from the fact that my €S2)osita 
was there once. . . . Our God has again thrown his 
shield over me in the various apparent dangers to 
which I have been exposed. This evening we have 


religious services in the army for the purpose of ren- 
dering thanks to the Most High for the victories with 
which lie lias crowned our arms, and to offer earnest 
prayer that He will continue to give us success, until, 
through His divine blessing, our independence shall be 
established. AVouldn't you like to get home again ('^ 

The battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic closed 
the Yalley Campaign of 1862. Brilliant as were the 
achievements of General Jackson during the succeed- 
ing months of his too brief career, it was his Yalley 
Campaign which lifted him into great fame ; nor do 
any of his subsequent achievements show more strik- 
ingly the characteristics of his genius. Within forty 
days he had marched four hundred miles ; fought four 
pitched battles, defeating four separate armies, Avitli 
numerous combats and skirmishes; sent to the rear 
three thousand five hundred prisoners ; killed and 
wounded a still larger number of the enemy, and de- 
feated or neutralized forces three times as numerous 
as liis own upon his proper theatre of war, besides 
keeping the corps of McDowell inactive at Fredericks- 
bur o-. 

From the i^apidity of his forced marches, Jackson's 
soldiers were sometimes called his ''foot -cavalry.'' 
The}^ sometimes marched twenty-five, thirty, and even 
thirty-five miles a day ! A Northern writer said that 
'' Jackson moved infantry with the celerity of cavalry. 
His men said he always marched at 'early dawn,' ex- 
cept when /te started the nigJd lefore; but despite all 
these ' hardships, fatigues, and dangers,' says one of 
the 'foot-cavalry,' 'a more cheerful, genial, jolly set 
could not be found than were these men in gray.' " 


They indulged in jokes ad libitum at the expense of 
each other, their indefatigable leader, and the Yankees. 
They declared that General Jackson Avas far greater 
than Moses. " Moses," they said, '' took forty years 
to lead the Israelites through the wilderness, with 
manna to feed them on; 'old Jack' would have 
double-quicked through it on half rations in three 
days." General Banks was dubbed by them " Jack- 
son's commissary-general," and whenever the head of 
their column turned down the valley, the jest ran 
along the lines, '' Lee is out of rations again, and Jack- 
son is detailed to call on the ' commissary-general.'" 

It was a stirring life the soldiers led in those days of 
the war I Warm friendships sprang up among com- 
rades who stood in the ranks together and shared the 
same privations and dangers. Besides these personal 
attachments among officers and soldiers, that which 
held the whole army together was its devotion to its 
commander, who shared the privations of the common 
soldier, the fatigues of the march, and the dangers of 
battle. All had such confidence in his genius for com- 
mand that they felt sure of victory where he led the 
way. This confidence is expressed in the rough verses 
of one of his soldiers, which must have had a stirring 
effect when read or sung after a long day's march, as 
the men sat round their camp fires. Then, like a 
bugle, rang out the lines of 

" Stonewall Jackson's Way. 

" Come, stack arms, men ; pile on the rails ; 
Stir up the camp-fires bright ; 
No matter if the canteen fails, 
We'll make a roaring night. 


Here Slienandoali brawls along, 
There lofty Blue liidge echoes strong, 
To SAvell tlie Brigade's roaring song 
Of Stonewall Jackson's way. 

"We see him now — the old slouched hat, 
Cocked o'er his q\q askew ; 
The shrewd dry smile, the speech so pat. 

So calm, so blunt, so true. 
The ' Blue-light Elder ' knows them well : 
Says he, 'That's Banks — he's fond of shell; 
Lord save his soul I we'll give him — ' well, 
That's Stonewall Jackson's way. 

"Silence! ground arms I kneel all! caps off! 
Old Blue-light's going to pray; 
Strangle the fool that dares to scoff! 

Attention ! it's his way ! 
Appealing from his native sod 
III forma paii2)er is to God, 
'Lay bare Thine arm — stretch forth Thy rod, 
Amen !' That's Stonewall's w:n-. 

"He's in the saddle now! Fall in! 
Steady, the whole Brigade ! 
Hill's at the Ford, cut off!— we'll win 

His way out, ball and blade. 
What matter if our shoes are worn ? 
What matter if our feet are torn? 
Quick step ! we're with him before morn ! 
That's Stonewall Jackson's way. 

"The sun's bright lances rout the mists 
Of morning — and, by George ! 
There's Longstreet struggling in the lists, 

Hemmed in an ugly gorge. 
Pope and his columns whipped before — 
'Bayonets and grape!' hear Stonewall roar; 
'Charge, Stuart! pay off Ashby's score!' 
That's Stonewall Jackson's waj-. 


"Ah! maiden, wait and watcli and yearn 
For news of Stonewall's band ; 
All ! widow, read with eyes that burn, 

That ring upon thy hand. 
Ah ! wife, sew on, pray on, hope on ; 
Thy life shall not be all forlorn. 
Tlie foe had better ne'er been born 

Thau get in Stonewall's way !" 

The gallant General Ewell proved a faithful coad- 
jutor to General Jackson in all their arduous opera- 
tions too:ether. AVhen asked once what he thouo-ht of 
the latter's generalshi}:) in this campaign, he replied, in 
his brusque, impetuous manner : " Well, sir, "when he 
commenced it I thought him crazy ; before he ended 
it I thought him inspired." Ewell was not a religious 
man at the beginning of the war, but the influence 
of Jackson's example was blest to his conversion, as 
the following well-authenticated fact will prove : "At 
a council of war one night, Jackson had listened very 
attentively to the views of his subordinates, and asked 
until the next morning to present his own. As they 
came away, A. P. Hill laughingly said to Ewell, 'Well, 
I suppose Jackson Avants time to pray over it.' Hav- 
ing occasion to return soon afterwards to get his 
sword which he had forgotten, Ewell found Jackson 
on his knees, and heard his ejaculatory prayers for 
God's guidance in the perplexing movements then 
before them, by which he was so deeply impressed, 
and by Jackson's general religious character, that 
he said: 'If that is religion, I must have it;' and in 
making a profession of faith not long after, he at- 
tributed it to the influence of General Jackson's ex- 


Still more striking is the testimoii}^ to Jackson s de- 
vout habits by his colored servant Jim, who said that 
he could always tell when there was going to be a bat- 
tle. Said he: '' The general is a great man for pray- 
ing, night and morning — all times. But when I see 
him get up several times in the night besides, to go off 
and pray, then I know there is going to he something to 
])oy ; and I go straight and pack his haversack, be- 
cause I know he will call for it in the morning." 



"While we leave the brave little army of General 
Jackson luxuriating in a rest among the grand old 
woods and green valleys of the Shenandoah, a brief 
glance will be given at the operations of the two con- 
tending armies around Eichmond. For months the 
o-overnment at Washington had been concentrating 
its energies upon the capture of the Confederate capi- 
tal. General McClellan, with a large army splendidly 
equipped, had intrenched and fortified himself upon 
the approaches to the city, and, aided by a fleet of 
gun-boats in the James River, was marching up from 
the Peninsula, while McDowell, with his corps, was 
advancing from Fredericksburg to join him. 

To oppose this great movement. General Johnston 
had, early in April, transferred his army from Ma- 
nassas to the Peninsula, but in consequence of greatly 
inferior numbers was compelled to fall back before 
the advance of the l^orthern army, not, however, with- 
out resisting and inflicting heavy losses. On the 5th 
of May a battle was fought at WilHamsburg ; but 
Johnston continued to retreat until he finally settled 
down with his array between Richmond and the 
Chickahominy. As the Federals began to cross that 
stream on the 31st of May, he attacked them, and a 
fierce contest ensued, lasting from two o'clock until 


nightfall, and, as he reports, " drove thera back to the 
' Seven Pines,' more than two miles through their 
own camps, and from a series of intrenchments, and 
repelled every attempt to recapture them with great 
slaughter/' In this battle he was wounded so se- 
riously that he was unable to resume command, and 
his place was filled by General Kobert E. Lee, who 
thus became the commander-in-chief of all the South- 
ern armies. President Davis was also upon the ground, 
giving his counsel and aid. The gallant and dashing 
General J. E. B. Stuart, called from his initials " Jeb " 
Stuart, had, in obedience to General Lee's orders, 
made a raid with his cavalry force of twelve hundred 
men, and some light artillery, around the whole cir- 
cuit of the Federal lines — a perilous undertaking, but 
from which he returned in safety, having thus ascer- 
tained the position and strength of the enemy. This 
was one of the most daring and brilliant exploits of 
the war, and won, both from friends and foes, great 
distinction for Stuart and his gallant troopers. 

And now comes in the part of Jackson, who, after 
his victory at Winchester in May, had requested to 
be reinforced, saying : '' I should have forty thousand 
men, and with them I would invade the Xorth ;" to 
which General Lee's reply was : '' But he must help 
me to drive these people away from Richmond first." 
Thus, with his keen military sagacity, he had already 
formed the design to concentrate the army of Jack- 
son with his own, and take the aggressive against 
McClellan. However, in order to deceive the enemy, 
it was necessary to mask Jackson's removal from the 
Valley ; and a reinforcement of seven thousand men 
was sent as far as Staunton as a blind, and then 


marched back with Jackson's army. The enemy in the 
Yalley was deceived with equal adroitness, and Jack- 
son's sudden march over the mountains was a com- 
plete surprise to friends as well as foes— not a man in 
his own army knowing where it was going as it took 
up its march from Mount Meridian on the ITth of 
June. After accompanying his troops to within fifty 
miles of Kichmond, he placed them in command of 
General Ewell, and rode express, with a single courier, 
to the city to confer with General Lee. On leaving 
his camp on this occasion, he met with a pleasing 
evidence of the faithfulness of one of his pickets, 
who, not knoAving him, refused to let him pass ! The 
general pleaded that he w^as an officer on military 
business, but without avail; then that he was an officer 
bearing important intelligence to General Lee, but 
the man still protested, saying he had special orders 
from Jackson not to pass either soldiers or citizens. 
He agreed, hovrever, to call the captain of the guard, 
who, on coming forward, recognized his general, and 
at once let him pass. He did not go, however, with- 
out warmly commending the fidelity of the sentinel- 
soldier for his strict obedience to orders. 

After a full conference with General Lee, Jackson 
the next day returned to his command, and conveyed 
it safely to Ashland on the evening of June 25th, 
from which he was directed to march and turn the 
enemy's works at Mechanicsville, where he had a 
powerful reserve intrenched. On reaching Ashland, 
Jackson encountered unexpected difficulties in the 
way of burned bridges and the handling of a part of 
his army by inexperienced subordinates, which caused 
much delay. Under the stress of his great anxiety and 


heavy responsibilities, he gave not one moment to 
rest or sleep during the night, but devoted the whole 
of it to the most energetic preparations and to jyrayer. 
Soon after sunrise the next morning, his army was 
put in motion, and in its march met at each cross- 
road tlie vigilant cavalry of Stuart, that gradually 
covered his left ; and by the afternoon Jackson was 
abreast of the enemy's right flank at Mechanicsville. 
Here A. P. HilFs division- had been in position be- 
fore the enemy-s works for some hours, and was only 
waiting for Jackson's support to make an attack. At 
the sound of the latter's guns, which told that he was 
approaching, Hill swept forward, and drove the 
enemy out of the little village, and down the Chicka- 
hominy into their strong intrenchments on its eastern 
bank. In their impetuosity to drive them out of this 
position, the Confederates Avould not wait until Jack- 
son's advance could turn their flank, but attacked 
them that evening on their left. A furious cannon- 
ade opened on both sides, and after a severe flght the 
Confederates failed to dislodge the enemy from their 
works, and slept that night upon their arms. This 
was the beginning of the seven days' battles around 

The bear i no- of the soldiers in this crisis was not 
more worthy of admiration than the calmness of the 
people. Dr. Dabne}^ says : 

* It is taken for granted that most readers know that there were 
two generals by the name of Hill in the Confederate army — A. P. 
Hill, of Virginia, and D. H. Hill, of North Carolina. Both were 
very distinguished officers. The latter was a brotlier-in-law of 
Stonewall Jackson. 


" The demeanor of the citizens of Richmond showed 
their courage, and tlieir faith in their leaders and 
tlieir cause. For many weeks the Christian people 
had given themselves to prayer ; and they drew from 
Heaven a sublime composure. The spectator, passing 
through the streets, saw the ])eople calmly engaged 
in their usual avocations, or else wending their way 
to the churches, while the thunder of cannon shook 
the city. The young people promenaded the heights 
north of the town, and watched the distant shells 
bursting against the sky. As the calm summer even- 
ing descended, the family groups were seen sitting 
upon their door-steps, where mothers told their chil- 
dren at their knees how Lee and his heroes were 
driving away the invaders." 

At dawn on the morning of the 2Tth, the contest 
between the Federal artillery and that of A. P. Hill 
was resumed ; but perceiving the divisions of Jack- 
son approaching their rear, the enemy retreated down 
the Chickahominy towards Cold Harbor, burning and 
deserting vast quantities of army stores. General 
Lee directed Jackson to proceed to Cold Harbor with 
D. H. Hill, and strike their line of retreat. JN'ot 
Ivuowing the country, Jackson was misled into taking 
the wrong road, and had to retrace his march, thus 
losing an hour of precious time, w^hile the cannonad- 
ing told that the battle was thickening in front, and 
there was danger that he might be too late to fulfil 
his order. But he maintained his calmness and com- 
posure, and when this fear w^as suggested to him, he 
replied : " No, let us trust that the providence of 
God will so overrule it that no mischief shall result." 


The event proved that his conlidence was not mis- 
taken, for by this delay D. II. Hill was enabled to 
meet him precisely at the appointed time and place. 
While A. P. Hill was fighting against overwhelming 
numbers, Jackson, with D. II, Hill, advanced under 
the hottest fire, and for several hours continued the 
combat with wavering fortunes. The battle was a 
hardly contested one ; but the Confederates, after 
making the most stubborn resistance, and stoutly 
holding ever}'' inch of ground they had won, at last 
won the day. The faithful Stonewall Brigade, under 
General Winder, with D. II. Hill's command, made 
brilliant charges; and, with simultaneous successes 
upon other parts of the field, the whole wing of the 
Federal army, with its reinforcements, Avas forced back 
into the swamps of the Chickahominy. 

During this terrible day, while the issue was in 
suspense, Jackson was seen to show unwonted excite- 
ment, riding restlessly to and fro, despatching mes- 
sengers to each of his division commanders with this 
sharp command : '' Tell them this affair must hang 
in suspense no longer; siceep the field with the hay- 
onetr But before his messages were received, the 
ringing cheers rising from every side out of the smok- 
ing woods relieved his anxiety, and told him that the 
day was won. The next morning there was not a 
Federal soldier north of the Chickahominy. In Jack- 
son's official report of the battle, he thus describes 
the part borne by the gallant General Hood and his 
Texans, who were under his command : 

'' Advancing; throuo^h a number of retreating and 
disordered regiments, he came within range of the 


enemy's fire; who, concealed in an open wood and 
protected by breastworks, poured a destructive fire, 
for a quarter of a mile, into bis advancing line, under 
which many brave oflScers and men fell. Dashing on 
with unfaltering step in the face of these murderous 
discharges of canister and musketry, General Hood 
and Colonel Laws, at the heads of their respective bri- 
gades, rushed to the charge with a yell. Moving 
down a precipitous ravine, leaping ditch and stream, 
clambering up a difficult ascent, and exposed to an in- 
cessant and deadly fire from the intrenchments, these 
brave and determined men pressed forward, driving 
the enemy from his well-selected and fortified posi- 
tion. In this charge, in which upwards of a thousand 
men fell, killed and wounded, before the face of the 
enemy, and in which fourteen pieces of artillery, and 
nearly a regiment were captured, the Fourth Texas, 
under the lead of General Hood, was the first to 
pierce these strongholds and seize the guns. . . . 
The shouts of triumph which rose from our brave 
men as they, unaided by artillery, had stormed this 
citadel of their strength, were promptly carried from 
line to line, and the triumphant issue of this assault, 
with the well-directed fire of the batteries, and suc- 
cessful charges of Hill and Winder upon the enemy's 
right, determined the fortunes of the day. The Fed- 
erals, routed at every point, and aided by the dark- 
ness of the night, escaped across the Chickahominy." 

The next morning, as General Jackson inspected 
this position and saw the deadly disadvantages under 
which the Texans had carried it, he exclaimed : '- These 
men are soldiers indeed !" 


The Confederates had indeed gained a great victory. 
It now remained to push their success to the utmost. 
To this end Ewell and Stuart were sent to cut off the 
retreat by the York River Eaih^oad, Avhich was effected. 
Before retiring, the enemy destro\^ed a vast amount of 
army stores and burned the residence and farm build- 
ings of General Lee at the White House. The retreat 
down the Peninsuht being now cut off, it only remained 
for the Confederate right wing to get between it and 
the James Eiver to complete the success by the capt- 
ure of the whole Federal army. But the retreat was 
aided by the dense forests and impassable swam})s, and 
as they burned the bridges across the Chickahominy 
as soon as they had crossed them, they were able to 
continue their march towards the James. At their 
intrenchments, and in their track, were found desert- 
ed supplies of vast arm 3^ stores, much of which they 
had attempted to destroy. But, notwithstanding, the 
spoils proved a rich harvest to the Confederates, Avho 
gained great stores of fixed ammunition, and, besides, 
the suffering country people were supplied with much- 
needed provisions and necessaries. 

McClellan's last intrenchments were at Savage 
Station, where General Magrader made a vigorous 
attack upon his flank and front, and drove him out of 
them near sunset of the 29th. The sound of the com- 
bat put Jackson on the qui vive, and as he lay down 
under the open sky for a short rest, he gave orders 
that everything should be ready to move at early 
dawn. At midnight he was awakened by a sudden 
shower, which drenched him so thoroughly that he 
could sleep no more, and he determined to precede his 
troops to the position of Magruder, in order to have 


time for fuller conference. This was the same gallant 

John Bankhead Magruder under whom Jackson won 

his first laurels as a soldier in Mexico. 

On June 30th General Jackson wrote thus to his 

wife : 

"Near White Oak Swamp Bridge. 

"An ever-kind Providence has greatly blessed our 
efforts and given us great reason for thankfidness in 
having defended Eichmond. To-day the enemy is re- 
treating down the Chickahominy towards the James 
River. Many prisoners are falling into our hands. 
General D. H. Hill and I are together. I had a wet 
bed last night, as the rain fell in torrents. I got up 
about midnight, and haven't seen much rest since. I 
do trust that our God will soon bless us with an honor- 
able peace, and permit us to be togetlier at home again 
in the enjoyment of domestic happiness. 

" You must give fifty dollars for church purposes, 
and more should you be disposed. Keep an account 
of the amount, as we must give at least one tenth of 
our income. I would like very much to see my dar- 
ling, but hope that God will enable me to remain at 
the post of duty until, in His own good time. He 
blesses us with independence. This going home has 
injured the army immensely." 

After the discomforts of the previous night, when 
his troops came up, he was found drying himself be- 
fore a camp-tire, but, speedily taking his place at their 
head and moving on, captured at Savage Station a 
field hospital containing twenty-five hundred sick and 
wounded. Other prisoners fell into his hands at every 
step, until one thousand were sent to the rear. An 


oiRcer, congratulating him on the great number of his 
caj^tives, said they surrendered too Avillingly, and that 
their maintenance would be a heavy expense to the 
Confederacy ; but General Jackson answered, with a 
smile, '' It is cheaper to feed them tlian to light them.-' 
On this day, the 3oth, he surprised the enemy by a 
fierce onslaught from his batteries tliat were in a con- 
cealed position, which drove them ra])idly to the rear, 
leaving several pieces of artillery behind them. They 
afterwards rallied, and during the rest of the day an 
artillery duel was kept up ; but as each part}^ was in- 
visible to the other, not much damage resulted to either 
side. The White Oak Swamp bridge having been de- 
stroyed, Jackson made an attempt to repair it, so as to 
pursue the enemy ; but when night came, and he saw 
that so little had been accomplished, more wearied 
and depressed than he had ever been seen to be before, 
as he lay down to sleep, he said : " Xow, gentlemen, 
let us at once to bed, and rise with the dawn, and see 
if to-morrow we cannot do something /" 

During that night the Federal forces skilfully with- 
drew from his front and moved to Malvern Hill. At 
an early hour the next morning, July 1st, Jackson put 
his corps in motion and crossed the White Oak Swamp. 
His reconnoissance showed him the enemy strongly 
posted upon an eminence in front of Malvern Hill. In 
short, the whole army of McClellan, which was still 
powerful and well disciplined, was now assembled on 
one field, wliile the whole Confederate army was con- 
verging around it, under the immediate ej^e of the 
general-in-chief and the President. The war of the 
giants was now about to begin. The position of the 
Federals was selected by McClellan himself with con- 


summate skill— the ridge comraanding all the sur- 
rounding country, and he was also under the protec- 
tion of his gun-boats in the James River. The Con- 
federates labored under the disadvantage of an in- 
ferior position, having also to cross swampy woods 
and a plain, which was exposed to the fire of McClel- 
lan's artillery, and, as they approached his intrench- 
ments, his deadly musketry was equally appalling. 
The Confederate leaders were likewise ignorant of the 
country, which impeded their progress and delayed 
the opening of the battle until late in the afternoon. 
But on it came at last, and raged with the utmost fury 
until night put an end to the conflict. Jackson's 
troops fought with their usual bravery, but he con- 
ceded the laurels of the day to D. H. Hill, who charged 
across the open plain in face of a terrific fire of artil- 
lery, under which his men fell fast. But he was soon 
reinforced by Jackson, and enabled to maintain his 
ground until the veil of darkness interposed and mer- 
cifully closed the bloody struggle. At ten o'clock the 
battle died awa}^, when Jackson retired slowly and 
wearily to the rear to seek some refreshment and rest. 
His faithful servant, Jim, prepared a pallet for him on 
the ground, in the midst of a confused multitude of 
wagons and stragglers, and after partaking of some 
food he sank to sleep. At one o'clock he was awak- 
ened by his division commanders, who wished to re- 
ceive instructions for the morning. These officers all 
agreed in the opinion that McClellan would probabl}^ 
take the aggressive on the morrow, and were full of 
apprehension as to their ability to resist him. Jack- 
son listened indifferently, asking a few brief questions, 
and said, as if at ease in the matter, " No ; I think he 
will clear out in the morning." 


His words were prophetic, for when morning 
dawned, with a pouring rain, McClellan was indeed 
gone, leaving behind him the marks of a precipitate 
retreat. The wearied Confederates were permitted 
by the commander-in-chief to rest a day and re])len- 
ish the ammunition of their batteries, and liad orders 
to move the next day in pursuit. Jackson was most 
impatient to march with the dawn, hurrying off with- 
out breakfast ; but after losing a day, Avhich gave the 
Federals time to reach the shelter of their gun-boats, 
the march proved to be a useless one, and the oppor- 
tunity of capturing the enemy was gone. 

'' The commander-in-chief was disappointed to learn, 
on his arrival in front of the Federals, that no ojipor- 
tunity had been found for striking a blow, eitlier on 
their retreat or in their present position. He immedi- 
ately rode forward with General Jackson, and the two, 
dismounting, proceeded without attendants to make a 
careful reconnoissance on foot of the enemy's whole 
line and position. Jackson concurred fully in the re- 
luctant opinion to which General Lee was brought by 
this examination — that an attack would now be im- 
proper ; so that after mature discussion it was deter- 
mined that the enemy should be left unassailed to the 
effects of the summer heats and the malaria, which 
Avere now at hand.'' 

General Lee, in tlie close of his report, says : 

" Under ordinary circumstances the Federal army 
should have been destroyed. . . . But regret that more 
was not accomjilished gives way to gratitude to the 
Sovereign Iluler of the universe for the results acliieved. 
The siege of Richmond was raised, and tlie object of 


a campaign, which had been prosecuted after months 
of preparation at an enormous expenditure of men and 
money, completely frustrated. More than ten thou- 
sand prisoners— including officers of rank— fifty-two 
pieces of artillery, and upwards of thirty-five thousand 
stand of small-arms, were captured. The stores and 
supplies of every description which fell into our hands 
were great in amount and value ; but small in com- 
parison with those destroyed by the enemy. His 
losses in battle exceeded our own, as attested by the 
thousands of dead and wounded left on every field ; 
while his subsequent inaction shows in what condition 
the survivors reached the protection to which they 

After spending a few days in a much-needed rest 
and in gathering up arms, the Confeder'ate army was 
marched back, on the 8th of July, to the vicinity of 

A few extracts from Jackson's letters at this time 
will furnish glimpses of his varied experiences during 
this memorable week. Thus he writes : 

" When my command arrived at White Oak Swamp 
bridge we found it broken up by the enemy ; but we 
opened upon the Federal artillery, and succeeded in 
securing one of their cannons, four caissons, and one 
battery wagon, in addition to part of a pontoon-bridge 
train and prisoners. Many prisoners have fallen into 
our hands, and they really appear gratified at the idea 
of being taken. I have never seen prisoners so con- 
tented. ... On Tuesday we had another engage- 
ment, in which General D. H. Hill, with his division. 


accomplished more than any other part of the army. 
Other troops were sent to support him, but his division 
may be said to have borne the brunt of the battle, and 
he was by far the most distinguished officer engaged 
tliat day. My position is now about three miles north 
of James Eiver, and twenty - five miles below llich- 
mond. During the past week I have not been well, 
have suffered from fever and debility, but through 
the blessing of an ever-kind Providence I am much 
better to-day. Last week I received a present of a 
beautiful summer hat from a lady in Cumberland. 
Our Heavenly Father gives me friends wherever I 
go. , . . It would be delightful to see my darling, but 
we know that all things are ordered for the best." 

The corps reached the neighborhood of Richmond 
on the 10th of July, and it was during its stay of a 
few days there that General Jackson made his first 
appearance openly in the cit}^, for the purpose of at- 
tending divine worship on the Sabbath. He thus 
speaks of it in a letter to his wife : 

" Yesterday I heard Rev. Dr. M. D. Hoge preach in 
his church, and also in the camp of the Stonewall 
Brigade. It is a great comfort to have the privilege 
of spending a quiet Sabbath within the walls of a 
house dedicated to the service of God." 

He slipped into the church unattended — quietly and 
modestly took a seat near the door, and, after the ser- 
vices were over, was gone before the congregation Avas 
aware of his presence. After calling on a mother who 
had lost a son in his command, he returned to his tent. 


So great was the modesty of the now famous general 
that he found his greatness embarrassing, and he shrank 
more from pubKc notice and applause. Whenever his 
soldiers caught sight of him, they rent the air with 
their cheers, which he always acknowledged by lifting 
his cap, and then putting spurs to his horse and gal- 
loping away at the top of his speed. " Little Sorrel " 
seemed to know the signal for this stampede, and per- 
haps it was from these marvellous flights that the 
>' foot-cavalry " drew some of their inspiration. When- 
ever the sound of the " rebel yell " was heard in their 
camp, the soldiers jocularly said, " That's ' old Jack,' 
or a ral)hit r 

In the movements of the troops around Richmond, 
on one occasion, Jackson and his staff Avere compelled 
to ride through a field of uncut oats. The owner 
rushed out upon them with great indignation, venting 
his rage specially on the general's devoted head, and 
demanding his name ^^ that he might report him." In 
a quiet tone the name was given. '* What Jackson ?" 
asked the farmer. " General Jackson," was the reply. 
''What!" exclaimed the electrified man, as the truth 
dawned upon him — " what ! ' Stonewall ' Jackson ?" 
" That is what they call me," was the answer. Tak- 
ing off his hat with the profoundest respect, and with 
a voice now all kindness and reverence, the man said : 
" General Jackson, ride over my whole field ; do what- 
ever vou like with it, sir." 

On the 11th of July, he wrote to his wife from 
Richmond : 

''Again your husband is about leaving his camp. 


Please direct your next letter to Gordons^ille, and 
continue to address me there until you hear otherwise. 
Everybody doesn't know the meaning and location of 
' Headquarters^ Valley District /'" 

During his campaign in the valley he had requested 
that his letters should be directed simply to '' Head- 
quarters, Valley District*- — his headquarters during 
all that time being principally in the saddle ; but after 
he was transferred to Eichmond the inappropriate- 
ness of this address amused him, and perhaps caused 
delay and even loss of his letters. Ubiquitous as he 
was dui'ing the war, he could not have any one address 
lono". About the time of his leavinon Eichmond, his 
chief of staff, the Eev. Dr. Dabney (who afterwards 
wrote his biography) was compelled to resign in con- 
sequence of ill-health. The general wrote: "It was 
with tearful eyes that I consented to our separation." 
This officer, by his intelhgence and faithfulness, had 
been invaluable to him, not only in his Yalley Cam- 
paign, but in the battles around Eichmond. In one 
instance, at the battle of Chickahominy, a misconcep- 
tion of Jackson's orders on the part of a messenger 
might have resulted in a fatal error but for the promi)t- 
ness and eflficiency of the chief of staff, avIio, compre- 
hending the general's true intentions, and the urgency 
of the occasion, went himself in person and brought 
all into harmonious action, and thus decided the fort- 
unes of the day. 

In a letter to his wife he says : 

" If you will vouch for Joseph's (her brother) leing 


an early riser (luring the remainder of the war, I will 
give him an aide-ship. I do not want to make an 
appointment on my staff except of such as are early 
risers ; but if ijon will vouch for him to rise regularly 
at dawn, I will offer him the position/' 

The youth, Captain J. G. Morrison, was courageous 
enough to accept even on this rigid condition, and 
served the general faithfully until his death, being 
himself twice wounded, the last time losing the whole 
of one foot, except the heel. 

General Jackson was no respecter of persons when 
duty was concerned. On one occasion, when he had 
an early march before him, he so lost his patience with 
the tardiness of his staff ixi rising that he ordered his 
cook to pack up everything, and to throw away the 
coffee, which had been captured from the enemy and 
was a rare luxury ; and he finally threatened to arrest 
the whole staff if they did not get up immediately. 
This had the effect of awakening them thoroughly, 
and doubtless of arousing some ire also against the 
stern and relentless leader, though all who served un- 
der him were ready to say, as one did, that '' his kind- 
ness to those who did their duty was like a woman's." 
The attachment of members of his staff to him was 
sincere and strong. They knew he was sterner to 
himself than he was to them, and could never doubt 
his whole-souled and patriotic devotion I shall never 
forget the intense feeling with which young " Sandy " 
Pendleton (as he was called) said to me the day after 
General Jackson's death, his face bathed in tears : 
'• God knows I would have died for him P^ 


This true and gallant officer followed his general tu 
the grave in less than a year — slain in battle in liis 
youth and promise. He was the only son of the Eev. 
General W. N. Pendleton, of J.exington, and would 
have followed his father's sacred calling if he had 
lived. A tender romance hangs around his memory. 
With his ardent, chivalrous nature, his heart was soon 
captured during the war by a charming young lady, 
near Avhose home he was stationed for a time in Avin- 
ter-quarters. He had some rivals among his brothei*- 
officers, but was successful in winning the prize, and, 
obtaining a furlough, was married, and spent a few 
blissful weeks with his young bride, Avlien duty called 
him into the field, and thev never met as^ain. Manv 
were the similar tragedies which the cruel war brought 
to the hearts and homes of the devoted Southern 
Avomen, for even the stern duties of the soldier's life 
did not put a stop to marrying and giving in mar- 
riage ; hence it was that there were left so manv broken 
hearts and blif]:hted lives. 



The failure of McClellan in the Peninsular cam- 
paign had led to a change of commanders in the 
JS^orthern army, and General John Pope, who had ob- 
tained some reputation at the West, was brought East 
and placed at the head of the Army of the Potomac. 
He began with a boastful announcement of what he 
was going to do. Disdaining the slow and cautious 
policy of his predecessors, he proudly declared that 
'' his headquarters would be in the saddle," giving the 
impression that he would in a single campaign, per- 
haps in a single battle, sweep the opposing armies from 
the face of the earth. These boastful proclamations 
were repeated in Richmond, and greeted with a smile 
by those who remembered that " pride goeth before a 

But Avhat disturbed the Southern people more than 
his martial ])rowess was the way in which he began 
his operations, which were said to be in violation of 
all the laws of war. This naturally provoked bitter 
resentment, and led to threats of retaliation. That 
alone explains the following interview, in which Jack- 
son speaks of raising the black flag — a suggestion so 
alien to his character that the statement Avould be 
received with the <?reatest reserve, did it not come 


from liis own brother-in-law, Captain (afterwards 
General) Itufus Barringer, who might be supposed 
to be in his confidence. Even then it is justified only 
as a retaliation for the similar conduct of Pope, I>ut 
as the latter s campaign soon came to an inglorious end, 
nothing more is ever heard of the retaliation. With 
this explanation I give the following letter, as furnish- 
ing a glimpse of the secret counsels of the war, which 
will have its interest for the students of history : 

" During the battles around Eichmond in June and 
July, 1862, I was a captain of cavalry in the First 
North Carolina Eegiment, Colonel L. S. Baker, a 
young AVest - Pointer, commanding. Brigadier -Gen- 
eral J. E. B. Stuart had charge of all the cavalry in 
the army, and for some days after the battles Gen- 
eral Jackson still held the front, facing McClellan at 
Harrison's Landing. 

"On the 14th of July I was in picket along the 
Chickahominy and the James with my squadron. 
Companies C and F, the Mecklenburg and Cabarras 
companies. On that day Colonel Baker sent me a 
note, received from Stuart, as follows : 

"'Headquarters Cavalry Brigade, July 6th, 1862. 
'' ' Colonel, — General Jackson is anxious to see Cap- 
tain Kufus Barringer. Please send him up this after- 
noon, as Gen. J. may be gone after that. Please for- 
ward a report of operations of your cavalry from 20th 
June to 10th July as soon as possible. 
" ' In haste. 

" ' J. E. B. Stuart, 

" ' Brigadier-General.' 


" This note is now before me in Stuart's own Avrit- 
ing, and, not coming through the ordinary staff chan- 
nels, plainly showed it was the result of a personal 
interview between Stuart and Jackson. As General 
Jackson and I, however, were brothers-in-law, 1 at- 
tached no importance at the time to tliese incidental 
matters. It is proper, though, to add that in point 
of fact we had seen very little of each other prior to 
this time. He living in Virginia, and I in North Car- 
olina, and our occupations quite differing, we had only 
met a few times, and not at all since the war began. 
But he was now, when I reached his camp, unusually 
cordial, and at once remarked : ' Captain, I have sent 
for YOU for a matter entirely between ourselves. You 
will stay with me in my tent here to-night. If Gen- 
eral Pope does not disturb us, I am sure McClellan 
will not, and we can have a good talk.' At that time 
tlie authorities at Washington had already began to 
change their war policy, and Major-General John Pope 
had entered E'orthern Virginia, and, as he himself 
boasted, ' with headquarters in the saddle,' threatened 
to overrun the whole country and speedily lay it 

"With a soldier's plain supper and lying together 
on army couches, and with this new movement of the 
enemy emphasizing his whole tone. General Jackson 
soon began the business in hand. Once fairly at ease, 
he said : 

"'I recall. Captain Barringer, the talk you and 
I once had at my table in Lexington in the heated 
party struggle of 1860. Though differing in politics, 
we happened to agree as to the character of this war, 
if it once began. We both thought it would be inter- 


necine in its results. Xeither of us had any special 
concern for slavery, but both agreed that if the sword 
was once drawn, the South would have no alternative 
l)ut to defend her homes and firesides, slavery and all. 
1 myself see in this Avar, if the Xortli triumj)h, a disso- 
lution of the bonds of all society. It is not alone the 
destruction of our property (which both the nation 
and the States are bound to protect), but it is the prel- 
ude to anarchy, infidelity, and the ultimate loss of 
free responsible government on this continent. With 
these convictions, I alwavs thouo-ht ^ye ou^ifht to meet 
tlie Federal invaders on the outer verge of just right 
and defence, and raise at once the black flag, viz., 
" Xo quarter to the violators of our homes and fire- 
sides I" It would in the end have proved true human- 
ity and mercy. The Bible is full of such Avars, and it 
is the only policy that would bring the Xorth to its 

'• ' But,' he continued, ' I see now clearly enough 
the people of the South Avere not prepared for sucli 
a policy. I have myself cordially acce])ted the policy 
of our leaders. They are great and good men. Pos- 
sibly, too, as things then stood, no other ])olicy Avas 
left open to us than the one pursued by Pi^esident 
Davis and General Lee. But all this is now suddenly 
changed by the cruel and utterly barbarous orders of 
General Pope, Avho is not only subsisting his army 
on the people of Culpepper, and leA'ying contributions 
upon them, but has laid Avhole communities under 
the pains and penalties of death or banishment ; and 
in certain cases directed that liouses shall be razed 
to the ground, and citizens shot Avithout Avaiting civil 


•' ' This new phase of the struggle is full upon us, 
and General Lee is in great perplexity how to meet it. 
I have just had a conference with him on this vital 
point. Xo plan of campaign has as yet been agreed 
on. But I gave him frankly certain outlines of my 
own plan of waging the contest, which he considered 
favorably, and which he promised to lay before 
Mr. Davis, and tny to secure his approval, in whole 
or in part. In which event. Captain, I expect to 
need your services here, and I shall have to order 
you up.' 

"Thus far General Jackson had given me no clue 
to his own plans or policy, nor did I venture to ask 
them. But he suddenly changed his tone, and with 
marked directness said : ' I must tell you now why 
I sent for you. In the event of General Lee adopt- 
ing my plan of operations, I shall have to rely very 
much upon the cavalry arm of the service. In fact, 
mounted troops would be my main reliance ; and I 
wish to have a full talk with you in regard to that 
arm of the service. I have lately had a good deal of 
talk with General Stuart on the cavalr\^, and he is 
high in his praise of your First North Carolina Kegi- 
ment, and especially yourself and your company. 
He is delio'hted at the bearino^ of botli vourself and 
men in that little affair at Willis's Church the other 
day, and has called for a full report. He did not 
think any mounted troops could be made to stand 
iirm under such a fire. He says you are one of the 
few civilian oflBcers thoroughly imbued with the im- 
portance of cavalry drill and discipline. Kow, I wish 
to know^ how all this wonderful efficiency in your 
regiment has been brouglit about in so short a time, 


and in such an early stage of the war. I wish to 
know, too, something of t\iQ j^f^'f'sonnel of your officers. 
I may have use for a good many of them. I under- 
stand, of course, that much of all this is due to 
Colonels Kansom and Baker, regular West-Pointers; 
but I have some prejudices against the narrow ideas 
of the old army officers, and I seek to learn how the 
training of regular soldiers can be best imparted to 
the high-strung Southern citizen V 

"I then gave him the full details of our organiza- 
tion, camp methods, and the esjrrit de corps of both 
men and officers. He beamed with delight, and an- 
swered : ' You are fortunate to have such men to 
command, and the Confederacy fortunate to have 
such officers to lead them. AYith such troops 1 would 
not hesitate to risk a march even to Xew York or to 

" General Jackson then told me in confidence, as 
a Confederate officer, that he was already under 
marching orders to move against Pope in Culpepper. 
' But/ he said further, ' General Lee is now consid- 
ering certain special features of my war polic}^ as 
applicable to the present emergency, and as the 
onh^ way to check Pope's dastardly system of Avar- 
fare and plunder. Unfortunately, the Confederate 
authorities are fully committed to a different policy 
— in fact, to a very stilted style of waging war. 
In every aspect the situation is embarrassing. Mc- 
Clellan is nominally in command, and his mode of 
warfare is in strict conformity to the usages of civ- 
ilized nations. But here is Pope, right under the 
eye of Mr. Lincoln, violating all the so-called princi- 
ples of modern warfare, and manifestly expecting to 


supersede JMcClellan and desolate the South. With 
McClellan on one side of Kichmond, and Pope on 
the other, each with a vast army, and with their ap- 
parently opposing policies, it is impossible to choose 
your own special plan of campaign or to change 
your general military methods. But General Lee is 
equal to whatever emergency may arise, and I trust 
implicitly to his great ability and superior wisdom. 
All I can say is that he has (as I told you) heard 
certain suggestions of mine, and has promised me to 
consider their force and application, if circumstances 

" General Jackson next proceeded to give in full 
detail his ideas of the war — the general policy on 
which the South should (if possible even now) wage 
the conflict and defend its people, and the special 
plan of campaign he would inaugurate against Pope 
and the cities of the ]N"orth : 

" ' As to a general policy, I think it unwise to 
attempt to defend the whole of our extended lines, 
especially our extended coast and water line. The 
enemy largely exceed us in men and material of war, 
especially in naval appliances, and our limited supply 
of both troops and munitions of war would ultimate- 
ly be exhausted in a prolonged, gigantic struggle. 
To offset their palpable advantage in this respect, I 
would seek to utilize the special points in which the 
South clearly leads the North, and I would risk the 
whole issue on the development of these special 
characteristics, and the war policy based thereon. 
As 1 always said, my own first policy Avould have 
been the black flag to all comers against the safety 
of our Southern homes. Next to that, I would give 


up, as circumstances might seem to require, many 
exposed points and all untenable positions, and grad- 
ually concentrate our choicest fighting men and most 
valualjle material at a few strong interior camps, 
thoroughly fortified, and so located as best, at one 
and the same time, to protect our communications, 
defend our people and territory against invasions of 
the enemy, and also keep up ceaseless aggressions 
upon them. These counter-invasions would be the 
main feature of my policy. I would organize our 
whole available fighting force, so selected and locat- 
ed, into two, four, or more light movable columns, 
specially armed and trained and equipped for sudden 
moves and for long and rapid marches. These light 
movable columns I would hurl against the enemy 
as they entered our borders ; but only when sure of 
victory, and when the loss of an army was impossible. 
But better, I would hurl these thunderbolts of war 
against the rich cities and teeming regions of our 
Federal friends. I would seek to avoid all regular 
battles. I would subsist my troops, as far as pos- 
sible, on the ^Northern people. I Avould lay heavy 
contributions in money on their cities. I would en- 
cumber my marches with no prisoners, except noted 
leaders, held mainly as hostages for ransom or for re- 
taliation. All the rani; and file I would jy^'^ole^ hut 
onlij at the risk of life f the jyarole was molated. All 
this just as Pope is doing in Xorthern Virginia. I 
Avould train and practise the troops with special 
reference to the tactics of ''Attack and Eetreat." 
Hut })efore turning my back to the foe or the enemy's 
country, I Avould see that some other one or more of 
these '' movable columns '' was on the march, and 


striking at some other vital point — possibly hundreds 
of miles away. ' And so I would make it hot for our 
friends at tlielr homes and firesides, all the way to 
Kansas — " bleeding Kansas ;" and doubly so for Ohio 
and Pennsylvania. 

••'This programme would, of course, involve giving 
up much of our territory, and some large cities also, 
merely taking the chance of crossing tlie ]\Iississippi 
and other navigable streams. But it would save the 
risk of losing whole armies by capture, disease, or 
death in battle. My whole policy would aim to hus- 
band our resources of men, money, and material. At 
first, this policy might not have been so easily appre- 
ciated, but now our people begin to learn something 
of war. More important still, they begin to realize 
the scope and design of the Abolition element. Ben 
Butler, Fremont, and Pope are fast opening their 
eyes. The garrison and fortification policy has lost 
us whole armies at Donaldson and elsewhere, while 
the malaria of the oi'dinary camp and the coast Avill 
soon decimate our ranks, and possibly break the spirit 
of our people. We have just gained great victories 
here at Eichmond, and our troo2)s would now rejoice 
at the hope of an aggressive movement. That ]node 
of war best suits the temper of our people and the 
dash and daring of the Southern soldier, and I woukl 
right now seize the golden moment to show the North 
what they may expect. 

'* ' In a war thus waged, the cavalry and horse artil- 
lery would play a most important part. In fact, in 
certain operations I would depend almost entirely 
on mounted troops. The one vital advantage of the 
South lies in the horsemanship of the Southern boy, 


and the personal courage of the Southern freeman. 
And now is just the time to bring it to bear. See 
what Stuart has done in sweeping clear around 
McClellan's army. 

" ' But I well know that (Jeneral Lee is not at 
liberty to choose his own policy now. In three hours 
I may be on the march — possibly to flank McClellan, 
but more likely to fight Pope. In either event, the 
whole army may be put in motion, and no one can 
tell \vhere the campaign will end. But if the two 
main Federal armies remain stationary, and we can 
get a few days to turn around in. General Lee has 
assented to a single phase of my policy, so far as to 
promise me the organization of at least one of these 
" light movable columns," and with it I am to make 
the invasion, of course only at such point as may 
then seem open. 

" ' And now, my dear captain and brother, I have 
sent for you to say that in such a contingency I shall 
need 3'our services in some high position, and have 
ordered you up here to have a full conference in 
regard to the cavalry arm of the service, and espe- 
cially your own noble regiment.' 

" I here asked General Jackson, in case he should 
need me, in what way he thought I could best serve 
him. He answered promptly : .' In such a movement I 
would seek to reorganize my whole staff, and I should 
want you as quartermaster-general.' This toolc me 
somewhat by surprise, and I replied frankly that I 
was wholly without skill or experience as a staff-officer, 
and was, besides, under a sort of ]iledge to m}^ com- 
])any and their friends not to leave them except by 
promotion in the line. lie answered, pointedly: 


'Soldiers can give no such pledges, and as to your 
want of military training, I know your business repu- 
tation, and on an expedition of the kind suggested a 
good quartermaster is of the first importance. His re- 
sponsibilities would be very great ; he would be often 
called on to decide nice questions of military and inter- 
national law, and in emergencies would, besides, have 
to command and handle troops. My present quarter- 
master, Colonel Harman, is all I could desire except 
in these last particulars. I have, too, a single personal 
objection to the Colonel — sometimes he will sivear P 
But, laughing outright, he added : ' Captain, they 
say you cursed a little when you ordered that retreat 
at Willis's Church. I told them, however, I was sure 
it was only a joke they had on you. So,' he con- 
tinued, ' if General Lee can see his way to adopt my 
polic}^ so far as to organize a light movable column 
of forty thousand men, and I am put in charge to 
try this special mode of invasion, I will order you up 
for assignment.' Thus we talked on to a very late 
hour, General Jackson often repeating, ' All this may 
come to naught. If McClellan remains in command, 
such a policy could hardly be ventured upon. If 
Pope invites a battle and we beat him, the ivJiole 
arm}^ may have to pursue him. I should regret this ; 
but the emergencies of war often leave us no discre- 
tion. And General Lee will do just what the situa- 
tion requires.' 

"Finally, we both dropped into a sound sleep, from 
which I was suddenly aroused towards day by Jack- 
son calling me, and saying he thought he heard 
cannon. After listening a few moments, we each con- 
cluded it was some other sound, and again fell asleep. 


'^ Xot another word ever passed between General 
Jackson and myself on this subject. A few days 
changed all the conditions on which he had hoped 
General Lee might be induced to adopt either his 
general 'war policy' or his ' special plan of invasion/ 

'* The battle of Cedar Run forced Pope to retreat, 
and as General Lee did not care to assault the heavy 
lines and fortifications at Centre ville, he Avas virtu- 
ally left no alternative but to make the invasion of 
Maryland with the army as then organized. And 
with tliis course Jackson seemed fully satisfied. 

" I next met him at the close of the campaign, on 
the night of the terrible slaughter at Sharpsburg, 
September 17th, 1862. He was withdrawing part of 
his lines, for a little repose, towards the rear. I said, 
with some concern : General, isn't our army pretty 
badly worsted to-night ? He answered : * Yes, but 
oh I how I'd like to see the Yankee camp right now I' 
And then added, with a twinkle in his eye, ' If I only 
had my '• movable column I" ' 

"I saw him once more at Martinsburg, when his 
troops were destroying the track of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Eailroad, with the depot and machine- 

" After this I never met him again. AVhile the army 
Avas at Fredericksburg in the winter of '02-'63, we 
had a correspondence in regard to my accepting a 
position on the 'Military Court.' lie Avas greatly 
troubled about desertions, and the want of discipline 
among our troops, and Avas urging me to go on that 
tribunal. The assignment was not made ; but on the 
13th of February, 1S63, I think it Avas at his sugges- 
tion that the Virginia Company in charge of the large 


army stores at Hanover Junction, and the bridges 
near them, was sent back to its command, and my 
company ordered to that important army depot. 
I was there during the fights at Chancellorsville, 
and it became my duty to receive and forward the 
despatch from General Lee announcing at the same 
time the great Confederate victory and the mortal 
wound of Jackson. 

'' The telegraph and railroad lines were at this time 
all cut by the Stoneman Raiders, and I only succeeded 
in getting the despatch safely through by sending 
reliable couriers on fleet horses over different routes. 
But in a very few days the shout of victor}^ was 
hushed and stilled in the universal wail for our fallen 

" I now add a few facts and reflections proper 
to a full understanding of the whole subject: 

" 1. On my return to my command below Eichmond, 
after the interview with General Jackson, I was, of 
course, interrogated somewhat as to the object of my 
visit to his headquarters. 1 simply stated, what was 
pretty well known, that he was my brother-in-law, 
and that he was sounding me as to a staff position. 
I think I stated in some instances that he thouoht of 
me as his quartermaster-general. But I must add 
that General Jackson and I agreed fully on the sub- 
ject of nepotism, and that both would have spurned 
the idea of appointment to place or office merely be- 
cause of kinship or connection. 

" 2. In all he said to me, there was not one word of 
antagonism to Mr. Davis or the Confederate war pol- 
icy. He did not claim that the 2)olicy was errone- 
ous, or that his would be more likely to succeed. But 


it was a momentous question ; and as the struggle 
went on, new considerations arose, whicli his intuitive 
military mind grasped with all the clearness and 
force of genius. But he well knew alike his place 
and his duty, and he trusted with beautiful faith and 
hope to those in power above him, and to the guid- 
ance of an overruling Providence to direct all for the 

" But now, after the lapse of nearly a generation 
since the conversation occurred, and since the cause 
for wliich we fought went down in disaster and 
defeat, I think it my duty to Stonewall Jackson to 
give him the full credit of the strong and clear con- 
victions that he entertained, and which he, and he 
alone, seems to have had the courage to express. 
Possibly neither his war policy nor his plan of in- 
vasion could have given us success or independence. 
But we can now realize that either of these measures 
would have saved us the fearful losses at Sharps- 
burg, Murfreesboro', and Pranklin, and the capture 
of w^hole armies at Yicksburg and Port Hudson.-' 

"Possibly greater disasters than even these Avould 
have befallen our unfortunate people had this vigor- 
ous war ])olicy been actually adopted. But it is a 
high compliment to the modest professor at Lexing- 
ton to know that, when the supreme moment came 
for President Davis and General Lee to decide on 
the last and only chance left for escape and ultimate 
success, they both accepted, practically, this ' movable- 
column ]X)licy' of tiie departed Jackson, as laid down 
by him July 14th, 18^2, nearly three years before the 
catastro})lie came. When General Lee gave up Eich- 
inond and Petersburg, he frankly avowed his purpose 


to retire to the strongholds of our long mountain ranges, 
and there maintain the contest ; while Mr. Davis, in 
his last proclamation, at Danville, uttered these words : 
'EeUeved from the necessity of guarding particular 
points, our army will be free to move from point to 
point, to strike the enemy in detail,' and 'no longer 
forego opportunities for promising enterprises.^ And 
it is well known that the great strategist of the Con- 
federacy, General Joseph E. Johnston, always opposed 
the garrison-and-fortification policy as alike exhausting 
and dangerous. 

''Jackson alone stands forth the one advocate of 
'ceaseless invasion' as 'our safest hope' — the first 
conviction of his mind, and a policy in accord with 
Southern feeling, and which might have heen victo- 




After the terrible fatigues of the campaign around 
Richmond, it was a joyful moment when Jackson and 
his troops received orders (the campaign being over) 
to return to the valley. It Avas sad to think that they 
should leave thousands of their comrades behind 
them to sleep their last sleep near the city which they 
had given their lives to defend. Rut they, too, had 
suffered from hardships and exposure. Some were 
just out of the hospital walking on crutches, or with 
their arms in slings ; others had contracted diseases 
as deadly as wounds, but who felt new life from the 
thought of exchanging the swamps of the Chickahom- 
iny for the bracing air of their native mountains. 'No 
one had undergone more exposure than their com- 
mander, who had slept on the ground, and had the 
coarse fare of the common soldiers, so that lie and 
they were alike in the highest spirits when they set 
out on their return march. On the 19th of July they 
reached Gordonsville, from which Jackson writes to 
his wife : 

'* I liave been staying for a few days with Mrs. 
Barbour, mother-in-law of the Rev. Mr. Ewing, of our 
church, and luive received much kindness from her 
and her three daughters. My tent opens upon the Blue 


Eidge in the distance. The wagon-train is moving in 

The society and kindness of this Christian family 
were exceedingly congenial and refreshing to him, 
and after the duties of the day ^vere over he spent 
his leisure moments in their home circle, enjoying 
their hospitality, and amusing himself with the chil- 
dren of the household. One little girl, in particular, 
he made a special pet of, often taking her upon his knee 
and caressing her until she grew so fond of him that 
she asked him one day to give her as a keepsake one 
of the bright brass buttons from his coat when it was 
worn out. Months afterwards, although burdened 
with the most anxious and weighty cares of an ardu- 
ous campaign, he did not forget the request, and sent 
the promised button, which the delighted child pre- 
served as one of her greatest treasures. 

General Jackson found special pleasure in joining 
Mr. Ewing's household in their family worship, and 
w^henever requested would conduct prayers himself. 
Mr. Ewing thus describes these services : " There 
was something very striking in his prayers. He did 
not pray to men, but to God. His tones were deep, 
solemn, tremulous. He seemed to realize that he w^as 
speaking to Heaven's King. I never heard any one 
pray who seemed to be pervaded more fully by a 
spirit of self-abnegation. He seemed to feel more 
than any man I ever knew the danger of robbing 
God of the glory due for our success." 

After spending a few days at Gordonsville, he 
changed his quarters into the county of Louisa, near 
by, so as to find in that fertile region better pastur- 


asre for his liorsos. He also wished to be more retired 
and devote his lime to reorganizing his command, and 
frettiii"- both men and horses into better condition for 
futniv service. Just before this move he wrote from 
Gordonsville, on the 2Sth of July : 

'' My darling Avife, I am just overburdened Avith 
work, and I hope you will not think hard at receiving 
only very short letters from your loving husband. A 
number of officers are with me, but people keep com- 
ing: to mv tent — thouofh let me sav no more. A 
Christian should never complain. The apostle Paul 
said, ' 1 glory in tribulations !' What a bright ex- 
ample for others I" 

After ascertaining that the enemy were in large 
force under General Pope, combining the united com- 
mands of Fremont, Shields, Banks, and McDowell, 
making an army of at least fifty thousand men, Jack- 
son applied to General Lee for reinforcements. The 
division of A. P. Hill was immediateh^ sent to him, 
and, with this accession to his small army, Jackson 
had no intention of remaining idle or of awaiting an 
attack from so powerful a foe, but determined to strike 
a blow himself before the enemy had time to concen- 
trate all their forces, lie therefore advanced tow- 
ards them on the 7th of August. Before taking this 
step, it was observed that he was much in prayer, but 
this was his custom previous to every battle. Even 
upon the field he was often seen to lift his eyes and 
raise his right arm as if in earnest prayer, and some- 
times it seemed that Avhile his soul was thus lifted up 
in sup])lication, the Lord of hosts heard and answered, 
giving him the victory. 


Pope's army was gathering in all its strength at 
Culpepper Court-IIouse, and on the 9th of August 
Jackson's little army came iu contact with his ad- 
vance-guard about six miles from the Court-House, on 
tlie borders of a little stream called Cedar Eun. Here 
hostilities began by a furious cannonade on both sides, 
lasting two hours, when, about five o'clock in the 
afternoon, the infantry of both armies became hotly 
eno:ao:ed. The conflict was fierce and stubborn, but 
the overwhelming numbers of the enemy swept down 
with such impetuosity that the weaker party were 
forced to yield, and it looked as if it were doomed to 
destruction. Ewell, Early, A. P. Hill, Winder, and 
otlier commanders all fought their bravest and best — 
the gallant AVinder receiving a mortal wound — and 
still they were pressed back. " It was at this fearful 
moment," says his late chief -of -staff , Dr. Dabne}^, "that 
the genius of the storm reared his head, and in an 
instant the tide was turned. Jackson appeared in the 
mid-torrent of the highway, his face flaming with the 
inspiration of battle : he ordered the batteries which 
Winder had placed to be instantly withdrawn to pre- 
serve them from capture ; he issued his summons for 
his reserves ; he drew his own sword (the first time in 
the war), and shouted to the broken troops with a 
voice which pealed higher than the roar of battle : 
' Kally, brave men, and press forward I Your gen- 
eral will lead you ! Jackson will lead you ! Follow 
me !' This appeal was not in vain, and the Federals, 
startled by this unexpected rally, were driven from 
the field. They afterwards made an attempt to re- 
trieve the fortunes of the day, which they had so 
nearly won. by an assault from a mao^nificent body of 


cavalr}', but even this was repelled, and the troopers 
driven in full retreat." 

That night eTackson bivouacked with his troops. 
Finding ev^ery house tilled with the wounded, he de- 
clined to enter, saying the sufferers needed a place for 
rest more than he did. He was so utterly worn out 
that he threw himself upon a grass-plot — one of his 
staff kindly spreading a cloak to add to his comfort 
— and here, underneath the star-lit canopy of heaven, 
he found that rest and sleep which his wearied frame 
so much demanded. When offered food his reply was : 
'' Ko, I want rest, nothing but rest /" 

Two days after the battle he wrote to his wife : 

'* On last Saturday our God again crowned our 
arms with victory, about six miles from Culpepper 
Court-House. I can hardly think of the fall of Brig- 
adier-General C. S. Winder without tearful eyes. 
Let us all unite more earnestly in imploring God's 
aid in fighting our battles for us. The thought that 
there are so many of God's ])eople praying for His 
blessing upon the army greatl}^ strengthens and en- 
courages me. The Lord has answered their prayers, 
and my trust is in Him, that He will continue to do 
so. H" God be for us, who can be against us ? That 
He will still be with us and give us victory until our 
independence shall be established, and that He will 
make our nation that people Avliose God is the Lord, 
is my earnest and oft -repeated prayer. While we 
attach so much imj)ortance to being free from tem- 
poral bondage, we must attach far more to being free 
from the bondage of sin." 


This battle of Cedar Run Jackson himself pro- 
nounced tlie most successful of his exploits. But lie 
announced it to his commander-in-chief, General Lee, 
in these devout and modest terms : 

^' August 11th, G.30 A. M. On the evening of the 
9th, God blessed our arms with another victory. The 
battle was near Cedar Run, about six miles from 
Culpepper Court -House. The enemy, according to 
statements of prisoners, consisted of Banks'S, McDow- 
elFs, and SigeFs commands. We have over four hun- 
dred prisoners, including Brigadier- General Price. 
Whilst our list of killed is less than that of the enemy, 
we have to mourn the loss of some of our best officers 
and men. Brigadier-General Charles S. Winder was 
mortally wounded whilst ably discharging his duty at 
the head of his command, which was the advance of 
the left wing of the army. We have collected about 
fifteen hundred small-arms and other ordnance stores." 

In his official report, he pays this tribute to the 
late commander of the Stonewall Brfgade, the brave 
General Winder : 

" It is difficult within the proper reserve of an offi- 
cial report to do justice to the merits of this accom- 
plished officer. Urged by the medical director to take 
no part in the movements of the day, because of the 
enfeebled state'of his health, his ardent patriotism and 
military pride could bear no such restraint. Richly 
endowed with those qualities of mind and person 
which fit an officer for command, and which attract 
the admiration and excite the enthusiasm of troops, 


he was rapidly rising to the front rank of his profes- 
sion. His loss lias been severely felt." 

The report closes as follo^ys : 

" In order to render thanks to Almighty God for 
the victory at Cedar Eun, and other victories, and 
to implore His continued favor in the future, divine 
service was held in the army on the 14th of August." 

In this battle the Confederates had between eigh- 
teen and twenty thousand men engaged. Avhile the 
Federals, according to their own returns, had thirty- 
two thousand. Jackson, however, had one incalcu- 
lable advantage over the enemy, which he gained by 
his promptitude in seizing and holding Slaughters 
Mountain — an elevation which commanded all the 
surrounding plains, and enabled him to overlook the 
whole scene of action as it lay beneath him. and to 
pour down the volleys of his artillery upon tlie foe, 
while his own gunners were secure from a returning 
fire, in consequence of the elevation of their position. 
It was to the advantage of this position as well as 
the bravery of his troops that he was indebted for his 
complete success. 

By this victory Pope received such a blow that he 
was deterred from making another advance until he 
could gather reinforcements. Burnside's corps was 
withdrawn from North Carolina and sent on to Cul- 
})epper Court-IIouse, and it was believed that JMcClel- 
lan's remaining forces would be recalled from James 
River and sent also to swell the ranks of the grand 
" Army of Virginia," as the command of Pope was 


called. At all events, General Lee was convinced 
that ]McClellan was incapable of further aggression, 
and that the most effective way to dislodge him from 
the Peninsula was to threaten Washington ! He 
therefore determined to move his army from Rich- 
mond to Gordonsville. He began his march on the 
13th, and four days after, on the ITth, McClellan 
evacuated the Peninsula and removed his troops to 
the Potomac. 

On the 15th, as soon as the troops from Eich- 
mond began to arrive, Jackson left Gordonsville, and 
marched to the base of Clarke's Mountain, on a peak 
of which he had established a signal station, which 
commanded a vie\v of the enemy's encampment along 
the Orange Railroad. After General Lee joined him, 
with their united forces he was most impatient to 
push on in pursuit of the enemy on the 18th, and cut 
off his line of retreat ; but General Lee, owing to the 
dilatoriness of a part of his subordinates, deemed it 
best to restrain Jackson's impetuosity, and postponed 
the advance until the 20th, to give his troops more 
time for preparation. By this delay the success of 
Jackson's design was frustrated, for on the night 
of the 18th the Federals obtained information from 
a party of colored deserters from the Confederate 
camp which so alarmed them that the next day, 
when General Lee ascended Clarke's Mountain to 
take a look at their encampment, he saw their tents 
gradually disappearing, and the work went steadily 
on until the whole of Pope's vast army " folded their 
tents like the Arabs, and silently stole away !" The 
object of Pope was to place the Rappahannock be- 
tween himself and his pursuers. General Lee now 


hastened to pursue, and at an early hour on the 
morninir of tlie !^(»th the whole Confederate army 
was put in motion. General Stuart's splendid division 
of cavalry, with its usual daring-, dashed across the 
Itaii})ahannock, and after skinnisliing a few hours 
and capturing some prisoners, returned to report 
Pope's whole army massed upon the northern bank 
of the Eappahannock, with a powerful artillery pre- 
pared to dispute the passage of General Lee. His 
position on that side of the river was far more safe 
and defensible than when Jackson proposed to attack 
him on the ISth. General Lee now ordered Jackson 
to cross the Eappahannock high up, and by a forced 
march go to Manassas and get in Po]ie's rear. Other 
divisions were sent to Pope's front, and the two hos- 
tile armies marched along on either side of the stream, 
opening fire upon each other whenever the opportunity 
offered. Jackson continued his march up stream until 
he reached AVarrenton Springs, on the 22d, where he 
found the bridge destroyed, but he passed Early's bri- 
gade over on a mill-dam, and took possession of the 
Springs. Before other troops could be crossed to his 
support, a sudden and heavy rain -fall swelled the 
river so as to render it impassable, and Early was 
thus cut off from his friends and surrounded by the 
enemy. His situation Avas one of extreme peril, but he 
managed to conceal his troops in the woods, and hold his 
foes at bay with artillery, until Jackson liad construct- 
ed a temporary bridge, and by the dawn of the morn- 
ing of the 24th the gallant Early, Avitli his command, 
had recrossed the river without the loss of a man. 

While a fierce artillery duel was soinff on across 
the river between A. P. Hill and the enemy, Jack- 


son left the river-bank a few miles, and marched to 
the village of Jeffersonton. He was thns lost sight 
of by the Federals, and to Longstreet was given 
the task of amusing Pope by the appearance of a 
crossing at Warren ton Springs. Jackson was now 
preparing to obey Lee's order to separate himself 
from the rest of the army, pass around Pope to 
the westward, and place his corps between him and 
Washington at Manassas Junction. Leaving behind 
him all his trains, except ambulances and carriages 
for ammunition, and making a hasty issue of rations, he 
started from Jeffersonton early on the morning of the 
25th of August. On that day he wrote a hurried note 
to his wife, not alluding to his movements, but saying : 

'• The enemy has taken a position, or rather several 
positions, on the Fauquier side of the Rappahannock. 
I have only time to tell you how much I love my 
little pet dove." 

Although his troops had been constantly marching 
and fighting for five days, and subsisting upon insuffi- 
cient rations, supplemented by the green corn of the 
fields along their route, yet they did not lose their 
enthusiasm and devotion to their indefatigable leader. 
Towards the close of the day he had gone in ad- 
vance of the column, and, dismounting, had stepped 
upon a large stone by the roadside, probably to in- 
spect his arm}^ as they passed by. As he stood upon 
this elevation, with uplifted cap, the sunset glow ir- 
radiating his noble face and figure, his men, as they 
caught sight of him, began to cheer, but he quickly 
indicated by a gesture that silence must be preserved, 


in order not to betray their presence to the enemy, 
Down the cohnnn Avere passed the words, ''No 
cheering, l)oys; the general re(]uests it," and the com- 
mand was instantly obeyed ; ])ut as the soldiers passed 
their general, they waved their caps in the air, and 
their eyes bespoke the cheer which their lips had 
been forbidden to utter. As the columns marched by 
in this loyal and devoted spirit, General Jackson 
turned to his staff, with a face beaming with pleasur- 
able emotion, and exclaimed : " Who could not con- 
quer with such troops as these?" 

Thus always, whatever his army achieved, his mod- 
esty led liim to ascribe it to his brave men, feeling 
liimself to be but an hum])le instrument in the hand 
of God. 

With such a leader to inspire them, Jackson s corps 
marched fifty miles in two days, capturing all their 
supplies from the enemy, and reached Bristol Station, 
by which they accomplished their object, that of 
placing themselves between Pope and Washington — 
a perilous j)osition, as they were now cut off from 
General Lee, with the whole of Pope's army in their 
front. General Stuart, with his cavalry, was guard- 
ing the right flank, and his promptness and efficiency 
were invaluable to Jackson, enabling him to carry out 
his plans of secrecy and rapidity of movement. Upon 
arriving at Bristol Station, the first object of Jackson 
was to get possession of the vast stores of the enemy 
at Manassas Junction, four miles farther north. So 
much did he realize this necessity that he determined 
to press on that night, and not to wait until morning, 
and thus give the enemy time to destroy the stores. 
So completely were his brave sokliers in sympathy 


with him that General Trimble, with his Twenty-first 
North CaroUna and Twenty-first Georgia regiments, 
volunteered for this service, and, supported by a de- 
tachment of Stuart's cavalry, with Stuart himself in 
command of the whole, the work was undertaken, 
and resulted in complete success. The Confederates 
captured all the vast stores, consisting of every- 
thing which their army needed, took several hundred 
prisoners, two hundred and fifty horses, with im- 
mense commissary and quartermaster's supplies. To 
this disaster Pope ascribed his defeat in the three 
days' sanguinary struggle which ensued upon the 
plains of Manassas, alleging that his army had been 
compelled to fight without sufiicient rations and am- 

On the morning of the 2Tth, Jackson went to the 
relief of Trimble, who had been all night under arms, 
taking a part of his command, and leaving the rest to 
watch Pope, with orders to rejoin him, if necessary, 
at Manassas. Almost immediately after Jackson's 
arrival upon the scene, a Federal detachment began 
an attack, but, mistaking the strength of the Con- 
federates, were soon compelled to retire in confusion. 
Their own guns were captured and turned against 
them, making such havoc in their ranks that Jack- 
son's heart was moved with compassion, and he 
dashed forward alone, at the risk of his life, and 
waved a white handkerchief, as a signal of truce to 
them to accept quarter. The reply to this was a 
volley from their guns, and, seeing his offer refused, 
he hastened back to his men and ordered them to 
proceed with their work. The opposing force Avas 
quickly overcome; the commander fell mortally 


wounded and was left upon the field, while his men 
were ])ursued and scattered. 

Jackson now gave his troops a short rest, and per- 
mitted them to refresh themselves with the rich spoils 
which they had captured from the enemy. As it was 
impossible for them to remove all these vast stores, 
the men Avere allowed to help themselves to all that 
they conld consume and carry away, and the remain- 
der was destroyed, to prevent its falling again into the 
hands of the enemy. The new clothing, boots, hats, 
and tempting eatables were a rare treat to the hungry 
soldiers, who had marched twenty -five and thirty 
miles a day, and had fed principally on green corn 
and apples gathered by the way. Bnt after a few 
hours of this high carnival, they had again to buckle 
on their armor. The forces which Jackson had left 
at Bristol Station under Ewell had been attacked, 
and after a brave resistance had been withdrawn to 
join Jackson at Manassas. This was in obedience to 
Jackson's order, and was managed with so much skill 
that not a single man was captured in the retreat ; 
the stream separating Bristol from Manassas was 
safely crossed, and the railroad bridge was burned. 
One division was sent that night across the Warrenton 
and Alexandria Turnpike, and halted near the battle- 
field of the first jManassas. The next morning, the 2Sth, 
the two remaining divisions, after marching in differ- 
ent directions, joined the first, and Stuart's cavalry, 
after making a circuit as far as Fairfax Court-IIouse, 
was also brought up on the fianks of the infantry, 
and the whole command was now concentrated north 
of the Warrenton Turn])ike. The left w^ing rested on 
Bull Itun, the right extended towards the road lead- 


ing from Thorouglifare Gap, through which Long- 
street, Avith his corps, was expected to come up to 
the support of Jackson. 

Thus far Jackson had been entirely successful in 
executing the instructions of General Lee in placing 
his corps between Pope and the Federal capital, but 
his position was becoming more and more critical ; for 
if Longstreet, by any reason, should fail in coming up 
to time, there was danger of Jackson's small army 
of only eighteen thousand men being crushed by the 
sheer w^eight of the greatly superior numbers of the 
whole Federal army, which he had drawn upon 
himself through liis daring and rapid movement. 
Scarcely had he completed the disposition of his 
troops, when the enemy were discovered to be advanc- 
ing along the Warrenton turnpike in heavy force. 
Suspecting that they might be retreatmg to Alex- 
andria to avoid an engagement, Jackson determined 
to attack them, even at the risk of his own safety. 
He had no idea of letting the enemy escape him, and 
he lost no time in striking them on the flank as they 
passed, thereby arresting their march and compelling 
them to come to a stand. The Confederate batteries, 
having an elevated position, opened such a fierce 
cannonade that the enemy w^ere forced to return it, 
and a short time before sunset a furious and bloody 
battle began, and continued until about nine o'clock, 
wdien the enemy retired under cover of darkness, 
leaving the field in the possession of the Confederates. 
In this engagement two of General Jackson's major- 
generals, Ewell and Taliaferro, w^ere wounded ; the 
former losing a leg, but he was subsequently able to 
resume his command. 


On the morninir of the 29th Jackson discovered that 
the enemy were preparing to give battle, and, if possi- 
ble, crush him l)efore he could receive reinforcements. 
To both officers and men the danger of their situation 
was so imminent that all eyes were anxiously turned 
towards Thoroughfare Gap, to see Longstreet coming 
to their relief. Early in the morning clouds of dust in 
that direction raised their hopes, but it proved to be a 
body of the enemy who had occupied that pass the 
day before for the purpose of intercepting Longstreet's 
passage, and were now retiring to Bristol. At ten 
o'clock Jackson's right flank was attacked by a heavy 
cannonade from the enemy's batteries, which was re- 
turned Avitli ]iromptness and spirit. A general and 
terrible conflict now threatened, and Jackson's lines, 
thouo'h thinned bv battle and almost exhausted bv 
their extraordinary exertions, yet stood heroically at 
bay. Soon, however, their anxious hopes were real- 
ized when Stuart's couriers came dashing up and an- 
nounced the ap})roach of Longstreet. Already great 
clouds of dust were seen arising over Thoroughfare 
Gap, and the expected troops, stimulated by the sound 
of the cannonading, were hurrying forward to the 
relief of their struggling comrades. Stuart conducted 
them in safety to Jackson, and the union of the two 
corps was effected, and infused new life and spirit 
into the whole Confederate ranks. After Longstreet's 
arrival, the enemy changed position, and the battle 
continued for many hours with stubborn and relent- 
less fui-y on both sides. The Federals displayed great 
valor, six times rushing forward in separate and deter- 
mined assaults, but were each time repulsed. About 
two o'clock thev hurled their masses of infantry with 


perfect desperation against Jackson's wing, but, as line 
after line advanced to close quarters, it was only to 
be mowed down and driven baclv in dismay and con- 
fusion. The conflict raged until many of the Confed- 
erate infantry had exhausted their cartridges ; but they 
declared they would hold their position with the bay- 
onet, and some of them did thus hold it, wdiile others 
seized the stones of tlie field and fought with them. 
AVhile Jackson's corps was struggling against these 
furious onslaughts, Longstreet was engaged in equally 
severe and bloody work in resisting the forces that 
were brought against him. The army of Pope was 
reinforced by a corps of McClellan from the Penin- 
sula, and with this new enemy Longstreet Avas engaged 
until nine o'clock at night, driving back his assailants 
and capturing a number of prisoners and trophies. 
Darkness then closed this second day of carnage, and 
the weary Confederates slept upon their arms, in pos- 
session of the lines which they had so gallantly held. 

That nio-ht, when Jackson and his staff came too-ether 
for a few hours' sleep under the open sky, their pale 
faces did not indicate the success of the day, for their 
hearts were heavy with sorrow at the fall of many of 
the best and bravest of their army, and around them, 
in the darkness, lay the wounded and dying. Wearied 
and sad, they spoke but little beyond inquiries and 
remarks concerning the occurrences of this event- 
ful day. The medical director, Doctor McGuire, in 
speaking of the terrible conflict, said : '• General, this 
day has been w^on by nothing but stark and stern fight- 
ing." "IS^o," replied Jackson, "it has been won by 
nothing but the blessing and protection of Provi- 
dence." After the fatigues and horrors of the day 


were over, tlie eliaplains, who had occupied themselves 
in carinj^ tor the wounded, collected in groups all the 
men that could be found off duty, and led them in 
prayer and praise to the Captain of their salvation. 
Before another sun had set, many of these worshippers 
were among the throng around the great white throne. 

General Lee, having ari*ived with Longstreet upon 
the scene of action, the morning of the 30tli found the 
commander-in-chief at the head of his army, upon the 
ground which his subordinates had so stoutly held 
against all the assaults of the previous day, and calm- 
ly awaiting the attack. Jackson held the left wing, 
Longstreet the right, and the artillery occupied an ele- 
vated ridge in the centre, commanding the fronts of 
both wings. 

The Confederates stood solely upon the defensive, 
and possessed such advantages in position that it might 
be said the battle was won before it was fought. The 
Federals showed their wisdom in delaying hostilities 
until late in the afternoon. The morning was marked 
by only an occasional cannonade upon different por- 
tions of the Confederate lines, with slight skirmishes, 
and the great attack was not made until four o'clock. 
Then the struggle began in earnest — the Federals 
making a most gallant charge — three lines advancing 
in dense masses, and dashing like great billows against 
their opponents. As each line recoiled before the 
murderous fire with which it was met, another fol- 
lowed with still more determination, and the struira'le 
I'aged with furious desperation, until the Confederates 
exhausted their ammunition. 

For about half an hour the brunt of the battle was 
borne by Jackson's lines, and finding them wavering 


at several points, Longstreet was ordered to his assist- 
ance. But before the order was received, Longstreet, 
perceiving and embracing an opportunity of pouring 
his artillery into the advancing ranks, turned the tide 
against them. This gave the Confederates time to 
rally, and they dashed forward with renewed enthu- 
siasm and vigor. Both of their wings were ordered 
to close in upon the foe, while the artillery dealt a 
deadly and terrific fire into his lines, causing them to 
break just as darkness, intensified by the smoke of 
battle and an impending storm, gathered over the ter- 
rible scene. At ten o'clock the third day of this great 
battle came to an end, and the wearied Confederates 
lay down to seek rest upon a victorious field, but 
found only a watery bivouac under the beating of a 
continuous rain, while all night long was heard the 
tramp of the enemy retreating to the heights of Cen- 
tre vi lie. 

In this three days' battle the Confederate loss was 
very heavy, but the battle-field revealed the fact that 
that of the Federals was far greater. Their surgeons, 
under a flag of truce, ministered to the wounded, 
many days being consumed in the work, and num- 
bers of lives were sacrificed by delay in receiving 
attention. The estimate was that in this series of 
battles the total Confederate loss was about seventy- 
five hundred men, eleven hundred of whom were slain 
upon the field. Jackson's proportion of the loss in 
officers and men greatly exceeded that of the rest of 
the army, in consequence of his fighting the first day 
without the support of reinforcements, and subse- 
quently the enemy seemed to select his lines chiefly 
as the points of the most furious attacks. In all the 


long struggle lie lost only thirty-five men by ca])ture, 
Avhile the prisoners on the other side were estimated 
at seven thousand, in addition to two thousand left 
wounded upon the battle-field. Twenty thousand 
small-arms, thirty pieces of artillery, numerous colors, 
and a large amount of army stores fell into the hands 
of the Confederates. In reviewing the whole, Jack- 
son thus closes his report : 

'' For these great and signal victories our sincere 
and humble thanks are due unto Almighty God. We 
should in all things acknowledge the hand of Him 
who reigns in heaven and rules among the armies of 
men. In view of the arduous labors and great priva- 
tions the troops were called to endure, and the isolated 
and perilous position which the command occupied 
while engaged with greatly superior numbers of the 
enemy, Ave can l)ut express the grateful conviction 
that God was with us, and gave us the victory ; and 
unto His holy name be all the praise." 

Dr. Dabney says : " Few words are needed to point 
out the share which Jackson and his corps merited 
in the glory of the second victory of Manassas, To 
the rapidity of his march, the promptitude and skill 
of his action in seizing and destroying the Junc- 
tion, the wisdom which guided his selection of a posi- 
tion, and the heroic tenacity with which he held it 
against feai'ful odds until the arrival of General Lee, 
was th(? splendid result chiefly due. It was so or- 
dered as if to illustrate the superior prowess of the 
Confederate soldiery, that in this battle the positions 
of the combatants in July, lsr)l, were almost precisely 


reversed. The ground held by Jackson in the second 
battle was that held by McDowell in the first ; and 
tlie ground from which the Confederates drove Pope 
at nightfall, the 30th of August, was that from which 
McDowell could not drive them on the 21st of July ; 
while the preponderance of numbers was still upon 
the Federal side/' 

On the 1st of September General Jackson wrote to 
his wife : 

" We were engaged with the enemy at and near 
Manassas Junction Tuesday and Wednesday, and again 
near the battle-field of Manassas on Thursday, Friday, 
and Saturday ; in all of which God gave us the vic- 
tory. May He ever be with us, and we ever be His 
devoted people, is my earnest prayer. It greatly en- 
courages me to feel that so many of God's people are 
praying for that part of our force under my com- 
mand. The Lord has answered their prayers ; He has 
again placed us across Bull Run; and I pray that 
He will make our arms entirel}^ successful, and that 
all the glory will be given to His holy name, and 
none of it to man. God has blessed and preserved 
me through His great mercy. On Saturday, Colonel 
Baylor and Hugh White were both killed, and Willie 
Preston was mortally wounded." 

Hugh White was the son of his pastor, a candidate 
for the ministry, and was one of the purest and no- 
blest of characters, as was also young Preston, who 
combined great beauty of youthful manhood with 
fervent piety and the brightest promise. They were 


botli Lexington Ijovs, from General Jackson's own 
church, and sons of his dearest friends. 

On the morning of the 1st of September, General 
Jackson's soldiers arose from the wet ground, cold and 
comfortless, and, after refreshing themselves with food 
and warmth from camp-fires, were ordered to march. 
Longstreet was to remain to bury the dead and gath- 
er up the spoils. Stuart repoi'ted the enemy as hav- 
ing raUied upon tlie heights of Centre ville, and occu- 
])ying a ])owerful hne of works, capable of defence 
either in front or rear, which General Joseph E. 
Johnston had constructed the first winter of the war. 
Here Pope's shattered army had taken refuge, and, 
with large reinforcements from McClellan, once more 
presented a front, and General Jackson was directed 
to turn their position, and, if possible, compel them 
to retreat without a battle. To accomplish this, he 
marched through circuitous country roads, which 
brought him up far in the rear of Centreville. As 
soon as the enemy perceived this unexpected mov^e- 
]nent, they resumed their retreat, but upon approach- 
ing Fairfax Court -House they found Jackson pre- 
pared to attack them. A sudden and spirited engage- 
ment, known as that of Ox Hill, took place, the enemy 
making such a brave and desperate resistance that 
at last victory seemed almost within their grasp ; but 
after a short and bloody struggle the tide again turn- 
ed, and they once more took up their line of retreat, 
and disappeared in the darkness. 



The invaders had now retreated in full force from 
I^orthern Virginia, leaving only a few fortified posts 
along the frontier, Avhile the shattered armies of both 
Pope and McClellan sought shelter in the strong- 
fortifications of AYashington, from which they had so 
recently marched in immense numbers and with 
splendid equipment, in the confident expectation of 
annihilating the Confederate army. Pope's boast had 
been that during his campaign his headquarters 
should be in the saddle, and that he would subsist his 
troops on the invaded country, authorizing them to 
appropriate from the inhabitants all the horses and 
provisions which they could make use of, and to de- 
stroy what they could not use. He also demanded 
that all citizens within his lines should take an oath 
of allegiance to the Federal government, or be ban- 
ished South, threatening that they should be executed 
as spies in case of their return. Fortunate was it for 
tlie Virginians that this cruel and boastful command- 
er had so short and inglorious a reign. 

The success of the Confederates thus far, with an 
inferior force against greatly superior numbers, now 
emboldened General Lee to conceive the plan of 
taking the aggressive, and pursuing his advantage 
bv an invasion of Marvland. It was desirable that 


Virginia slioulcl have a respite from the ravages of 
the two irreat contendinfi: armies, which had so lontr 
made it their field of battle ; and as ^Maryland had 
been a Southern State, and was full of Southern 
sympathy, it was hoped that the appearance of Lee's 
army would stimulate her people to aid in achiev- 
ing independence. From the beginning of the Avar, 
many [Marvlanders had been in the Southern army, 
and it had no braver men or better soldiers. In 
consequence of its forced marches and many hard- 
fought battles, it was poorly equipped for an invasion ; 
but the great success hitherto, and the high spirit of 
his men, gave confidence to their commander, and the 
army was pat in motion for the Potomac — Jackson's 
corps having rested only one day after the battle of 
Ox Hill. Avhich closed with the night of September 
1st, in a thunder-storm and deluge of rain. The first 
day tliey marched to Dranesville, and on the second 
reached Leesburg. 

The fame of Stonewall Jackson having spread far 
and wide, the people were eager to catch a glimpse of 
him whenever his march led him near their homes. 
Crowds pressed upon him, and ardent admirers would 
sometimes throw their arms round the neck of his horse. 
Attentions were showered upon him by the old and 
young, and were often of so enthusiastic a nature as 
to really embarrass him. As an instance of this, while 
he Avas passing through Leesburg a lady was seen 
standino; in her doorwav, who, on havino^ her hero 
pointed out to her, ran out into the middle of the 
street, and, divesting herself of a scarf, threw it before 
liis horse. AVith his characteristic modesty, he did 
not comprehend that this was meant to do him honor. 


and, reining up, he looked witli puzzled inquiry first at 
the lady, who had retired to the sidewalk, and then 
at the scarf in front of his horse's feet. One of his 
young staff officers, seeing his perplexity, explained to 
iiim in a stage whisper : '^ She means you to ride over 
it, general." As soon as he understood the delicate 
tribute which she intended, he turned to her with a 
beaming smile, and, taking off his cap, gallantly rode 
over the scarf. 

On the 5th of September General Jackson's com- 
mand crossed the Potomac at AYhite's Ford. The 
river here is only about half a mile wide, and having a 
level and pebbly bottom, from two to three feet deep, 
the infantry were able to ford the stream. As the 
troops came in sight of the river, they quickened their 
steps, and as line after line planted their feet upon 
Maryland soil, they rent the air with enthusiastic 

As soon as they had crossed, the first work to be 
done was to destroy the locks of the canal, thus drain- 
ing off its waters and preventing its navigation. On 
the 6th the army occupied the Baltimore and Ohio 
Eailroad and entered Frederick City. Here a Mary- 
land gentleman welcomed General Jackson by pre- 
senting him with a superb horse, and a few hundred 
young men joined the ranks of the Southern army. 
Just as soon as his troops became the invaders, he 
issued the most stringent orders against straggling, 
depredation upon property, and every species of rapine 
or trespass, and his well-disciplined soldiers proved 
their obedience by a respect for private rights and 
a magnanimous forbearance that were in striking 
contrast with the conduct of the Federal army while 


in Yiro-inia. At Frederick, Jackson rested with his 
troops four days, and the day after his arrival being 
the Sabbath, lie attended divine Avorship. It was a 
noteworthy fact tliat the people of the place attended 
their various churches with as much freedom and se- 
curity as if they were not within tiie lines of an in- 
vading army. Of the service he wrote to his wife the 
next day, September 8th : 

..." Last evening I attended a German llcf ( )rmed 
churcli in Frederick City. I was not quite near 
enough to hear all the sermon [his modesty had led 
him to take a back seat], and I regret to say fell 
asleep; but had I been near enough to hear, would 
probably not liave been so unfortunate. The minister 
is a gifted one, and the building beautiful. The pews 
are arranged m a circular form, so that every person 
faces the pulpit. The town appears to be a charming 
place, neat and beautiful. The ladies and gentlemen 
were sitting in front of the doors, and all looked so 
comfortable, and I may say elegant, according to my 
ideas, and their enjoyment looked so genuine, that 
my heart was in sympathy Avith the surroundings. 
If such scenes could only surround me in Lexington, 
how my heart would, under a smiling Providence, 
rejoice I" 

Whittier's celebrated war poem, " Barbara Friet- 
chie," claims to be founded upon an incident Avhicli 
was supposed to have taken place upon the entrance 
of General Jackson with his tix)()ps into Frederick 
City. The story is l)est told in the ])oet's own melo- 
dious language, the part relating to General Jackson 
and his troops only being quoted : 


" On that pleasant morn of the early fall 
When Lee marclied over the mountain wall- 
Over the mountains winding down, 
Horse and foot, into Frederick town — 
Forty flags with their silver stars, 
Forty flags with their crimson bars, 
Flapped in the morning wind : the sun 
Of noon looked down, and saw not one. 
Up rose old Barbara Frietchie then, 
Bowed with lier fourscore years and ten ; 
Bravest of all in Frederick town. 
She took up the flag the men hauled down : 
In her attic window the staflf she set. 
To show one heart was loyal yet. 
Up the street came the rebel tread, 
Stonewall Jackson riding ahead. 
Under his slouched hat, left and right 
He glanced ; the old flag met his sight. 
' Halt I' — the dust-brown ranks stood fast. 
'Fire!' — out blazed tlie rifle blast; 
It shivered the window, pane and sasli ; 
It rent the banner with seam and gasli. 
Quick, as it fell from the broken staff", 
Dame Barbara snatched the silken scarf; 
She leaned far out on tlie window-sill. 
And shook it forth witli a royal will. 
' Shoot, if you must, this old gray head, 
But spare your country's flag,' she said. 
A shade of sadness, a blush of shame. 
Over the face of the leader came; 
The nobler nature within him stirred 
To life at that woman's deed and word : 
' Who touches a hair of yon gray head 
Dies like a dog I Marcli on I' he said. 

* :i< * >;= * He 

Honor to her 1 and let a tear 

Fall, for her sake, on Stonewall's bier." 

Alas for the poet ! that rude hands should have to 


sweep away this graphic picture, which his many ad- 
mirers have so long regarded as drawn from life ; but 
I have been told by members of (General Jackson's 
staff that this pretty story Avas a myth. This is con- 
firmed by Dame Barbara's own nephew, A'alerius 
Ebert, of Frederick City, who writes to a Xorthern 
paper : 

..." As to the waving of the Federal flag in the 
face of the rebels by Dame Barbara on the occasion 
of Stonewall Jackson's march through Frederick, 
truth requires me to say that Stonewall Jackson, with 
his troops, did not pass Barbara Frietchie's residence 
at all ; but passed through what in this city is called 
'* The Mill Alley/' about three hundred yards from 
her residence, then passed due west towards Antie- 
tara, and thus out of the city. But another and still 
stronger fact w4th regard to this matter may be here 
presented — viz. : the poem by AVhittier represents our 
venerable relative (then ninety -six years of age) as 
nimljly ascending to her attic window and waving 
her small Federal flag defiantly in the face of Stone- 
wall Jackson's troops. Xow, Dame Barbara was at 
the moment bed-ridden and helpless, and had lost 
the power of locomotion. She could at that period 
only move, as she Avas moved, by the hel]:) of her at- 
tendants. These are the facts, proving that AVhittier s 
poem upon this subject is pure liction." 

The bold step of General Lee in the invasion 
of Maryland spread consternation at "Washington ; 
and President Lincoln, realizing tlie paramount im- 
portance of protecting the capital, no immediate ac- 


tioii was taken to follow the invading army. Upon 
the arrival of the whole Confederate army at 
Frederick, General Lee held a consnltation with his 
leading generals as to a plan of future operations. 
Although the mass of the Federal troops had retired 
to Washington, Harper's Ferry had not yet been 
evacuated, as General Lee had hoped, and this en- 
dangered the safety of his army. It had been his 
design to proceed with his command into Western 
Maryland, keeping up his communications with Eich- 
mond through the Shenandoah Yalley, and to threaten 
Pennsylvania, thus hoping to draw the enemy after 
him, and aAvay from their base of supplies. But with 
the Federals holding Harper's Ferry, it was deemed 
necessary to capture the place as speedily as possible, 
and General Jackson was ordered to move with his 
corps to Martinsburg, and after dislodging the enemy 
there to march down the south side of the Potomac 
upon Harper's Ferry. He accordingly left Frederick 
on the 10th of September, and, making a rapid transit 
through Middletown, Boonsboro', and Williamsport, 
the next day he recrossed the Potomac, and was upon 
his native soil. Upon hearing of Jackson's approach, 
on the 11th, the Federal commander retreated to 
Harpers Ferry, and the next morning Jackson's cav- 
alry reached Martinsburg, where the people, equally 
astonished and delighted, greeted him with a glad 
Avelcome; and, being once more in his beloved val- 
lev, among his own people, his heart responded with 
o-rateful emotion to their eaofer demonstrations. The 
ladies, who are always foremost in doing and claim- 
ing honors, beset him on all sides, and besought of 
him souvenirs — some requesting locks of his hair, and 


Others buttons from liis coat. lie tried to excuse him- 
self by telling one pretty petitioner that sJte had more 
hair than he had, and he permitted them to strip his 
coat of Inittons, Init finally their importunity so 
embarrassed him that, with a blushing face, he said : 
*• Keally, ladies, this is the first time I was ever sur- 
rounded by the enemy," and, Atitli the best grace he 
could, he retreated from the clamorous circle. After- 
wards, a considerate young lady sent him a present 
of several cards of military buttons to replace those 
that had been cut from his coat, accompanying the 
gift with a charming letter. As a penalty of sharing 
his master's fame, poor " Little Sorrel '' lost many 
locks from his mane and tail. 

A rapid march from Martinsburg brought General 
Jackson and his corps, on the morning of the IStli of 
September, to Harpers Ferry. In the space of three 
months Jackson had swept down the valley, fought 
and won tlie battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic ; 
had marched to Eichmond and borne a conspicuous 
part m the seven days' battles ; had then turned north 
towards AVashington, and won the battle of Cedar 
Run, and the second great struggle upon the plains 
of Manassas; and now, after a march to Frederick, 
Maryland, returned to Harpers Ferry, thus complet- 
ing a circuit so full of toil, heroism, and victory as 
to appear almost incredible. 

Arrived at Harper's Ferry, General Jackson found 
the enemy in force, and drawn up in battle array 
upon Bolivar Heights. General Lee, in his plan for 
the capture of the place, had ordered two other divi- 
sions, commanded by Generals ]\rcLaws and AYalker, 
to approach simultaneously with Jackson's corps, and 


seize the Maryland Heights and Loudoun Heights, 
which Avould surround tlie garrison beyond escape. 
It was but one day's march for these divisions, while 
Jackson's route around by Martinsburg was a circuit 
of sixty miles. He was therefore naturally anxious 
to ascertain whether they had arrived at their respec- 
tive destinations, and lost no time in signalling their 
posts, but, receiving no reply, found that he was in 
advance of them. He then sent couriers to the heights, 
who returned during tlie night with the intelligence 
that both generals had executed their movements, 
and were in possession of the two heights. The 
Federals were now encompassed on every side. On 
the morning of the l-tth, Jackson established com- 
munication with McLaws and Walker, and, as the 
ranking officer, directed the plan of operations for 
the capture of Harper's Ferry. 

After cutting roads, with great labor, by which 
artiller\^ could be taken up to the heights, the Con- 
federates poured shot and shell upon the enemy, 
producing great dismay and the wildest confusion. 
However, they still had one loop-hole of escape, for 
the Confederate artillery could not dislodge the troops 
that occupied the main line upon Bolivar Heights, 
and here there was a chance of McClellan's coming 
to their relief. So it fell to Jackson's corps to deal 
the finishing stroke, in frustrating this forlorn hope, 
which was accomplished by moving in the darkness 
of night, screened by the ravines along the river, and 
getting iu the enemy's rear. To make assurance 
doubly sure, he planted eleven pieces of artillery 
across the Shenandoah to intercept egress or ingress, 
thus destroying every chance of escape or relief. The 


morninir of the 15th found tlie assailants eaoer to re- 
ne^v the attack, and Jackson ordered all the batteries 
to open at once. A furious cannonade thus began, 
when after al)out an hour's resistance on the part of 
the garrison, a white flag was seen to be lifted aloft, 
and the tempest of battle at once ceased. The enemy 
iiad surrendered— with a garrison of eleven thousand 
men, over sixty pieces of artillery, thirteen thousand 
stand of small-arms, great numbers of horses and 
wagons, and vast quantities of stores of every descrip- 
tion. The garrison w^as treated on the most liberal 
terms. The officers were permitted to retain their 
side-arms and all their personal effects, upon their 
parole ; and wagons and horses Avere also loaned them 
to remove their baggage into the Federal lines. The 
privates also, after being disarmed, were released on 

Writing to his wife. General Jackson says : 

" It is my grateful privilege to Avrite that our God 
has given us a brilliant victory at Harpers Ferry 
to-day. Probably nearly eleven thousand prisoners, 
a great number of small - arms, and over sixty pieces 
of artillery are, through God's blessing, in our posses- 
sion. The action commenced yesterday, and ended 
this morning in the capitulation. Our Heavenly 
Father blesses us exceedingly. I am thankful to say 
that our loss was small, and Joseph and myself were 
mercifully protected from harm.'' 

AVhen General Lee sent the forces under Jackson 
fi'om Frederick to reduce IIar])cr's Ferry, he started 


the remaining part of his command in other direc- 
tions, and in the meantime the situation of the 
Confederates in Maryland assumed a grave aspect. 
McClellan's grand army entered Frederick the day 
after General Lee evacuated it, and unfortunately a 
copy of his order directing the movements of his 
whole army had been dropped on leaving the town, 
and was picked up by the Federals, revealing Lee's 
plan to McClellan, who at once embraced his oppor- 
tunity, and pressed forward in pursuit, before Lee 
could concentrate his scattered troops for battle. 
The Confederate army was now in great peril, as 
McClellan, with a full knowledge of the situation 
and of the movements of the Confederates, was 
gathering his forces for a decisive conflict. On the 
13th the Confederate cavalry near Boonsboro' was 
forced back slowly, and the command of General 
D. H. Hill, Avhich had been sent to guard the moun- 
tain pass in front of Boonsboro', w^as attacked by 
overwhelming numbers. With less than five thousand 
men, he held the pass for five hours, repelling re- 
peated assaults until Longstreet, coming to their sup- 
port in the afternoon, enabled them to maintain their 
ground until nightfall. 

To oppose the advance of the enemy more effectu- 
ally. General Lee determined to concentrate his forces 
at Sharpsburg, and Jackson was summoned to join 
him as speedily as possible. Prompt to obey the 
order, he did not wait to receive the surrender of the 
Federal troops at Harper's Ferry, but left that duty 
to General A. P. Hill. With the rest of his com- 
mand he took up his march by way of Shepherds- 
town, Generals Walker and McLaws having orders 


to follow. The movement of all the troops, except 
JMcLaws's, which were harassed and delayed by the 
enemy, was safely effected. Longsti*eet and I). 11. 
Hill arrived at Sharpsburg on the morning of the 
loth, and their troops Avere greatly inspirited by the 
news of the capture of Harper's Ferr}^ Sharpsburg 
is a little hamlet, situated two and a half miles from 
the Potomac and one mile from Antietam Creek. 
In the Federal accounts this creek gave name to the 
battle, which is always spoken of as the Battle of 
Antietam. Sharpsburg itself is remarkable only for 
its intersection of six roads, which afforded facilities 
for the concentration of Lee's divided army. The 
country is elevated and undulating, and presented a 
good defensive position, and here General Lee made 
his dispositions to meet the advance of the enemv on 
the 15th of September; but the latter made onh^ re- 
connoissances on that dav. However, on the next 
morning, the IGth, their batteries opened fire, and 
their swaying multitudes indicated that a great battle 
had begun. It was about noon when Jackson arrived 
on the iield, and, after a brief rest for his wearied 
troops, took his position, which was one of great 
exposure and danger. AVith the approach of evening, 
both the Federal artillery and infantry fiercely assailed 
the Confederates under the command of General 
Hood, whose left Jackson was ordered to support. 
This assault continued late into the night, but was 
gallantly repelled, and the two hostile armies slept 
upon their arms to be ready to renew the bloody con- 
flict in the morning. Even their hours of repose were 
disturbed by a continual dropping fire. 

A splendid autumn morning had scarcely dawned. 


on the 17th, Avhen its briUiant beams were obscured 
b}^ the smoke of terrific volleys from the whole Fed- 
eral line of artillery — the heaviest fire falling upon 
the Confederate left held by Jackson — an attack which 
was soon supported by infantry advancing in great 
force. The overwhelming numbers were met with 
unflinching bravery and resolution, and for several 
hours the unequal combat raged with unceasing vio- 
lence and varying fortune. Many of the Confederate 
field officers were killed and wounded, and their whole 
line rapidly thinned under the murderous fire of the 
tremendous odds against them ; still they fought with 
unconquerable tenacity, repeatedly breaking the ranks 
of the enemy, and, although forced back by sheer 
weight of numbers, they turned at every favorable 
position to make a stand, and retired to the best ad- 
vantage, Avhen Jackson, still undaunted, ordered Early 
and Hood to gather up the fragments of the shattered 
troops and return to the front to relieve those who 
, were there so sorely pressed. Xobly did they exe- 
cute their commission, and, rushing forward against 
the surging masses of the enemy, succeeded in arrest- 
ing the tide of battle. For hours they resisted far 
greater numbers, and finally drove them back, and re- 
established the Confederate lines. Most opportunely, 
at this juncture, General McLaws, with his division, 
arrived upon the field, and with his prompt co-opera- 
tion and the strenuous efforts of other commanders the 
victorious enemy were checked ; their lines began to 
waver, and they retreated half a mile with great loss. 
General Jackson was now enabled to re-establish the 
whole of his line ; but the Federals, though withdraw- 
ing their infantry, still rained down a furious artillery 


fire the remainder of the day : but Jackson's troops, 
now in a more sheltered position, suffered little loss. 
The Federal troops returned again to attack the Con- 
federate right and centre, but were again repulsed. 
Unfortunately, however, they discovered that one of 
the brigades opposed to them had been withdrawn 
from its position, and immediately pressed forward 
through the breach thus made, and pierced the Con- 
federate lines. General D. II. Hill and other officers 
rallied the remnants of several scattered brigades, and 
with four pieces of artillery, supported by only a few 
hundred bayonets, arrested the vast masses of the ene- 
my. This small force (some of whom had fired ever}^ 
cartridge, and could trust only to the bayonet) pre- 
sented a bold front, until two other batteries came to 
their relief; and after a desperate and determined re- 
sistance of an hour or so, the Federals retired. 

Notwithstanding the most stubborn and determined 
defence of the bridge over the Antietam, it was at 
last gained by the Federals, who crossed over in im- 
mense numbers and attacked Longstreet's right, which 
commanded the approaches. A few hundred yards 
advance would have given them possession of the roads 
leading from Sharpsburg to the Potomac, which were 
saved only by the timely arrival, from Harpers Ferry, 
of A. P. Hill and his division, which came at once to 
the support of Longstreet, and attacked the Federals 
who, flushed with expectant victory, had become dis- 
ordered by a too rapid and eager advance. After 
crossing the bridge, a triple line of the enemy dashed 
forward, captured a battery, and almost gained the 
crest of the Avave of success, when they were checked 
by Hill's batteries and others in different positions. 


the effect of whose concentrated fire was to drive the 
enemy back across the creek, and the Confederates 
recaptured the lost battery. The shadows of night 
now gathered over the scene, closing one of the most 
desperate and hard-fought battles of the war. 

" During this terrible conflict, General Jackson," so 
writes Dr. Dabney, his former chief-of-staff, " exposed 
his life with his accustomed imperturbable bravery, 
riding among his batteries and directing their fire, 
and communicating his own indomitable spirit to his 
men. Yet he said to a Christian comrade that on no 
day of battle had he ever felt so calm an assurance 
that he should be preserved from all personal harm 
through the protection of his Heavenly Father." 

In his report of this battle of Sharpsburg, General 
Lee gives the following picture of his army : " The 
arduous service in which our troops had been engaged, 
their great privations of rest and food, and the long 
marches, without shoes, over mountain roads, had 
greatly reduced our ranks before the action began. 
These causes had compelled thousands of brave men 
to absent themselves, and many more had done so 
from unworthy motives. This great battle was fought 
by less than forty thousand men on our side, all of 
whom had undergone the greatest labors and hard- 
ships in the field and on the march. Nothing could 
surpass the determined valor with which they met 
the large army of the enemy, fully supphed and 
equipped, and the result reflects the highest credit 
on the officers and men engaged." 

The 18th was devoted by both armies to burying 
their dead and removing their wounded. On that 
dav General Lee discovered that McClellan was ex- 


pecting a large reinforcement of fresh troops, and, in 
view of the exhausted condition of his own forces, 
determined not to risk another battle, and therefore 
withdrew them to Virginia. He took with him all 
his wounded who could bear removal, not leaving be- 
hind an efficient man or a single gun. General Jack- 
son was intrusted with the rear-guard, and, sitting on 
his horse in the middle of the Potomac, for hours he 
watched the passage of the troops across the stream. 
Xot until he had seen the last man and the last gun 
safely upon the Virginia side did he cross over him- 
self. He then marched his command four miles, and 
encamped near Martinsburg. General Pendleton, with 
thirty pieces of artillery, was posted upon an eleva- 
tion overlooking the river, in order to prevent the 
Federals from crossing in pursuit. Meanwhile the 
alertness of the enemy resulted in an advance in con- 
siderable force, which planted their guns on the oppo- 
site shore. During the night a detachment crossed 
the river, and, completely surprising the Confeder- 
ates, captured nearly all of their guns. General Pen- 
dleton, at midnight, reported to General Jackson 
(what he then believed to be true) that they had lost 
every gun I It is said the news of this appalling dis- 
aster caused Jackson more anxiety than he had ever 
shown before during the war. He immediately gave 
orders to effect the recovery of the captured guns, and 
started alone towards Boteler's Ford, which was a 
little below the position lost by Pendleton, having 
ordered his troops to follow him without delay. He 
was soon found by General Lee's couriers, without 
escort, far in advance of his troops, examining the 
position of the enemy. The gallant A. P. Hill ar- 


rived first upon the ground, and, spreading out his 
division into two lines, charged witli great spirit, re- 
gardless of the storm of shot and shell from the 
guns across the river. The enemy resisted by bear- 
ing heavily down against Hill's left; but, rallying his 
whole force, he made a second charge, and, sweeping 
down the hill, forced the enemy into the river, and, 
as he continued to fire upon them, but few reached the 
northern shore. 

AVhile Jackson was watchins: this nio^ht eno^asfe- 
ment, a second messenger from General Lee ap- 
l^roached him for information, and the only remark 
he made was, '' With the blessing of Providence, they 
will soon be driven back." In this contest the Con- 
federates fought entirely without artillery, employing 
only the musket and bayonet. This brilliant affair 
was known as that of Boteler's Ford. 

In this arduous campaign not one of Jackson's sol- 
diers in the ranks endured more fatigue than he, and 
the mental strain was even more wearing upon him. 
In his rapid marches he sometimes was so overpow- 
ered by sleep that he could not resist it even when 
riding, and members of his staff found it necessary to 
support him in the saddle for fear of his falling. Sev- 
eral times he dismounted, and, leaning his head on a 
fence, and resting his outstretched arms u])on it, would 
sleep for only five or ten minutes, having asked his 
staff to awaken him if he slept longer. He Avould not 
trust himself to lie down, lest his slumber might prove 
so profound as to render it difficult to arouse him. 

An incident which occurred about the close of this 
campaign illustrates his kindness of heart. An old 
woman called at his headquarters, and, to the no 


small ainusement of the young staff-officers, said she 
had come to see her son John, who was with " Jack- 
son's Company." She was much surprised that they 
could not tell her where John was, for he had been 
with " Jackson's Company '' in all the battles. Her per- 
sistency somewhat annoyed the young men ; but when 
Jackson came in and heard her simple story, he lis- 
tened with as much politeness as if she were a grand 
lady, and after gently reproving the young men for 
laughing at her, he ordered that every compan}^ in his 
corps should be searched for '' John," who was at last 
found, to the inexpressible delight of his loving old 

The general's next letter to his wife is dated 

" BuNKETi Hill, Oct. Gtli. 
'^ I am glad that you were privileged to keep Thanks- 
giving Day. We did not enjoy that blessing, I regret 
to say. I trust it w^as generally observed, and that 
rich blessings may flow from it through our ever-kind 
Heavenly Father. I also hope that on that day large 
contril)utions were made to our Bible Society. You 
and I have, as you say, special reason for gratitude to 
God for His goodness and mercy to us. . . . The citi- 
zens of Frederick did not present me the horse, as was 
published, though a iMary lander gave me a fine-look- 
ing animal, possessed of great muscle and fine powers 
of endurance ; but he was not gentle, and of this the 
donor notified me. Xotwithstanding the notice, I 
mounted and rode him that evening, and he did well. 
The next morning, however, wlien 1 attempted again 
to ride him, he reared up and fell back with me, hurt- 
insr nie considerablv. Miss Osbourn, of Jefferson, 


sent me some excellent socks, and a beautiful scarf, 
which I wish my darling had. Our friend, Mrs. Gra- 
ham, of Winchester, sent me two nice sponge-cakes 
last week, and a Mr. Vilwig, of the same place, sent 
me an excellent arm-chair for camp use. I wish I 
could keep it until the close of the war, as I think my 
esposa would enjoy it. You are earnestly remembered 
in my prayers." 

A cessation of hostilities for a few weeks now gave 
the march-worn army of Northern Virginia a needed 
and grateful rest. Encamped on the banks of the 
Opeqaon, they literally revelled in their repose, in the 
beauties and delights of an unsurpassed autumn, and, 
above all, in the opportunity of refreshing the inner 
man, which was afforded by the productive farms of 
the valley. In the rich meadows and pastures their 
horses also luxuriated and recruited strength. Xever 
were the sweets of rest and plenty more enjoyed by 
man and beast. The admiration and devotion of Gen- 
eral Jackson's men had greatly intensified during this 
arduous campaign, and at his appearance they never 
failed to yell forth cheers, which were echoed and re- 
echoed by the more distant camps, as they sprang to 
their feet, exclaiming, " There comes old Jack !" This 
season of repose was not spent by their leader in inac- 
tion or idleness. He devoted himself to reorganizing 
his shattered troops— supplying them with shoes and 
clothing, and encouraging them in every way that he 
could minister to body and soul. With all his efforts, 
many of his men were left without shoes ; but such 
was the magic of his name that his forces increased 
rapidly in numbers and efficiency. 


On the 11th of October General Jackson received 
from the Confederate government his last promotion, 
which was that of lieutenant-generaL October 13th 
he wi'ote to his wife again from Bunker Hill, in the 
vicinity of AVinchester : 

"I am sitting in my tent, about twelve miles from 
our • war-home,' where you and I spent such a happy 
winter. The weather is damp, and for the past two 
davs has been rainy and chilly. Yesterday was com- 
munion at Mr. Graham's church, and he invited me to 
be present, but I was prevented from enjoying that priv- 
ilege. However, I heard an excellent sermon from the 
Eev. Dr. Stiles.* His text was 1st Timothy, chap, ii., 
5th and 6th vei'ses. It was a po\verful exposition of 
the Word of God; and when he came to the word 
'himself^ he placed an emphasis upon it, and gave it a 
force wliich I had never felt before, and I realized that, 
trulv, the sinner who does not, under Gospel privi- 
leges, turn to God deserves the agonies of perdition. 
The doctor several times, in appealing to the sinner, 
repeated the 6th verse — ' AVho gave himself a ransom 
for all. to be testified in due time.' What more could 
God do than to give himself a ransom ? Dr. Stiles is 
a great revivalist, and is laboring in a work of grace 
in General EwelFs division. It is a glorious thing to 
be a minister of the Gospel of the Prince of Peace. 
There is no equal position in tliis world. 

* Rev. Joseph C. Stiles, D.D., who liad been a pastor in Ricli- 
moncl, from wliicli he was called to New York to the iMercer Street 
Church, of which he was the pastor for some years. At the break- 
inf'-out of the war he went South, and cast in his lot with his 
own people. 


" Colonel Blanton Duncan, of Kentucky, has pre- 
sented me with two fine field or marine glasses. He 
has apparently taken a special interest in me." 

" October 20th. Although T greatly desire to see 
our much-prized Winchester friends, it has not been 
my privilege to visit the town since last May. . . . 
Last night was very cold, but my good friend Dr. 
Hunter McGuire secured a camp-stove for me, and in 
consequence, to-day, I am comparatively quite com- 
fortable. Don't send me any more socks, as the kind 
ladies have given me more than I could probably wear 
out in two years. God, through kind friends, is show- 
ering blessings upon me. . . . Let the soldiers have all 
your blankets. [This order was fulfilled, and finally 
all his carpets were sent to the army as covering for 
the suffering soldiers.] 

'' Don't trouble yourself about representations that 
are made of your husband. These things are earthly 
and transitory. There are real and glorious blessings, 
I trust, in reserve for us beyond this life. It is best 
for us to keep our eyes fixed upon the throne of God 
and the realities of a more glorious existence beyond 
the verge of time. It is gratifying to be beloved and 
to have our conduct approved by our fellow-men, but 
this is not Avorthy to be compared with the glory that 
is in reservation for us in the presence of our glorified 
Kedeemer. Let us endeavor to adorn the doctrine of 
Christ our Saviour in all things, knowing that there 
awaits us 'a far more exceeding and eternal weight 
of glory.' I would not relinquish the slightest dimi- 
nution of that glory for all this world can give. 
My prayer is that such ma}^ ever be the feeling of 


m}^ heart. It appears to me that it wonkl be better 
for you not to have anything written about me. 
Let us follow the teaching of inspiration — 'Let an- 
other man praise thee, and not thine own mouth : a 
stranger, and not thine own lips.' I appreciate the 
lovipg interest that prompted such a desire in my pre- 
cious darling. . . . You have not forgotten my little 
intimation that we might meet before the end of the 
year, but I am afraid now that your esposo will not be 
able to leave his command. However, all this is in 
the hands of the Most High, and my prayer is that 
He will direct all for His own glory. Should I be 
prevented from going to see my precious little wife, 
and mother should grow worse, I wish a^ou to remain 
with her. In addition to the comfort it would give 
her, it would also gratify me to know that she was 
comforted by your being with her. She has my pray- 
ers that it may please our Heavenly Father to restore 
her again to perfect health. Do not send me any more 
handkerchiefs, socks, or gloves, as I trust I have enough 
to last until peace. You think you can remember the 
names of all the ladies who make presents to me, but 
you haven't heard near all of them. An old lady in 
Tennessee, of about eighty years, sent me a pair of 
socks. A few days since a friend in Winchester 
presented me with a beautiful bridle and martingale 
for a general officer, according to the Army Regula- 
tions. Mr. Porter, of Jefferson, sent me a roll of gray 
cloth for a suit of clothes, and friends are continually 
sending things to contribute to my comfort. I men- 
tion all this merely to show you how mucli kindness 
has been sho\vn me, and to give you renew^ed cause 
for gratitude. If I only had you with me in mv 


evenings, it would be such a comfort ! I hope it may 
be my privilege to be in Winchester this winter. The 
people are so kind, and take a great interest in my 
esposita, and that gratifies me. ... I am in a Sibley 
tent, which is of a beautiful conical shape, and I am 
sure you would enjoy being in it for a while." 

" JSTovember 10th. Colonel A. R. Boteler telegraphs 
me from Richmond that arrangements are made for 
supplying my command with blankets. Yesterday 
about seventeen hundred and fifty were distributed 
in Winchester. There has been much suffering in my 
command for want of blankets and shoes, especially 
the latter." 

" November 11th. . . . Tell Colonel E that I am 

glad to see he has so pleasant a post as Charlotte, and 
that / would rather be stationed there [where his 
wife then was] than anywhere else in the Confederacy. 
Colonel Boteler deserves the lasting gratitude of the 
country for having done so much towards clothing 

" November ITtb . I am more concerned again about 
clothing, especially shoes and blankets, than I expect- 
ed to be, from what I heard. Colonel Boteler is doino- 
much, and has been the means of OTeatlv contributino- 
to the comfort of our men. . . . Our gracious Heavenly 
Father strikingly manifests his kindness to me by dis- 
posing people to bestow presents upon me." 

He then gives the names of a number who had thus 
honored him, and closes by saying : 


" And so God, my exceeding great joy, is continu- 
ally showering His blessings upon me, an unworthy 

November 20th he wrote as follows : 

'• Don't you wish you were here in Winchester i 
Our headquarters are about one hundred yards from 
Mr. Graham's, in a large white house back of his, and 
in full view of our last winter's quarters, where my 
esposa used to come up and talk with me. Wouldn't 
it be nice for you to be here again ? but I don't know 
how long you could remain. ... I hope to have the 
privilege of joining in prayer for peace at the time you 
name, and trust that all our Christian people will ; but 
peace should not be the chief object of prayer in our 
countr3\ It should aim more especially to implore 
God's forgiveness of our sins, and make our people a 
holy people. If we are but His, all things shall work 
together for the good of our country, and no good 
thing will lie withhold from it." 

" Monday. If you had been in Winchester when I 
commenced this letter, you would not be there now, 
for your husband is no longer there, but his heart is 
w^ith his little darling. Write to me at Gordonsville, 
as I hope to be there by Thursday." 



It will now be a relief to turn aside for a season 
from the horrible pictures of war Avhich have been so 
long before us to some more restful and attractive 
pages in the history of General Jackson's hfe. In 
order to do this, we will begin by going back as far as 
the spring of 1862, and glean some extracts from the 
letters of Mrs. Graham, of AYinch ester, in whose hos- 
pitable home we spent the first winter of the war; 
letters written to me from time to time, which will 
show how warm a friendship grew out of this associa- 
tion, and of which he was the chief subject. 

The correspondence began soon after the first evac- 
uation of Winchester by the Confederates, dating from 
the 3d of April, 1862. 

''My dear FmEND, — . . . The events of the past few 
weeks have been so strange, so new, and so dreadful, 
that I almost feel as if I had entered upon a new ex- 
istence ; and when I sit and recall the pleasant hours 
that we passed together last winter, and the dear gen- 
eraFs brief but happy visits to us, with all that delight- 
ful interchange of Christian and social intercourse, it 
seems like a bright dream. ' Oh, could those days but 
come again !' I feel as though that would be almost 
too much happiness. The occupation of our town by 


the Federals came upon me like a dreadful shock. I 
had never permitted myself to believe for an instant 
that they would ever get here. I had a firm convic- 
tion that reinforcements were somewhere within reach, 
for, of course, Ave knew that our general, brave and 
splendid as he is, could not withstand an overwhelm- 
ing force with his little band, but still I believed some- 
thing would turn up to keep them away ; and when 
he came to tell us good- by, looking so sad (and I 
know he felt deeply grieved), I felt stunned, and could 
scarcely trust myself to speak, lest I should say some- 
thing to add to his troubles. The agony of the next 
twenty -four hours, I trust, if it is God's will, may nev- 
er be experienced by me again. It was, indeed, a bit- 
ter thing to feel that our own army was gone, and 
then to see the Yankees in such numbers, the main 
body marching to the music of their brass bands, but 
some tearing across the fields, ii}) the alleys, and in 
every direction — ' monarchs of all thev surveyed' — it 
was too much for me, and I gave way completely. 
But I remembered that God reigns, and is over all ! 
and I know this has not come upon us by accident. 
God has ordered and permitted it, and He has been 
better to us than all our fears. His angel has cer- 
tainly encamped around our dwelling, and no harm 
has happened to us. It is really wonderful how we 
have been protected, Avliile others have suffered so 
from their depredations. . . . Our ladies have a daily 
prayer-meeting, which is very delightful, and serves 
to strengthen our faith and help us to bear our trials. 
I firmly believe that God will deliver us and drive out 
our enemies. Their sojourn among us has greatly in- 
creased the secession feeling, and i)ersons who had 


never taken an}^ part before have become violent. In- 
deed, the old town has stood up bravely for the South. 
This country is becoming completely desolated— the 
farms being- stripped of everything, the fences all de- 
stroyed, and the farmers not pkinting any crops. There 
is no encouragement for them to do so, as long as the 
Yankees are here, for they take possession of every- 
thing they want. Their officers threaten to arrest 
every secessionist, but we are not intimidated, and I 
earnestly hope our general will come back before they 
have time. AYe do long and watch for the day when 
he will return at the head of his army, and we will give 
him such a welcome as no man ever did receive before.'' 

" August 9th, 1862. . . . Although our master Pope 
does not allow us to write to our ^ reler friends, I 
expect to have an opportunity of sending a letter 
through the lines ; but as he is certainly not our right- 
ful master, and if I can so cheat him as to have a pleas- 
ant chat with you, my conscience will not be offended. 
While you were here, it became so natural for me to go 
into your room to communicate to you everything that 
was interesting or amusing, that now, when anything 
funny happens (for sometimes we do have occasion 
to laugh even now), I feel an intense desire to tell 
you about it, but have to content myself with im- 
agining how we would laugh if we only had a chance. 
. . . That threatened oath of allegiance has been so 
long delayed that we hope it may not be carried out ; 
but you may depend the thought was by no means 
agreeable that my dear husband would be picked up 
and put through the lines, not knowing whither to 
turn his feet, and I left with foar little children with- 


out protection or support. However, I had the cahn 
and dehiihtful assurance that our Father would not 
forsake us, but would make all things work together 
for our good. . . . God has certainly made use of your 
noble husband to do great things for his country. 
'Them that honor me, I will honor,' is His own 
promise, and He has been faithful to His word. I 
think our dear general more entirely forgets self in 
his desire to glorify God than any one I ever knew — 
his humble, confiding trust in the Almighty gives me 
more comfort and more confidence than anything else. 
His qualities as a splendid general all admit, but the 
greatest of men often fail in their efl'orts; so, far 
above everything else do I prize his noble. Christian 
character, and I am thankful for the privilege which 
I enjoyed in being thrown so intimately with him. 
You remember I told you that I asked my Heavenly 
Father, if it was right for us to take boarders, to send 
me those who would be congenial, and He certainly 
more than answered my prayers. I thank Him for 
you both, my dear friend. 

''How wonderfully God has protected your dear 
husband I Oh I how I do rejoice with you that 'his 
head has been covered in the day of battle !' IMay 
God, in His infinite and tender mercy, spare him 
from all harm, and continue to make him the instru- 
ment of our deliverance, if it is His will. Oh that 
He may give us such victories as may compel a peace 
— an honorable peace ! 

" The general's little visit to us w^as a perfect sun- 
beam. I never saw him look so fat and hearty, and 
he was as l)right and happy as possible. He spent 
two evenings with us; the evening he arrived liere 


(which was Sunday) he came around, and said he did 
not think it was wrong to come lunne on Sunday. 
This was very gratifying to us. I don't remember 
ever experiencing more intense happiness than during 
that visit; and when I saw our dear general in his old 
place at tlie table, I could have screamed with delight! 
The children were very happy at seeing him. . . . 
When the Federal army last retreated, some of the 
frightened fugitives reported that the ladies of our 
town actually fired on them. Mother was seen to 
kill two!'' 

" October 13th. We watch with jealous and anx- 
ious eyes everything which looks like a retrograde 
tendency. I cannot help envying you your quiet 
home, far removed from the sight of w^ar, but I have 
no doubt you would be even willing to exchange 
with me if you could have your husband with you. 
Well, so it is — 'every heart knoweth its own bitter- 
ness.' But I assure you, this thing of being on the 
l)order, and subject at any time to be taken captives 
again, is indeed dreadful ; every time they come it is 
worse than before. In this last retreat they tried to 
destroy everything — burned the depot and warehouses, 
but I think our troops captured a great deal. The 
explosion of their magazine was terrific, our house 
heaved, and the glass was broken in almost every 
house in town. We poor Winchester people have 
a hard time, don't we ? 

"I wish the general was near enough for me to 
minister to his comfort in many ways, for we do lorn 
Mm. I hope yet that we may see him. I was quite 
amused with Jim, who came to see me the other day. 


lou know you didn't give me a very exalted idea of 
Jim's talent in the culinary art, and I said in rather 
a commiserating tone, ' Jim, does the General get 
anything lie wants to eat C ' Oh I yes, madam, / 
cook. I fare very well, and so do the staff !' ... I 
wish you could know how your husband is regarded 
here. I never saw such admiration as is felt for him 
by every one, and his Christian character elicits the 
greatest reverence and affection. It would have done 
vour heart good to hear the prayers that were offered 
for hhn on the day of Thanksgiving." 

'•November, 1862. 
'' Mv DEAR pRiEND, — I fccl as if I cauuot sleep to- 
night (although it is our bedtime) without writing 
a few lines just to tell you of a most delightful visit 
Ave had from you-r dear husband. He took his head- 
(juarters in town day before yesterday, but he was 
too busy to come to see us. Mr. Graham called upon 
him yesterday, and he promised, if he could, to spend 
tliis evening with us ; but this morning we Avitnessed 
the melancholy spectacle of our army moving off 
acrain, and we feared he Avould have to hurrv off, 
without giving us the pleasure of seeing him. But 
he did not go, and he did come here to tea, and I tell 
you Ave had a pleasant time. It did seem so much 
like old times — those good old times of last Avinter ; 
Ave Avere all so cosy in our dining-room, and around 
the table Ave did Avish for you in your seat between 
us. Indeed, the presence of your dear little self Avas 
all that was Avanting to complete the pleasure of the 
evening. He is looking in such perfect health — far 
handsomer than I ever saw him- and is in sucli fine 


spirits, seemed so unreserved and unrestrained in his 
intercourse with us, that we did enjoy him to the 
full. The children begged to be permitted to sit up 
to see ' General Jackson,' and he really seemed over- 
joyed to see them, played with and fondled them, 
and they were equally pleased. I have no doubt 
it was a great recreation to him. He seemed to be 
living over last winter again, and talked a great deal 
about the hope of getting back to spend this winter 
with us. in that old room, which I told him I was 
keeping for you and him. He expects to leave to- 
morrow, bat says he may come back yet. This would 
be too delightful. He certainly has had adulation 
enough to spoil him, but it seems not to affect or 
harm him at all. He is the same humble, dependent 
Christian, desiring to give God the glory, and looking 
to Him alone for a blessing, and not thinking of him- 
self. This, I think, is a wonderful and beautiful trait, 
and one upon which I delight to dwell in my medi- 
tations upon him. The acquaintance that I have 
with him as an humble, trusting, and devoted follower 
of Christ is a source of the greatest consolation to 
me at all times. I always feel assured that he does 
everytliing under the guidance of our Heavenly 
Father, and this is the secret of his Avonderful success. 
" I fixed him a lunch for to-morrow, and we sat and 
talked so cosily, and the evening was concluded by 
bowing before the family altar again, and imploring 
our Father's blessing upon you and all of us, what- 
ever may betide. Now, was not this a charming 
evening, and don't you wish you had been here?'' 

A¥e now approach an event in the life of General 


Jackson which oladdeiiecl his lieart more than all 
his victories, and lilled it with devout gratitude to 
the Giver of all good. On the 23d of November, 
1802, God blest him with a daughter. To a man of 
his extreme domesticity and love for children this 
was a crowning happiness; and yet, with his great 
modesty and shrinking from publicity, he requested 
that lie should not receive the announcement by tele- 
gra[)h. and when it came to him ])y letter he kept 
the glad tidings all to himself— leaving his staff and 
those around him in camp to hear of it through oth- 
ers. This was to him a '' joy Avith which a stranger 
could not intermeddle," and from Avhich his own 
hand could not lift the veil of sanctity. 

The first intimation of his new happiness was a 
letter from his little daughter herself ! The amanu- 
ensis was her aunt, Mrs. Irwin, at whose house she 
was born, in Charlotte, North Carolina, and this was 
the letter : 

" My own dear Father, — As mv mother's letter has 
been cut short by my arrival, I think it but justice that 
I should continue it. I know that you are rejoiced to 
hear of my coming, and I hope that God has sent me 
to radiate your pathway through life. I am a very 
tin}^ little thing. I weigh only eight and a half 
pounds, and Aunt Harriet says I am the express 
image of my darling papa, and so does our kind 
friend, Mrs. Osborne, and this greatly delights my 
mother. My aunts both say that I am a little beauty. 
My hair is dark and long, my eyes are blue, my nose 
straight just like papa's, and my complexion not all 
red like most young ladies of my age, but a beautiful 


blending of the lily and the rose. Kow, all this 
would sound very vain if I were older, but I assure 
you I have not a particle of feminine vanity, my 
Imly desire in life being to nestle in close to my 
mamma, to feel her soft caressing touch, and to drink 
in the pearly stream provided by a kind Providence 
for my support. My mother is very comfortable this 
morning. She is anxious to have my name decided 
upon, and hopes you will write and give me a name, 
with your blessing. AVe look for my grandmother 
to-morrow, and expect before long a visit from my 
little cousin, Mary Graham Avery, who is one month 
my senior. I was born on Sunday, just after the 
morning services at church, but I believe my aunt 
w^rote you all about the first day of my life, and this 
being only the second, my history may be comprised 
in a little space. But my friends, w^ho are about me 
like guardian angels, hope for me a long life of hap- 
piness and holiness and a futurity of endless bliss. 
'• Your dear little w-ee Daughter.'' 

These lovely little missives continued to reach the 
father until the mother w^as able once more to resume 
her pen, but only this one was ever recovered. In 
the meantime, he writes on the 4:th of December : 

. . . '^ Oh ! how thankful I am to our kind Heavenly 
Father for having spared my precious wnfe and given 
us a little daughter! I cannot tell you how gratified 
I am, nor how much I w^ish I could be with you and 
see my two darlings. But while this pleasure is de- 
nied me, I am thankful it is accorded to you to have 
the little pet, and I hope it may be a great deal of com- 


pany and comfort to its mother. Xow don't exert your- 
self to write to me, for to know that 3^011 were taxing 
yourself to write would give me more pain than the 
letter Avould pleasure, so you mud not do it. But you 
must love your e^x>so in the meantime. ... I expect 
you are just made up now with that Ijabv. JJon't you 
wish your husband wouldn't claim any ])art of it, but 
let you have the sole ownership^ Don't you regard 
it as the most precious little creature in the world (• 
Do not spoil it, and don't let anybody tease it. 
Don't permit it to have a bad temper. How I would 
love to see the darling little thing! Give her many 
kisses for her father. 

" At present I am about fifty miles from Eich- 
mond, and one mile from Guiney's Station, on the 
railroad from Eichmond to Fredericksburg. Should 
I remain here, I do hope you and baby can come to 
see me before spring, as you can come on the rail- 
road. Wherever I go, God gives me kind friends. 
The people here show me great kindness. I receive 
invitation after invitation to dine out, and spend the 
night, and a great many provisions are sent me, in- 
cluding nice cakes, tea, loaf-sugar, etc., and the socks 
and gloves and handkerchiefs still come ! 

" I am so thankful to our ever-kind Heavenly Father 
for having so improved my eyes as to enable me to 
write at nio:ht. He continuallv showers blessinffs 
upon me ; and that you should have been spared, 
and our darling little daughter given us, fills my 
heart with overflowing gratitude. If I know my un- 
worthy self, my desire is to live entirely and unre- 
servedly to God's (jlerry. Pray, my darling, that I may 
so live." 


In response to bis baby -daughter's first letter, he 

closes by saying : '' Thank sister H very kindly, 

and give the baby-daughter a shower of kisses from 
her fatlier, and tell her that he loves her better than 
all the baby -boys in the world, and more than all 
the other babies in the world.*' 

This was to reassure his wife, who feared he would 
be disappointed at not having a boy. He desired a 
son, believing that men had a larger sphere of useful- 
ness than women ; but his own will was so entirely in 
subjection to that of his Heavenly Father that he 
said he preferred having a daughter, since God had 
so ordained it. 

December 3d he wrote to his sister-in-law, thanking 
her for her kindness, and saying : " I fear I am not 
grateful enough for unnumbered blessings. ... I 
trust God will answer the prayers offered for peace 
on last Monday. Kot much comfort is to be expected 
until this cruel war terminates. I haven't seen my 
wife since last March, and, never having seen my child, 
you can imagine with what interest I look to JS'orth 

December 10th, he writes to his wife : '* This morn- 
ing I received a charming letter from my darling lit- 
tle daughter, Julia." He had given her the name of 
his mother, whose memory was so dear to him. But 
immediatel}^, as if his heart trembled at the very 
thought of so much happiness, he adds : " Do not set 
your affections upon her, except as a gift from God. 
If she absorbs too much of our hearts, God may re- 
move her from us." 



From these thoughts of home, it is an abrupt change 
to the field of war. But the two armies, while enjoy- 
ing a few weeks of rest, had been in preparation for a 
renewal of the great struggle. The battle of Sharps- 
burg (or Antietam), followed as it was by the with- 
drawal of Lee across the Potomac into Virginia, was 
regarded in Wasliington as a great victory, and there 
was a loud demand that McClellan, flushed with suc- 
cess and strengthened b\^ large reinforcements, should 
push his advantage to the utmost. Day after day 
came the order from the AVar Department for an im- 
mediate attack, till at last, impatient of delay, lie was 
relieved from command, and Burnside placed in his 
stead, who promptly advanced to Fredericksburg, on 
the Rappahannock, behind wliich Lee, following the 
movement, proceeded at once to concentrate his whole 
force. To support him Jackson was ordered from 
AVinchester, and he conveyed liis troops to Fredericks- 
burg within eight days, having given them a rest of 
two days to relieve those who were without shoes, 
for, with all his elTorts to provide for their necessities, 
many still remained barefooted, to Avhom it was so 
painful to march that numbers fell out of the ranks 
and had to be left behind. But by the greatest exer- 
tions his command was brou^iht to the scene of ac- 


tion, and his last message to me before the battle was, 
''My headquarters are several miles from Fredericks- 
burg, and the cannonading near there has been very 
heavy this morning." By the 12th of December the 
Federals crossed the Rappahannock, took possession 
of Fredericksburg, and prepared to sweep everything 
before them. 

The next morning (the memorable 13th), as General 
Jackson rode forth to battle his appearance attracted 
unusual attention. He had just received a present 
from General Jeb Stuart of an elegant new uniform, 
which was in such striking contrast with his old 
suit (of which he had taken no thought, nor given 
any time to replace it during his arduous Yalley Cam- 
paign) tliat his soldiers scarcely recognized him. Gal- 
loping down the lines with his staff, he soon attracted 
the attention of the Federal sharp-shooters; but he 
safely reached the summit of a hill, where General Lee 
was watching the progress of affairs. A Confederate 
artilleryman, AYm. Page Carter, gives the following 
graphic picture of Jackson as he came on the field : 

" A general officer, mounted upon a superb bay horse 
and followed by a single courier, rode up through our 
guns. Looking neither to the right nor the left, he rode 
straight to the front, halted, and seemed gazing intently 
on the enemy's line of battle on the old telegraph road. 

" The outfit before me, from top to toe, cap, coat, 
pants, top-boots, horse and furniture, were all of the 
new order of things. But there was something about 
the man that did not look so new, after all. He ap- 
peared to be an old-time friend of all this turmoil 
around him. As he had done us the honor to make 


an afternoon call on the artillery, I thought it becom- 
iniT in some one to sav somethino^ on the occasion. 
Xo one did, however ; so, although a somewhat bash- 
ful and weak-kneed youngster, I plucked up courage 
enough to venture the remark that those big guns 
over the river had been knocking us about pretty con- 
siderably during the day. He quickly turned his head, 
and I knew in an instant who it was before me. The 
clear-cut, chiselled features ; the thin, compressed, and 
determined lips; the neatly trimmed chestnut beard; 
the calm, steadfast eye, that could fathom the tide of 
battle in a moment ; the countenance to command re- 
spect, and, in time of war, to give the soldier that con- 
fidence he so much craves from a superior officer, were 
all there. And there Avas one I had heard so much of 
and had longed so much to see, whose battle fnnit I 
was then to look upon for the first time, but not, how- 
ever, the last. As I said before, he turned his head 
quickly, and looking me all over in about two seconds, 
he rode up the line and away quietly and as silently 
as he came, his little courier hard upon his heels ; and 
this was my first sight of Stonewall Jackson." 

Dr. Dabney describes the array of armies on the 
morning of the battle : 

'' It was now past nine o'clock, and the sun, mount- 
ing up the eastern sky with almost a summer power, 
was rapidly exhaling the mist. As the white folds 
dissolved and rolled away, disclosing the whole plain 
to view, such a spectacle met the eyes of the generals 
as the pomps of earth can seldom rival. Marshalled 
upon the vast arena between them stood the hundred 


and twenty-five thousand foes, with countless batteries 
of field-guns blackening the ground. Long triple lines 
of infantry crossed the field from right to left, and 
hid their western extreme in the streets of the little 
city; while down the valleys, descending from the 
Stafford Heights to the bridges, were pouring in vast 
avalanches of men, the huge reserves. For once, war 
unmasked its terrible proportions to the view with a 
distinctness hitherto unknown in the forest-clad land- 
scapes of America ; and the plain of Fredericksburg 
presented a panorama that was dreadful in its gran- 
deur. . . . Lee stood upon his chosen hill of observa- 
tion, inspiring every spectator by his calm heroism, 
with his two great lieutenants beside him, and re- 
viewed every quarter of the field with his glass. It 
was then that Longstreet, to whose sturdy breast the 
approach of battle seemed to bring gayety, said to 
Jackson : ' General do not all these multitudes fright- 
en you r He replied : ' We shall see very soon whether 
I shall not frighten them.' " 

The generals soon sought their respective positions, 
and the battle opened with a furious cannonade — two 
hundred guns thundering from the heights occupied 
by the enemy— and the opposite hills returning the 
fire with all the skill and power of which an inferior 
force was capable. A vivid description of the conflict 
itself is furnished by a young Confederate officer : 

" The whole battle-field was the most dramatic and 
imposing tableau I ever witnessed. . . . The low grounds 
of the Kappahannock below Fredericksburg spread 
into a plain of some miles in width, bounded by a 


rancre of low wooded liills, wliicli terminate on the 
lower side in the Massaponax low grounds, and on the 
upper in a series of rather high and abrupt blulTs next 
to the river and above the town. At one point in this 
line of hills a wooded marsh projects far into the plain. 
" Imagine now this long line of wooded hills peo{)led 
with men — every little promontory bristling with ar- 
tillery, the Avhole line of railway at the foot of the 
hills and every hedge-row and ditch gleaming with 
bayonets, and 3^ou have what must have been the 
impression of the Yankees of our position. Again, 
stand with me upon one of the same little promon- 
tories and look out upon their lines, and see what 
we saw. Far upon the left the smoke from the 
smouldering ruins of the town, and Longstreet's camp- 
iires seem to blend together; Avhile in front, and al- 
most as far as the eye can reach to the right and left, 
you see the blue-coated Federal lines extended, well- 
armed, well-equipped, and seemingly assured of suc- 
cess. Behind them the hills seem crowded with artil- 
lery, which can hurl their missiles to the very foot of 
the hills upon which we stand. The word is given to 
advance. How gallant!}^ they come on I Xot a sound 
is heard from our side except the sharp crack of our 
skirmishers as they fall back slowly before the over- 
whelming advance. The air seems alive with the 
whistling of shot and shell which the enemy send as 
precursors to their infantry charge. Suddenly a bat- 
tery of thirty guns, from just where Ave are stand- 
ing, opens upon the column of attack. They falter, 
and reel, and stagger ; they rally, and break, and ral- 
ly again ; but in vain: flesh and blood cannot stand 
it ; thev retire routed and confused. At that moment 


an officer gallops wildl}^ up to General Jackson, and 
exclaims, in almost breathless haste : ' General, the en- 
emy have broken throiigli Archer's left, and General 
Gregg says he must have help, or he and General 
Archer will both lose their position/ The general 
turned round as quietly as if nothing extraordinary 
had happened, and ordered up Early's division to sup- 
port the centre. Yet every one said afterwards that 
this was the turning-point of the day. In about an 
hour the footing which the enemy had gained in the 
Avood was recovered by Trimble and Thomas, and they 
were pursued far into the plain. This was all I saw of 
the fight." 

Longstreet's troops were equallj^ successful in repell- 
ing their opponents, and Avlien the day closed the vic- 
tory was complete. 

During the battle, while there was a lull in the 
fiercest hostilities, General Jackson, desiring to inspect 
the positions of the enemy, rode to his extreme right, 
dismounted, and, accompanied only by his aide, Mr. 
Smith, walked far out into the plain. They were soon 
singled out by a sharp-shooter, who sent a bullet whiz- 
zing between their heads, w^iich were not more than 
two paces apart. The general turned to his companion 
with a humorous smile, and said : " Mr. Smith, had 
you not better go to the rear ? They may shoot you !" 

At the close of this memorable day. General Jack- 
son went to his tent, and there found Colonel Boteler, 
who was his right-hand man in carrying despatches 
to the government, and in co-operating with him in 
every way. The colonel w^as invited to share his pallet 
with him, but he sat up himself some time longer, writ- 


ing and sending despatches. AVeariness at last com- 
pelled him to throw himself down without undressing, 
and, after sleeping profoundly for two or three hours, 
he rose, lighted his candle, and continued his writing. 
In glancing around, he noticed that the light of his 
candle shone full in the face of his friend, whom he 
supposed to be still sleeping, and with the (juick 
thoughtfulness of a woman he placed a book upon 
his table in front of the candle, so as to shield his face 
from the light and not interrupt his slumber. 

General Jackson Avas much concerned at hearing of 
the mortal wounding of General Gregg, of South Car- 
olina, on the previous day. About four o'clock on 
this morning he sent for Dr. McGuire to learn his 
condition, which he was told was beyond hope. The 
surgeon was requested to go again and see that the 
dying man had everything he could desire, but by 
the time he reached his bedside footsteps were heard 
behind him, and Jackson appeared in the doorway, 
having been impelled by his feelings to follow him- 
self, and take a farewell of his brave and heroic sub- 
ordinate. The brief interview was tender and touch- 
ing, and sad and silent the commander rode back with 
Dr. McGuire to his tent. 

When he ordered his servant, Jim, to bring his 
" Little Sorrel " for him to ride on this occasion, Jim 
protested against his using this horse, which he had 
ridden during the whole of the battle of the pre- 
vious da}^, and an amusing war of w^ords ]:>assed be- 
tween them ; but Jim had it in his power to gain 
the victory, and brought out another horse, which the 
general mounted, and rode off, attended by a single 


The Confederate generals expected a renewal of 
hostilities tlie next day, and their army was eager for 
another attack, but the Federals failed to advance. 
On Monday, the 15th, a Hag of truce Avas sent by the 
enemy, requesting permission to care for their Avound- 
ed, Avho had been left upon the frozen ground ever 
since the day of battle. Then under the cover of 
night, and while a storm of wind and rain Avas raging, 
they crossed their Avhole force over the river, con- 
ducting their retreat so silently that it Avas Avholly 
concealed from the Confederates. They marched in 
such silence throus^h the streets of Fredericksburo: 
that tlie people generally (who had been shut up in 
their homes) did not know that the vast hordes Avere 
pouring out of their toAvn. When a few, hearing the 
continuous tramp of men and horses, looked out Avitli 
candles in hand, they Avere startled at finding the 
streets packed with multitudes Avith faces turned 
northward, and they Avere commanded in peremptor}^ 
Avhispers : " Put out that light ! put out that light !" 
— AA^hile some of the oiRcers even rushed up to them, 
bleAV out their lights, and thrust them back into the 
houses. When the dreary morning daAvned, the Con- 
federates Avere surprised to find that the mighty host 
which had confronted them for three days had disap- 
peared from before Fredericksburg, and AA^ere once 
more in their camp on the other side of the river. 
They admitted a loss of twelve tliousand men killed 
and Avounded, nine thousand small-arms, and about a 
thousand prisoners. In repelling the attacks of their 
vast army, General Lee had less than tAventy-fiA^e 
thousand men actually engaged, and had lost but four 
thousand tAvo hundred. Of these twenty -nine hun- 


dred ^ve^e killed and wounded in the corps of Jack- 
son ; and there were, in addition, five hundred and 
twenty -six otficers and men captured. This great 
battle of Fredericksburg ended the campaign of 1862, 
which to the Confederates was the most brilliant and 
successful of the war. 

December 16th General Jackson wrote to his wife : 

'' Yesterday, I regret to say, I did not send you a 
letter. I was on the front from Ijefore dawn until 
after sunset. The enemy, through God's blessing, 
was repulsed at all points on Saturday, and I trust 
that our Heavenly Father will continue to bless us. 
We have renewed reason for gratitude to Ilim for 
my preservation during the last engagement. AVe 
have to mourn the deaths of Generals ]\raxey Gregg 
and Thomas II. E. Cobb. The enemy has recrossed to 
the north side of the Eappahannock. ... I was made 
very happy at hearing through my baby daughter's 
last letter that she had entirely recovered, and that 
she ' no longer saw the doctors gray vrhiskers.' 1 was 
much gratified to learn that she was beginning to 
notice and smile when caressed. I tell you, I would 
love to caress her and see her smile. Kiss the little 
darling for her father and give my grateful love to 
sister II ." 

'' December 18th. Our headquarters are now about 
twelve miles below Fredericksburg, near the liouse of 
Mr. Eichard Corbin, which is one of the most beauti- 
ful buildings I have seen in this country. It is said to 
have cost sixtv thousand dollars. Nio-ht before last 


I was about to spend the night in the woods, but sent 
to ask if Ave could procure our supper at the house. 
Mr. Corbin was absent, serving as a private in the 
Virginia cavalr}^, but Mrs. Corbin bountifully supplied 
us, and requested me to spend the night at her house, 
which invitation was thankfully accepted, and I had a 
dehghtful night's rest. The next morning she urged 
me to remain, and offered me a neat building in the 
yard for my office, but I declined, and am now about 
five hundred yards from the house, encamped in the 
woods. She told me that if at any time I needed 
house room, she could let me have it. [He afterwards 
moved into the office in the yard, and spent most of 
the time he was in winter-quarters there.] 

" Baby's letters are read with great interest, and it 
does her father's heart great good to read them. . . . 
I have much work before me, and to-day I expect 
to commence in earnest. The reports of the battles 
of McDowell, AVinchester, Port Eepublic, Richmond, 
Manassas, the Maryland campaign. Harper's Ferry, 
and Fredericksburg have all yet to be written. But 
something has been done towards several of them by 
my staff." 

•' Christmas, 1SG2. Yesterday I received the baby's 
letter with its beautiful lock of hair. How I do want 
to see that precious baby ! and I do earnestly pray for 
peace. Oh that our country was such a Christian, 
God-fearing people as it should be ! Then might we 
very speedily look for peace. Last evening I received 
a letter from Dr. Dabney, saying : ' One of the high- 
est gratifications both Mrs. Dabney and I could enjoy 
would 1)e another visit from Mrs. Jackson when her 


health is re-estabhshed,' and he invites me to meet you 
there, lie and Mrs. Dabney are very kind, but it ap- 
pears to me that it is better f(Sr me to remain witli 
my command so long as the war continues, if our 
gracious Heavenly Father permits. Tlie army suffers 
immensely by absentees. If all our troops, officers 
and men, were at their posts, we might, through God's 
blessing, expect a more speedy termination of the war. 
The temporal affairs of some are so deranged as to 
make a strong plea for their returning home for a 
short time ; but our God has greatly blessed me and 
mine during my absence ; and whilst it Avould be a 
great comfort to see you and our darling httle daugh- 
ter, and others in whom I take special interest, yet 
duty appears to require me to remain with m}^ com- 
mand. It is important that those at headquarters set 
an example by remaining at the post of duty. 

'' Dr. Dabney writes : ' Our little prayer-meeting is 
still meeting daily to pray for our army and leaders.' 
This prayer-meeting may be the means of accomplish- 
ing more than an army. I Avish that such existed 
everywhere. How it does cheer my heart to hear of 
God's people praying for our cause and for me! I 
greatly prize tlie prayers of the pious.'' 

^•December 29th. Yesterday I had the privilege 
of attending divine service in a church near General 
Iliirs headquarters, and enjoyed the services very 
much. Dr. White says in a recent letter that our 
pew at home has been constantly occupied by AVheel- 
ing refugees. I am gratified to hear it. He also 
adds, ' How we would rejoice to see you and our dear 
friend, Mrs. Jackson, again in that pew. and in the 


lecture -room at prayer -meetings ! We still meet ev- 
er}^ Wednesday afternoon to pray for our army, and 
especially for our general.' May every needful bless- 
ing rest upon you and our darling child is the earnest 
prayer of your devoted husband."' 

The next two letters were written to a young rela- 
tive, a nephew of Ids mother from West Virginia, 
who applied to him for a position in the army : 

..." In replv to your intention of iroino" into ser- 
vice, I am gratified at your determination, and would 
recommend you to enter the army under General John 
Echols, as it is operating in the western part of the 
State, to which climate you are accustomed, I would 
like to have you with me if I had a place to which I 
could properly assign you; but you had better join 
General Echols at once, and by your attention to 
duty I hope you will, through the blessing of God, 
render valuable service to our precious cause." 

In a second letter of April 2d, 1863, he says : 

" I am much gratified to hear that you followed my 
suggestion, and trust you will have no reason to regret 
it. We should always be usefully employed, and if 
we are faithful in doing our duty in one position, it 
frequently follows that we are advanced to a higher 
one. In regard to your question whether our section 
of the State will get relief this summer, I am unable 
to say. My command is not a separate one. I am 
under General Lee, and my corps forms a part of his 
army. I hope the Northwest will soon be reclaimed, 


but 1 do not know what the government designs re- 
specting it this summer. 

"' I have a little daughter, and have named her 
Julia after my mother. I don't suppose you have 
anv recollection of mother, as she has been dead near- 
ly thirty years. In the summer of 1855 I visited her 
grave in Fayette County. My wife and child are 
with lier father in North Carolina. 

" I hope you are a Christian. There is no happi- 
ness like that experienced by a child of God. You 
have an interest in mv prayers." 

The following incidents are from the pen of the 
Eev. James P. Smitli, D.D., of Fredericksburg, who 
was a member of General Jackson's staff : 

'• When I was a private soldier, a meml)er of the 
Eockbridge Artillery, I went to headquarters with a 
written application for leave of absence for one night 
to visit a sick relative in a distant camp. The general 
kindly recognized me, shook hands, and when I pre- 
sented the application he read and returned it, saying, 
' I can't approve your leave of absence, Mr. Smith.' I 
was greatly disappointed, and felt somewhat hurt at 
what seemed to me to be a harsh and arbitrary decision ; 
but Mrs. Jackson afterwards told me that he wrote to 
her that he regretted that the regulation would not per- 
mit him to grant the leave. [^Fr. Smith was a friend 
of his Avife.] While I was still in the artillery, in the 
early spring of 18f)2, and encamped at Eude's Hill, the 
general came to our camp one day in my absence, and 
created a great stir by asking for Coi'])oral Smitli. Great 
expectations were aroused that Corporal Smith was to 


be appointed to some office or special duty, but on my 
return it was found he had called to leave me a pack- 
oxje of religious tracts for distrihution in the camp ! 

" At Frederick City, Maryland, I received a message 
to call at General Jackson's headquarters, when he 
asked me to accept the position of aide-de-camp on 
his staff. It was a great surprise to me, and at first 
embarrassed me. lie spoke kindly of liis desire to 
have me with him, and of the time it would take me 
to prepare for his service [in getting a uniform], 
saying, ' I have hut one suit myself^ sir^ He gave me 
leave of absence from the army for six days to go 
back to Yirginia to secure clothing, etc., saying, ' I need 
3^our services as soon as possible.' He was exceeding- 
ly gracious and pleasant in manner and word to me. 

" One evening, when our headquarters were at Mi In- 
wood, Clarke County, Yirginia, the young men became 
convinced that the general and his army would pass 
over the mountain gap near by to Eastern Virginia. I 
was exceedingly anxious to visit Winchester before we 
went east, and went to his tent, saying, ' General, as 
we are troino- across the mountains to-morrow, I wish 
to go to Winchester early in the morning.' He smiled 
in a peculiar way and said, ' Are you going over the 
mountains to-morrow? Then, certainly, Mr. Smith 
you can go to Winchester; but donH tell any one that 
we are going over the mountains,' and he laughed at 
my expense. I went to Winchester early in the morn- 
ing, and, after an hour or so, was returning on the 
Milnwood road, when, at a turn of the road, I sudden- 
ly met General Jackson and staff. He laughed as I 
rode up, saying, ' Are you going over the mountains, 
Mr. Smith V And I found that, instead of going over 


the mountains, he was moving his headquarters to 
Winchester, apparently for the winter. 

'' The general and myself rode ^vith orderlies from 
Orange Court-House down the ])lank-road in Decem- 
ber, 1862, dining at the Rev. Melzi Chancellor's, near 
the AVilderness church, turning to the right at Salem 
church, where we saw many refugees from Fredericks- 
burg in the falling snow. We passed Mrs. French's 
place, and found General Lee's headquarters after 
dark, on the main road, the tent pitched in the pine 
woods. General Lee's reception Avas exceedingly kind 
and hospitable. After a little while General Jackson 
took me out, and told me to ride to a house near by 
and ask for lodging during the night. The host was 
a vehement old gentleman, who at first refused sharp- 
ly to hear me, but when I succeeded in making him 
understand that General Jackson wanted entertain- 
ment, he Avas greatlv aroused, threw open his door, 
and told me to tell General Jackson to come at once 
to his house — that all he had was the general's. He 
entertained us with great hospitality and quite com- 
fortably. The next night our tents were near the resi- 
dence of Mrs. French, by whose invitation the general 
and two or three of our young men took tea with her. 
It was a charming and memorable Sunday evening. 
The house was Avarm and bright, and the society most 
agreeable, after a long cami)aign and hard marching. 
The tea-table Avas more than attractiA'e. I remember 
the froneral as seated on a sofa, between i\lrs. French 
and old Miss Hetty Lily, and that, at Mrs. French's 
request, he took the family Bible and conducted fam- 
ily worship, after Avhich Ave took lea\^e, and Avcnt 
throuii:h the snow to our cheerless tents. 


" The general suggested to me to prepare for a dinner 
on Christmas Day. He wished to invite General Lee 
and others to dine with him. I had the crood fortune 
to secure a fine turkey ; a bucket of oysters came from 
down the river; a box was received by the general 
from some Staunton ladies, containing a variety of 
good things ; and our dinner was quite well set forth. 
Generals Lee, Stuart, Eendleton, and others were 
guests. General Lee rallied us very mucli on our af- 
fectation — a dining-room servant with a white apron 
on specially amused him. Lie often laughed at us for 
' playing soldiers,' and said we lived too well. 

" General Jackson always enjoyed the visits of Gen- 
eral Stuart, whose gayety and humor charmed him, 
and no one thought of being so familiar with our gen- 
eral as Stuart. On this occasion he made him, self very 
merry at finding Jackson in the office of old Mr. Cor- 
bin, whose walls were decorated with pictures of 
race-horses, fine stock, game-cocks, and a famous rat- 
terrier/ To the great amusement of Jackson and his 
guests, Stuart pretended to regard these as General 
Jackson's own selectio/is, and as indications of his p/^i- 
vate tastes — indicating a great decline in his moral 
character, which would be a grief and disappointment 
to the pious old ladies of the South. To add to the 
merriment, General Jackson had received among his 
presents a cake of butter, with a gallant chanticleer 
stamped upon it, and this adorned the table. General 
Stuart held it up in his hands, and called the company 
to witness that their host actually carried his sport- 
ing tastes so far that he had his favorite game-cock 
stamped on his butter, as though it were a coat-of- 
arms ! 


'* During the winter spent at Moss Keck, General 
Jackson took me with him to General Lee's liead- 
quarters on one occasion when a deep snow was fall- 
ino". General Lee said he reo:retted that General 
Jackson should come out such a day, whereupon the 
latter, smiling pleasantly, said : ' I received your note, 
sir, saying you wished to see me.' 

'' I remember a pleasant visit to Ilayfield, the resi- 
dence of a Mr. Taylor. Generals Lee, Stuart, Pendle- 
ton, and Jackson were present, Avith Pelham and other 
staff-officers. General Lee was very facetious, and de- 
scribed these general officers to old JMrs. Taylor with 
much good humor. He told her that ' General Jack- 
son, Avho was smiling so pleasantly near her, was the 
most cruel and inhuman man she had ever seen.' She 
demurred, saying she had always heard that General 
Jackson was 'a goocl^ Christian 711 an.'' General Lee 
said, ' Why, when Ave had the battle up at Fredericks- 
burg, do you know, Mrs. Taylor, it Avas as i;nucli as Ave 
could do to preA^ent him from taking his men, with 
bayonets on their guns, and driving the enemy into 
the river r Mrs. Taylor began to see his humor, and 
said : ' Well, General Lee, if the Yankees ever cross 
here, at our place, I hope you Avoii't prevent liim from 
driving them into the river.' " 

In these pleasant Avinter-qufirters at Moss Neck, the 
residence of Mr. Corbin, General Jackson remained 
until spring. 




After the battle of Fredericksburg there was no 
other advance of the enemy during the winter ; and 
General Jackson spent a peacef id, but very industrious, 
winter at Moss ^eck. The winter-quarters of his 
troops extended from near Guiney's Station towards 
Port Royal; and after providing them with shelter, 
which consisted of huts built by themselves, he de- 
voted himself to writing his reports, and to the gen- 
eral welfare of his troops, both temporal and spiritual. 
Particularly did he bend his energies towards disci- 
plining and strengthening his command. The almost 
superhuman exertions in marching and fighting had 
caused many soldiers to absent themselves from the 
army without leave, and this was an evil for which he 
had no toleration, and which he made the most stren- 
uous efforts to correct. He was also greatly interested 
this winter in providing his army with chaplains, and 
in trying to infuse more zeal into those who were al- 
ready in this service. He encouraged all denomina- 
tions to labor in his command, co-operating with each 
in every way in his power. All he wished to know of 
a man was that he was a true Christian and an earnest 
worker in the cause of' his Master. Roman Catholics 
were granted the same facilities as Protestants for 
holding their services. On one occasion a priest ap- 


plied to him for a tent in whicli to conduct worsliip with 
soldiers of his own faith, and Jackson, after satisfying 
himself b}^ inquiry that he was a man of exemplary 
character, granted his request, and, with a decision 
that restrained all adverse expressions against it, he 
added : " He shall have it, I care not what may be 
said on the subject." A Presbyterian minister, in de- 
scribing a service held in the general's camp, said : 
'' So we had a Presbyterian sermon, introduced by 
Baptist services, under the direction of a Methodist 
chaplain, in an Episcopal church I AVas not that a 
beautiful solution of the vexed ])roblem of Christian 
union r 

Of the religious character of General Jackson this 
preacher said : '' The sentiment whicli fills his soul is 
his sense of the necessity and power of prayer — prayer 
in the army ; prayer for the army ; prayer by the 
whole country. I am sure it makes him glad and 
strong to know how many of the best people in the 
world pray for him "without ceasing." lie pictures the 
general's " firm and hopeful face," " the placid dili- 
gence of his daily toils," and his attendance on the 
service in the little log church built by his own sol- 
diers, " which was already so full upon his arrival that 
the men were said to be packed like herrings in a bar- 
rel, and he and General Paxton modestly retired, lest 
they should displace some already within. One could 
not sit in that pul})it and meet the concentrated gaze 
of those men without deep emotion. I remembered 
that they were the veterans of many a bloody field. 
The eyes which looked into mine, waiting for the gos- 
pel of peace, had looked as steadfastly upon Avhatever 
is terrible in war. The voices which now poured 


forth their strength in singing the songs of Zion had 
shouted in the charge and the victory. . . . Their 
earnestness of aspect constantly impressed me. . . . 
They looked as if they had come on business, and very 
important business, and the preacher could scarcely 
do otherwise than feel that he, too, had business of 
moment there I" 

A chaplain relates that on the eve of the battle of 
Fredericksburg he saw an officer, Avrapped in his over- 
coat so that his marks of rank could not be seen, lying 
just in the rear of a battery, quietly reading his Bible. 
He approached and entered into conversation on the 
prospects of the impending battle, but the officer soon 
changed the conversation to religious topics, and the 
chaplain was led to ask, " Of what regiment are 
you chaplain?" AVhat was his astonishment to find 
that the quiet Bible-reader and fluent talker upon re- 
ligious subjects was none other than the famous 
Stonewall Jackson. 

During one of his battles, while he was waiting in 
the rear of a part of his command which he had put 
in position to engage the attention of the enemy while 
another division had been sent to flank them, a young 
officer on his staff gave him a copy of the sketch of 
" Captain Dabney Carr Harrison," a young Presbyte- 
rian minister, widely known and loved in Virginia, 
who had been killed at Fort Donelson. He expressed 
himself as highly gratified at getting the sketch, and 
entered into an earnest conversation on the power of 
Christian example. He was interrupted by an officer, 
who reported '' the enemy adrancing," but paused only 
long enough to give the laconic order, ^' Open on them," 
and then resumed the conversation, which he contin- 


ued for some time, only pausing now and then to re- 
ceive despatclies and give necessary orders. 

General Jackson's views on the work of the spirit- 
ual improvement of his army, which so absorbed his 
heart and labors the last winter of his life, are ex- 
pressed in a letter to his pastor, in which he says : 

''You suggest that I give my views and wishes in 
such form and extent as I am willino: sliould be made 
public. This I shrink from doing, because it looks like 
presumption in me to come before the public and even 
intimate what course I think should be pursued by the 
people of God. I have had so little experience in 
church matters as to make it proper, it seems to me, 
to keep quiet beyond the expression of my views to 
friends. Whilst I feel that this is the proper course 
for me to pursue, and the one which is congenial to 
my feelings, yet if you and Colonel Preston, who have 
both had large experience in the church, after prayer- 
ful consideration, are of opinion that my name, in con- 
nection with my wishes, will be the means of doing- 
good, I do not desire any sensibdity that I may have 
to be a drawback in the way. I desire myself and all 
that I have to be dedicated to the service of God. . . . 
After maturely considering what I write, and after 
prayerful consultation between yourself and Colonel 
Preston, you can with pro})riety publish, should you 
think best, anything I may have said, icithout saying 
that such vxts my view. 

"My views are summed up in these few words: 
Each Christian branch of the Church should send 
into the army some of its most prominent ministers, 
who are distinguished for their piety, talents, and 


zeal ; and such ministers should labor to produce con- 
cert of action among chaplains and Christians in the 
army. These ministers should give special attention 
to preaching to regiments which are without chap- 
lains, and induce them to take steps to get chaplains ; 
to let the regiments name the denomination from 
which they desire chaplains selected ; and then to see 
that suitable chaplains are secured. A bad selection 
of a chaplain may prove a curse instead of a blessing. 
If a few prominent ministers thus connected with 
each army would cordially co-operate, I believe that 
glorious fruits would be the result. Denominational 
distinctions should be kept out of view, and not 
touched upon; and, as a general rule, I do not think 
that a chaplain who would preach denominational 
• sermons should be in the army. His congregation is 
his regiment, and it is composed of persons of various 
denominations. I would like to see no questions 
asked in the army as to what denomination a chap- 
lain belongs ; but let the question be, ' Does he i^reach 
the Gospel V The neglect of spiritual interests in the 
army may be partially seen in the fact that not half 
of my regiments have chaplains." 

General Jackson selected the Eev. Dr. B. T. Lacy 
(who was commissioned by the government as a 
general chaplain) to begin this plan of labor, and it 
proved very successful. His mission was to preach at 
headquarters every Sabbath while the troops were 
in camp. A temporary pulpit and rough seats were 
constructed in an open field, and here all were invited 
to come and worship. Dr. Lacy was an able speak- 
er, attractive and interesting ; and the constant at- 


tendance of General Jackson and frequent appear- 
ance of General Lee and other distinguished officers 
soon drew vast crowds of soldiers to the scene, and 
many l)ecame changed men. General Jackson often 
seated himself in the ranks, in the midst of his hum- 
blest soldiers, setting them an example by his devout 
attention and delight in the services, and, by his per- 
sonal interest, leading them to follow the great Cap- 
tain of their salvation. He requested all the chaplains 
and evangelists in his corps to meet together Aveekly 
for conference over their duties, and to report the 
progress of their labors, llis sense of delicacy for- 
bade his own attendance on these meetings, but he 
manifested the liveliest interest in them — always 
greeting Dr. Lacy upon his return from the meetings 
in his accustomed military style, saying to him : 
" Xow come and report." " The stated meetings of 
the chaplains," says Dr. Dal)ney, " were the means of 
awakening them to a greatly increased zeal and fidel- 
ity, as well as of adding system and concert to their 
labors, so that this service was now thoroughly reno- 
vated. Thus the energy of General Jackson's will, 
though so modestly exerted, made itself felt among 
his chaplains, just as among his staflP and field officers, 
in communicating efficiency and vigor to all their 
performance of duty." 

The Stonewall Brigade was the first to build a log 
chapel, which Avas formally dedicated to the service 
of God. Others soon followed the exam])le, and, thus 
protected against the rigors of Avinter, the soldiers 
frequently met during the Aveek for ]>rayer, praise, 
and Bible instruction — the sacred pages being illumi- 
nated by pine torches from the forest. General Jack- 


son often attended these meetings, and led in iiumble, 
earnest prayer. 

General J. B. Gordon, the late Governor of Georgia, 
and now for the second time representing his State 
in the United States Senate, testifies to the good 
wrought by these services in the army. In a letter 
appealing for chaplains to be sent by the churches, 
he says: ^' Daily in the great temple of nature, and 
at night by heaven's chandeliers, are audiences of 
from one to two thousand men anxious to hear the 
way of life. Many of them, neglected, as I must say 
they have been by Christians at home, are daily pro- 
fessing religion — men grown old in sin, and who 
never blanched in the presence of the foe, are made 
to tremble under a sense of guilt, and here in the 
forests and fields are beino^ converted to God ; voung- 
men, over whose departure from the ^Daternal roof 
and from pious influences have been shed so many 
bitter tears, have been enabled, under the preaching 
of a few faithful ministers, to give parents and friends 
at home such assurances as to change those hitter 
tears into tears of rejoicing." 

General Jackson had one other project for the 
spiritual welfare of his country, which was the estab- 
lishment of a Christian daily newspaper. Ilis views 
on this subject will be seen in the following letter to 
his father-in-law : 

" Near Fredericksbueg, March 28tb, 1863. 
" Eev. Dr. E. H. Morrison : 

" Dear Sir, — Knowing that you take a deep interest 
in the progress of the church, I write to say that on 
yesterday the proclamation of our President for a 


(lav of humiliation and prayer received in the army 
a more general response than I have seen on any 
similar occasion since the beginning of the war. . . . 
It was arranged among the chaplains that each one 
of them should preach twice yesterday — once to their 
own troops, and once to other troops, thus giving an 
opportunity of having the Gospel preached as exten- 
sively as practicable. I trust that yesterday was a 
solemn day throughout the Confederacy, and hope 
its good fruits will be abundant, and that God in 
His mercy will give us a speedy peace, so marked 
by His interposing hand that all shall recognize and 
acknowledge it as His gift. 

'• I feel a deep interest in seeing a Christian daily 
paper established. I believe there is not a single daily 
paper in the countr}^ but which violates the Sabbath 
by printing on that holy day for its Monday's issue. 
I have thought upon this subject for several years, and 
it appears to me that now is a good time to start 
such a paper whilst our country is in trouble, and is 
looking to God for assistance. How can we consist- 
ently ask God to bless us Avlien we continue to en- 
courage, for the gratification of curiosity, a disregard 
for His holy law ? Such a paper as it appears to me 
is demanded would give us as early news as is at 
present received at the printing-office on Sunday, as 
the paper, which would be mailed on Monday, ^vould 
be printed on Saturday instead of Sunday. H such 
a paper could be established, it might be the means 
of influencing the future course of our country. AYhat 
do you think of such an undertaking ? 
" Very truly yours, 

" T. J. Jackson." 


His increasing solicitude for the spiritual good of his 
country is shown in the following letter to Colonel 
Boteler on the subject of Sabbath mails. These views 
have before been given ; but as this letter was per- 
haps his last appeal on the subject, this fact may add 
more weight to them : 

'• I have read the Congressional report of the com- 
mittee recommending the repeal of the law requiring 
the mails to be carried on the Sabbath ; and I hope 
that you will feel it a duty as well as a pleasure to 
urge its repeal. I do not see how a nation that thus 
arra.ys itself, by such a law, against God's holy day 
can expect to escape His wrath. The punishment of 
national sins must be confined to this world, as there 
are no nationalities beyond the grave. For fifteen 
years I have refused to mail letters on Sunday, or to 
take them out of the office on that day, except since 
I came into the field ; and, so far from having- to 
regret my course, it has been a source of true enjoy- 
ment. I have never sustained loss in observino- what 
God enjoins; and I am well satisfied that the law 
should be repealed at the earliest practicable moment. 
My rule is, to let the Sabbath mails remain unopened, 
unless they contain a despatch; but despatches are 
generally sent by couriers or telegraph, or some spe- 
cial messenger. I do not recollect a single instance 
of any special despatch having reached me, since the 
commencement of the war, by the mails. 

"If you desire the repeal of the law, I trust you 
will bring all your influence to bear in its accomplish- 
ment. Kow is the time, it appears to me, to effect so 
desirable an object. I understand that not onlv our 


President, but also most of his Cabinet and a ma- 
jority of our Congressmen are professing Christians. 
God lias greatly blessed us, and I trust He will make 
us that, people whose God is the Lord. Let us look 
to God for an illustration in our history that 'right- 
eousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach to 
any people.' 

'' Yery truly your friend, 

" T. J. Jacksox." 

To his friend Colonel Preston, of Lexington, he 
Avrote with the same zeal, saying : 

" I greatly desire to see iieRce—hlesserl jieace. And 
I am persuaded that if God's people throughout the 
Confederacy will earnestly and perse veringly unite in 
imploring His interposition for peace, we may expect 
it. Let our government acknowledge the God of 
the Bible as its God, and we may expect soon to be 
a happy and independent people. It appears to me 
that extremes are to be avoided ; and it also appears 
to me that the old United States occupied an extreme 
position in the means it took to prevent the union of 
Church and State. AYe call ourselves a Christian peo- 
ple ; and, in my opinion, our government may be of 
the same character, without connecting itself with an 
established Church. It does appear to me that as our 
President, our Congress, and our people have thanked 
God for victories, and prayed to Him for additional 
ones, and He has answered such prayers and gives us 
a government, it is gross ingratitude not to acknowl- 
edge Him in this gift. Let the framework of our gov- 
ernment show that Ave are not uno^rateful to Him." 


In the beginning of the new year, AYinchester was 
again occupied by the Federals. An extract from 
a letter to his helpful friend, Colonel Boteler, will 
show General Jackson's great concern and affection 
for his valley friends : 

'' Though I have been relieved from command 
there, and may never again be assigned to that im- 
portant trust, yet I feel deeply when I see the patri- 
otic people of that region again under the heel of a 
hateful military despotism. There are all the homes 
of those who have been with me from the commence- 
ment of the war in Virginia ; who have repeatedly 
left their families and homes in the hands of the 
enemy, and braved the dangers of battle and disease; 
and there are those who have so devotedly labored 
for the relief of our suffering sick and wounded." 

In another letter to the same friend, he says : '" It 
is but natural that I should feel a deep and abiding 
interest in the people of the valley, where are the 
homes of so many of my brave soldiers who have 
been with me so long, and whose self-sacrificing 
patriotism has been so long tested." 

During this winter General Jackson received a visit 
from a captain in the English army, who wrote an ac- 
count of it for an Enghsh paper or magazine, from 
which the following is a brief extract : 

'' 1 brought from I^assau a box of goods for General 
Stonewall Jackson, and he asked me when I Avas at 
Richmond to come to his camp and see him. I left 
the city one morning about seven o'clock, and about 


ten landed at a station, distant some eight or nine 
miles from Jackson's (or, as his men call him, ' Old 
Jack's') camp. A hea\y fall of snow had covered 
the country for some time before to the depth of a 
foot, and formed a crust over the Virginia mud, which 
is quite as villainous as that of Balaklava. The da}^ 
before had been mild and wet, and my journe}^ was 
made in a drenching shower, which soon cleared awav 
tlie white mantle of snow. You cannot imagine the 
slough of despond I had to pass tlirough. AVet to the 
skin, I stumbled through mud, I waded through creeks, 
I passed through pine woods, and at last got into camj) 
about two o'clock. I then made my wa^^ to a small 
house occupied by the general as his headquarters. I 
wrote down my name and gave it to the orderly, and 
I was immediately told to walk in. 

'• The general rose and greeted me warmly. I ex- 
pected to see an old, untidy man, and was most agree- 
ably surprised and pleased with his appearance. He 
is tall, handsome, and powerfully built, but thin. lie 
has brown hair and a brown beard. His mouth ex- 
presses great determination. The lips are thin and 
compressed firmly together; his eyes are blue and 
dark, with keen and searching expression. I was told 
that his age Avas thirty-eight; and he looks forty. 
The general, who is indescribably simple and unaf- 
fected in all his ways, took off m}^ Avet overcoat Avith 
his own hands, made up the fire, In'ought wood for 
me to put my feet on to keep them Avarm Avhile my 
boots Avere drying, and then began to ask me ques- 
tions on A^arious subjects. At the dinner-hour we 
Avent out and joined the members of his staff. At 
this meal the general said grace in a fervent, quiet 


manner, which struck me very much. xViter dinner 
I returned to his room, and he again talked for a long 
time. The servant came in and took his mattress out 
of a cupboard and laid it on the floor. 

" As I rose to retire, the general said : ' Captain, 
there is plenty of room on my bed ; I hope 3^ou will 
share it with me.' I thanked him very much for his 
courtesy, but said, ' Good-night,' and slept in a tent, 
sharing the blankets of one of his aides-de-camp. In 
the morning, at breakfast-time, I noticed that the 
general said grace before the meal with the same 
fervor I had remarked before. An hour or two after- 
wards it was time for me to return to the station ; on 
this occasion, however, I had a horse, and I returned 
up to the general's headquarters to bid him adieu. 
His little room was vacant, so I stepped in and stood 
before the fire. I then noticed my great-coat stretched 
before it on a chair. Shortly afterwards the general 
entered the room. He said : ^ Captain, I have been 
trying to dry your great-coat, but I am afraid I have 
not succeeded very well.' That little act illustrates 
the man's character. With the care and responsi- 
bilities of a vast army on his shoulders, he finds time 
to do little acts of kindness and thoughtfulness, which 
make him the darling of his men, who never seem to 
tire talking of him. 

" General Jackson is a man of great endurance ; he 
drinks nothing stronger than water, and never uses to- 
bacco or any stimulant. He has been known to ride for 
three days and nights at a time, and if there is any labor 
to be undergone he never fails to take his share of it." 

During this winter, at Moss Xeck, General Jack- 


son's Christian activity and spirituality became more 
marked than ever before, showing a rich ripening for 
the rewards and glories of the heavenly inheritance. 
To a friend he expressed his perfect assurance of faith, 
and said he had been for a long time a stranger to 
fear, " because he hnew and vms as-mred of the love of 
Christ to his soul ; he felt not the faintest dread that 
he should ever fall under the wrath of God, although 
a great sinner; he was forever reconciled by the 
righteousness of Christ, and that love for God and 
Christ vras now the practical spring of all his peni- 
tence." lie then arose from his seat, and with an 
impressive union of humility and solemn elevation 
continued, in substance, thus : " Nothing earthly can 
mar my happiness. I know that heaven is in store for 
me ; and I should rejoice in the prospect of going 
there to-morrow. Understand me : I am not sick, I 
am not sad ; God has greatly blessed me ; I have as 
much to love here as any man, and life is very bright 
to me. But still I am ready to leave it any day, 
\vithout trepidation or regret, for that heaven which 
I know awaits me, through the mercy of my Heavenly 
Father. And I would not agree to the slightest diminu- 
tion of one shade of my glor}^ there — [here he paused, 
as though to consider what terrestrial measure he might 
best select to express the largeness of his joys] — no, 
not for all the fame I have acquired or shall ever win 
in this world." '^Yitll these words he sank into his 
chair, and his friend retired, impressed as he had never 
been before by the exalted faith and perfect assurance 
that God had vouchsafed to this Christian soldier. 

All his Christian friends observed this winter how 
much his mind dwelt upon spiritual matters, his con- 


versation almost invariably drifting into that channel; 
and his favorite subjects were steadfastness of faith, 
dihgent performance of duty, after invoking God's 
blessing and committing our cause to Him, and yield- 
ing a perfect obedience to His will. He loved to con- 
sider the modes by which God reveals His will to man, 
and often quoted the maxim, '' Duty is ours ; conse- 
quences are God's." It was a continued dehght to him 
to dwell upon the blessedness of perfect acquiescence 
in the Divine will. He frequently said that his first 
desire was to command a " converted army." 

But Avhile thus desiring and striving for the spiritual 
good of his men, his diligence was also unremitting in 
training and strengthening his corps for active service 
in the coming campaign, and it increased in efficiency 
and numbers more than at any former period. It was 
brought up to number over thirt}^ thousand active sol- 
diers, who drew their inspiration from his own spirit 
of confidence and determination. 

In the family of Mr. Corbin, of Moss Xeck, Avas a 
lovely little girl, about six years of age, named Jane, 
who became a special pet with General Jackson. Her 
pretty face and winsome ways were so charming to 
him that he requested her mother as a favor that he 
might have a visit from her every afternoon when his 
day's labors were over, and her innocent companion- 
ship and sweet prattle were a great pleasure and recre- 
ation to him. He loved to hold her upon his knee, 
and sometimes he played and romped with her, his 
hearty laughter mingling merrily with that of the 
child. He always had some little treat in store for her 
as she came each day — an orange, an apj)le, cand}^ or 
cake; but the supply of such things becoming exhaust- 


ed in his scanty quarters, one afternoon lie found 
he had notliing tempting to offer lier, and in glanc- 
ing around the room his eye fell u})on a new gray 
cap which he had just received from his Avife, and 
which Avas ornamented with a simple band of gilt 
braid — the most modest mark of his rank that a field 
officer could Avear. Taking up this cap, Avith his knife 
he ripped off the band, and encircling it around little 
Janie's fair head, he stood off admiringly, and said : 
'' This shall be your coronet I'' 

This little one of tender years AA^as destined to pre- 
cede her friend to the " land of pure delight." The 
A^ery day of his removal from Moss xS^eck she died. 
His aide, Mr. Smith, said : " AVe learned of Janie's 
death after Ave reached our new camp, near Yerby's, 
and Avhen I went in to tell the general, he Avas much 
moved, and Avept freely. Afterwards he requested me 
to ride back to Moss Xeck that night to express his 
sympathy, and to remain to be of any service that I 
could to the family." 

General Jackson himself thus alludes to the death 
of his little favorite in one of his letters : " I never 
Avrote you about the bereavement of my kind friend 
Mrs. Corbin. She had an only daughter, probably 
al)Out five or six years old, and one of the most at- 
tractive, if not the most so, that I ever saAv at that 
age. A short time before I left there, the little girl 
was taken sick Avith scarlet fever, but appeared to be 
doinfi: Avell. I called to see JMrs. Corbin the CA^enino^ 
before leaving, and talked to her of her little daugh- 
ter, Avhom I supposed to be out of danger, and she too 
appeared to think so ; but the next morning she Avas 
taken very ill, and in a few hours died of malignant 


scarlet fever. There were two other little children, 
cousins of little Janie, who were staying at the same 
house, and both of them died of the same disease in a 
few days." He was led to speak of these deaths by 
hearing of the loss of my sister Mrs. Avery's first- 
born, of which he says : '' We can sympathize with 
her, and I wish I could comfort her, but no human 
comfort can fully meet her case ; only the Eedeemer 
can, and I trust that she finds Jesus precious, most 
precious, in this her sad hour of trial. Give my ten- 
derest love and sjniipathy to her." 

About this time his own little daughter had a severe 
case of chicken-pox, and his parental anxieties were 
greatly awakened. In his desire to render all the aid 
he could, even at so great a distance, he consulted his 
medical director, Dr. McGuire, that he might write 
his wife the advice prescribed. His tender devotion 
to' the little daughter whom he had never seen was 
surprising to the young doctor, and his voice quivered 
with agitation as he said on leaving him, " I do wish 
that dear child, if it is God's will, to be spared to us." 

The following extracts from his letters testify to 
this same paternal interest and affection, and also re- 
veal his ever-increasing spiritual joy and gratitude : 

" JaniiaiT 5tli, 1863. 

. . . '' How much I do want to see you and our 
darhng baby ! But I don't know when I shall have 
this happiness, as I am afraid, since hearing so much 
about the little one's health, that it would be impru- 
dent to bring it upon a journey, so I must just con- 
tent myself. Mrs. General Longstreet, Mrs. General 
A. P. Hill, and Mrs. General Kodes have all been to 


see their liiisbaiuls. Yesterday 1 saw ^Irs. Rodes 
at church, and she looked so happy tliat it made 
me wish I had Mrs. Jackson here too ; l)ut whilst I 
cannot see my wife and baby, it is a great comfort 
to know that you have a darling little pet to keep 
you company in my absence. ... I heard a good ser- 
mon at Grace Church (where General Hill has his 
headquarters) by an Episcopal minister, Mr. Friend. 
Colonel Faulkner is with us again, and I expect him 
to take the position of my senior adjutant-general." 

"January Cth. I am very thankful to our kind 
Heavenly Father for good tidings from you and baby 
— specially that she is restored again to health, and I 
trust that we all three may so live as most to glorify 
His holy name. ... I have a visor, but I hope I shall 
not have to sleep in a tent any more this winter. My 
ears are still troubling me, but I am very thankful 
that my hearing is as good as usual, and from my ap- 
pearance one would suppose that I was perfectly well. 
Indeed, my health is essentially good, but I do not 
think I shall be able in future to stand what I have 
already stood, although, ^vith the exception of the in- 
creased sensitiveness of my ears, my health has im- 
proved. I am sorry to hear that dear mother's health 
does not improve. . . . We have several cases of small- 
pox at Guiney's, and I expect you will have to give up 
all idea of coming to see me until spring, as I fear it 
would be too much of a risk for you and baby to travel 
up here. 

. "The other day I received from the citizens of 
Augusta County a magnificent horse, with an excel- 
lent saddle and bridle. It is the most complete riding 


equipment that I have seen. My kind friends went so 
far as to get patent stirrups, constructed so as to open 
and throw the foot from the stirrup in the event of 
the rider being thrown and the foot hung in the stir- 
rups. How kind is God to us ! Oh that I were more 
grateful I" 

" January ITth. Yesterday I had the pleasure of 
receiving a letter from my esposita four days after it 
was written. Doesn't it look as if Confederate mails 
are better than United States mails ? Don't you re- 
member how long it took for letters to come from 
Charlotte to Lexington under the old regime? I de- 
rive an additional pleasure in reading a letter from the 
conviction that it has not travelled on the Sabbath. 
How delightful will be our heavenly home, where 
everything is sanctified ! ... I am gratified at hear- 
ing that you have commenced disciplining the baby. 
Xow be careful, and don't let her conquer you. She 
must not be permitted to have that will of her own, of 
which you speak. How I would love to see the little 
darling, whom I love so tenderly, though I have never 
seen her ; and if the war were only over, I tell you, I 
would hurry down to Xorth Carolina to see my wife 
and baby. I have much work to do. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Faulkner is of great service to me in making 
out my reports. Since he is my senior adjutant-gen- 
eral, Pendleton is promoted to a majority, and is the 
junior adjutant-general. Major Bier, my chief of ord- 
nance, has been ordered to Charleston, and Captain 
William Allan, of Winchester, is his successor. Colonel 
Smeade is my inspector-general, so you must not com- 
plain of my not writing to you about my staff. I re- 


gret to see our Winchester friends again in the hands 
of the enemy. I trust that, in answer to prayer, our 
country will soon be blessed with peace. If we were 
only that obedient people that Ave should be, I would, 
with increased confidence, look for a speedy termina- 
tion of hostilities. Let us pray more and live more to 
the sflorv of God. ... I am still thinkino^ and think- 
incr about tliat babv, and do Avant to see her. Can't 
you send her to me by express ? There is an express 
line all the Avav to Guiney's. I am glad to hear that 
she sleeps Avell at night, and doesn't disturb her moth- 
er. But it would be better not to call her a cheruJj ; no 
earthly being is such. I am also gratified that Hetty 
is doing well. Eemember me to her, and tell her that, 
as I didn't give her a present last Christmas, I intend 
giving her two next. . . . Don't you accuse my baby of 
not being hrave. I do hope she will get over her fear 
of strangers. If, before strangers take her, you Avould 
give them something to please her, and thus make her 
have pleasant associations Avith them, and seeing them 
frequently, I trust she Avould lose her timidity. It is 
gratifying tliat she is groAving so Avell, and I am thank- 
ful she is so bright and knowing. I do aa^sIi I could 
see her funny little Avays, and hear her ' squeal out 
Avith delight' at seeing the little chickens. I am some- 
times afraid that you Avill make such an idol of that 
baby that God Avill take her from us. Ai^e yoic not 
afraid of it ? Kiss her for her father. 

"I haA^e this morning received two presents — a 
pair of gauntlets from near the Potomac, and another 
beautiful pair from Mrs. Preston Trotter, of Browns- 
burg. A kind gentleman, ]\Ir. Stephens, of Kelson 
County, sent me a barrel of select pippins.'' 


" January 31st. Captain Bushby, of the British 
Army, called to see me to-day, and presented me 
with a water-proof oil-cloth case in which to sleep on 
a wet night in summer campaigning. I can encase 
myself in it, keep dry, and get a good night's sleep." 

" February 3d. In answer to the prayers of God's 
people, I trust He will soon give us peace. I haven't 
seen my vv^ife for nearly a year — my home in nearly 
two years, and have never seen our darling little 
daughter; but it is important that I, and those at 
headquarters, should set an example of remaining at 
the post of duty. Joseph would like very much to 
go home, but unless mother gets worse, he had better 
not. . . . My old Stonewall Brigade has built a log 
church. As yet I have not been in it. I am much 
interested in reading Hunter's ' Life of Moses.' It is 
a delightful book, and I feel more improved in read- 
ing it than by an ordinary sermon. I am thankful 
to say that my Sabbaths are passed more in medi- 
tation than formerly. Time thus spent is genuine 

"February Tth. This has been a beautiful spring 
day. I have been thinking lately about gardening. 
If I were at home, it would be time for me to bemn 
to prepare the hot-bed. Don't you remember what 
interest we used to take in our hot-bed ? If we should 
be privileged to return to our old home, I expect we 
would find many changes. An ever-kind Providence 
is showering blessings down upon me. Yesterday 
Colonel M. G. Harman and Mr. William J. Bell, jun., 
of Staunton, presented me with an excellent horse. 


As yet I liave not mounted him, but I saw another 
person ride him, and I hope soon to have that pleasure 
myself. . . . Just to think our baby is nearly three 
months old. Does she notice and laugh much ? You 
have never told nie how much she looks like her mother. 
I tell you, I want to know how she looks. If you could 
hear me talking to my esjposa in the mornings and 
evenings, it would make you laugh, I'm sure. It is 
funny the way I talk to her when she is hundreds of 
miles away. . . . Jim has returned from Lexington, 
and brought a letter from 'Cy' [a negro servant], 
asking permission to take unto himself a wife, to 
which I intend to give my consent, provided you or 
his mother do not. object. ... I am so much con- 
cerned about mother's health as to induce me to rec- 
ommend a leave of absence for Joseph. I send thi^ 
note by him, and also send the baby a silk handker- 
chief. I have thought that as it is brightly colored, 
it mioiit attract her attention. Remember, it is her 
first present from her father, and let me know if 
she notices it." [This handkerchief has ever since 
been sacredly preserved as a precious relic] 

" February 14th. Your delightful letter of six pages 
received a welcome reception this evening. I am 
thankful to see that our kind Heavenly Father is 
again restoring mother to health. I felt uneasy about 
her, and thought that Josepli had better make a 
visit home. I have made the restoration of mothers 
health a subject of prayer ; but then Ave know that 
our dear ones are mortal, and that God does not 
always answer prayer according to our erring feel- 
incrs. I think that if, when we see ourselves in a 


glass, we should consider that all of us that is visible 
must turn to corruption and dust, we would learn 
more justly to appreciate the relative importance of 
the body that perishes and the soul that is immortal. 
. . . Your accounts of baby are very gratifying, and 
intensify my desire to see her. If peace is not con- 
cluded before next winter, I do hope you can bring 
her and spend the winter with me. This \v^ould be 
very delightful. If we are spared, I trust an ever- 
kind Providence will enable us to be together all 
winter. I am glad little Juha was pleased with her 
])resent, and wish I could have seen her laugh. . . . 
You say you don't see any use of my not taking a 
furlough. I think that the army would be much more 
efficient if all belonging to it were present. ... I do 
trust and pray that our people will religiously ob- 
serve the 2Tth of next month as a day of humiliation, 
prayer, and fasting, as our President has designated 
in his proclamation. To-morrow is the Sabbath. My 
Sabbaths are looked forward to with pleasure. I 
don't know that I ever enjoyed Sabbaths as I do this 
winter. ... I don't think I have written you about 
recent presents. About a week since, I received from 
Mr. W. F. De la Rue, of London, a superb English 
saddle, bridle, holsters, saddle-cover, blankets, whip, 
spurs, etc. — the most complete riding equipage that I 
have seen for many a day. Its completeness is re- 
markable. This evening I received from Mr. John 
Johnson, of London, a box containing two flannel 
shirts, two pairs of long woollen stockings extending 
above the knees, a buckskin shirt, a pair of boots, a 
pair of leather leggings extending about eight inches 
above the knees, two pairs of excellent fitting leather 


gloves, and a very superior variegated colored blanket. 
Our ever-kind Heavenly Father gives me friends 
amonf strangers. He is the source of every blessing, 
and I desire to be more grateful to Ilim.'' 

" March 7th. I have just Unished my report of the 
battle of McDowell. . . . There is a good deal of re- 
ligious interest in the army. Eev. Mr. Lacy is with 
me no\v, and I expect will continue with the army 
during the war. Eev. William J. Hoge is here, and 
has preached severaL sermons. Rev. Mr. Hopkins is 
chaplain of the Second Regiment of Virginia A^olun- 
teers. If you were here you would find a number 
of friends." 

'* March 14th. The time has about come for cam- 
paigning, and I hope early next week to leave my 
room, and go into a tent near Hamilton's Crossing, 
which is on the railroad, about five miles from Fred- 
ericksburg. It is rather a relief to get where there 
will be less comfort than in a room, as I hope thereby 
persons will be prevented from encroaching so much 
upon my time. I am greatly behind in my reports, 
and am very desirous to get through with them before 
another campaign commences. Do you remember 
when my little wife used to come up to my head- 
([uarters in Winchester and talk with her esposof 
I would love to see her sunny face peering into my 
room again. . . . On next Monday there is to be a 
meeting of the chaplains of my corps, and I pray 
that good may result. ... I \\w\ now in cam]\ but I 
do not know of any house near l)y where you could 
be accommodated, should you come ; and, moreover, I 


might not be here when j^ou would arrive, as the 
season for campaigning has come. Before this time 
last year, the campaign liad begun, and, so far as we 
can see, it ma\^ begin again at any time. The move- 
ments of the enemy must influence ours, and we can't 
say where we shall be a week hence.'^ 

" April 10th. I trust that God is going to bless us 
with great success, and in such a manner as to show 
that it is all His gift ; and I trust and pray that it 
will lead our country to acknowledge Him, and to 
live in accordance with His will as revealed in the 
Bible. There appears to be an increased religious 
interest among our troops here. Our chaplains have 
weekly meetings on Tuesdays; and the one of this 
week was more charming than the preceding one." 

After removing his headquarters to Hamilton Cross- 
ing, General Jackson established an altar of dail}' 
morning prayer in his military family. He Avas too 
liberal and unobtrusive in his own religion to exact 
compulsory attendance on the part of his staff ; but 
their regard for him prompted them to gratify his 
wishes, and he always greeted their presence Avith a 
face of beaming commendation. He appointed his 
chaplain to officiate at these services ; but if he was 
absent, the general took his place himself, and with 
the greatest fervor and humility offered up his tribute 
of praise and supplication. Meetings for praA^er were 
held at his quarters twice a week, on Sunday and 
Wednesday evenings, and on Sunday afternoons he 
loved to engage the musical members of his staff in 
singing sacred songs, to which he listened with genu- 


ine delight. He rarely let them stop without calling 
for the liymn beginning 

" How happy are they 
Who the Saviour obey !'' 

Other favorite hymns with him were : 

" Come, humble sinner, in whose breast 
A thousand thoughts revolve." 

"'Tis my happiness below, 
Not to live without the cross." 

"When gathering clouds around I view, 
And days are dark and friends are few." 

"Glorious things of thee are spoken, 
Zion, city of our God." 

[Sung to the tune of Harwell.] 




As the spring advanced, and the season for cam- 
paigning dre^Y nearer, General Jackson grew more 
and more anxious to have a visit from his wife and 
child. His solicitous consideration for the health and 
safety of the little one had led him to advise their not 
travelling until the winter was over ; and now he 
showed great eagerness to have a visit before the cam- 
paign should open. On the 18th of April he wrote : 

... "I am beginning to look for my darling and 
my bab}^ I shouldn't be surprised to hear at any 
time that they were coming, and I tell a^ou there would 
be one dehghted man. Last night I dreamed that my 
little wife and I were on opposite sides of a room, in 
the centre of which was a table, and the little baby 
started from her mother, making her way along under 
the table, and finally reached her father. And what 
do you think she did when she arrived at her destina- 
tion? She just climbed up on her father and kissed 
him ! And don't you think he was a happy man ? But 
when he awoke he found it all a delusion. I am glad 
to hear that she enjoys out-doors, and grows, and coos, 
and laughs. How I would love to see her sweet ways ! 
That her little chubby hands have lost their resem- 
blance to mine is not regretted by me. . . . Should I 


write to you to liave any more pantaloons made for 
me, please do not have mucli gold braid al)out them. 
I became so ashamed of the broad gilt band tliat was 
on the cap you sent as to induce me to take it off. I 
like simplicity." 

" Saturday. Yesterday I received youi* letter, but 
you did not say a word about coming to see your es- 
jwso. I do hope that ere this you liave received mine, 
saying you could come, and that vou at once got an 
escort and started. There is no time for hesitation if 
you have not started. There is increasing probability 
that I may be elsewhere as the season advances. But 
don't come unless you get a good escort. I am not 
certain that I can get accommodations for you : but I 
don't think there will be any difficulty about it, as I 
hope some kind neighbor would try to make us com- 
fortable for the short time that you may remain. I 
think that we might get in at Mr. Yerby's, which is 
less than a mile from my headquarters." 

Little Julia wa's nearly five months old now, and 
was plump, rosy, and good, and with her nurse, Hetty, 
we set out upon this visit, so full of interest and antici- 
pated joys. We made the journey safely, stopping in 
Richmond to spend Sunday, and arrived at" Guiney's 
Station at noon on Monday, the 20th of April. Hett}^ 
and I were all anxiety to have our baby present her 
best ajipearance for her father's first sight of her, and 
she could not have better realized our wishes. She 
awoke from a long, refreshing sleep just before the 
train stopped, and never looked more bright and charm- 
inir. When he entered the coach to receive us, his 


rubber overcoat was dripping from the rain ^vhicll 
was falling, but liis face was all sunshine and glad- 
ness ; and, after greeting his wife, it was a picture, 
indeed, to see his look of perfect delight and admira- 
tion as his eyes fell upon that bal\y ! She Avas at the 
lovely, smiling age ; and catching his eager look of su- 
preme interest in her, she beamed her brightest and 
sweetest smiles upon him in return, so it seemed to be 
a mutual fascination. He was afraid to take her in 
his arms, with his wet overcoat ; but as we drove in 
a carriage to Mr. Yerbv's, his face reflected all the 
happiness and delight that were in his heart, and he 
expressed much surprise and gratification at her size 
and beauty. Upon our arrival at the house he speed- 
ily divested himself of his overcoat, and, taking his 
baby in his arms, he caressed her with the tenderest 
affection, and held her long and lovingly. During 
the whole of this short visit, when he was with us, he 
rarely had her out of his arms, walking her, and amus- 
ing" her in every way that he could think of — some- 
times holding her up before a mirror and saying, ad- 
miringly, " JS'ow, Miss Jackson, look at yourself !" 
Then he would turn to an old lady of the family and 
say : " Isn't she a little gem T^ He was frequently 
told that she resembled him, but he would say : " ISTo, 
she is too pretty to look like me." When she slept in 
the day, he would often kneel over her cradle, and 
gaze upon her little face with the most rapt admira- 
tion, and he said he felt almost as if she were an angel, 
in her innocence and purity. I have often wished 
that the picture which was presented to me of that 
father kneeling over the cradle of that lovely infant 
could have been put upon canvas. And yet with all 


his fondness and devotion to the httle lady, he had no 
idea of spoiling her, as will be seen by his undertaking 
to teach her a lesson in self-control before she was five 
months old I One day she began to cry to be taken 
from the bed on which she was lying, and as soon as 
her wish was gratified, she ceased to cry. lie laid 
her back upon tlie bed, and the cr3'ing was renewed 
with increased violence. Of course, the mother-heart 
wished to stop this by taking her up again, but he ex- 
claimed : '' This will never do !" and commanded " all 
hands off" until that little will of her own should 
be conquered. So there she lay, kicking and scream- 
ing, while he stood over her with as much coolness 
and determination as if he were directing a battle; and 
he was true to the name of Stonewall, even in disci- 
plining a baby ! When she stopped crying he would 
take her up, and if she began to cry again he would 
lay her down again, and this he kept up until finall}^ 
she was completely conquered, and became perfectly 
quiet in his hands. 

On the 23d of April (the day she was five months 
old) General Jackson had little Julia baptized. He 
brought his chaplain, the Eev. Mr. Lacy, to Mr. Yer- 
by's, in whose parlor the sacred rite was performed, 
in tlie presence of the family, and a number of the 
staff-officers. The child behaved beautifully, and was 
the object of great interest to her father's friends and 
soldiers. His aide, Mr. Smith, tells how he came to 
be present. He says : " I recall the visit to Mr. Yer- 
by's to see the baptism of little Julia. For some 
reason, Mr. Lacy did not wish me to go, and said I 
shouldn't go. Provoked at tliis. I went to the gen- 
eral, who said, ' Certainly, Mr. Smith, you can go ; 


ask the others to go with you,' and I turned out the 
whole party, making quite a cavalcade to ride to Mr. 
Yerby's. I remember the general's impatience at some 
little delay, and the decided way with which he went 
out and brought in the child in his arms." 

The next Sabbath was a most memorable one to 
me, being the last upon which I was privileged to at- 
tend divine service with my husband on earth, and to 
worship in camp with such a company of soldiers as 
I had never seen together in a religious congregation. 
My husband took me in an ambulance to his head- 
quarters, where the services were held, and on the 
way were seen streams of officers and soldiers, some 
riding, some walking, all wending their way to the 
place of worship. Arrived there, we found Mr. Lacy 
in a tent, in which we were seated, together with Gen- 
eral Lee and other distinguished officers. I remember 
how reverent and impressive was General Lee's bear- 
ing, and how handsome he looked, with his splendid 
figure and faultless military attire. In front of the 
tent, under the canopy of heaven, were spread out in 
dense masses the soldiers, sitting upon benches or 
standing. The preaching was earnest and edifying, 
the singing one grand volume of song, and the atten- 
tion and good behavior of the assembly remarkable. 
That Sabbath afternoon my husband spent entirely 
with me, and his conversation was more spiritual than 
I had ever observed before. He seemed to be giving 
utterance to those religious meditations in which he 
so much delighted. He never appeared to be in better 
health than at this time, and I never saw him look so 
handsome and noble. We had ,a large, comfortable 
room at Mr. Yerby's, which was hospitably furnished 


with three beds. It seems that General Lee had been 
an occupant of this i-ooni before us, for when he called 
on me he facetiously alluded to our capacious accom- 
modations, and said he had written to his wife and 
daughters that if they would come to see him, he could 
entertain them all in this room ! This was the first 
time I met him, and when the announcement was 
made that " General Lee and his staff had called to see 
Mrs. Jackson," I was somewhat awe-struck at tlie idea 
of meeting the commander-in-chief, with a retinue of 
officers, and descended to the parlor with considerable 
trepidation ; but I was met by a face so kind and fa- 
therly/, and a greeting so cordial, that I was at once 
reassured and put at ease. The formidable ^' staff" 
consisted of only two or three nice-looking, courteous 
gentlemen, and the call was greatly enjoyed. 

General Lee was always charming in the society of 
ladies, and often indulged in a playful way of teasing 
them that was quite amusing. He claimed the privi- 
lege of kissing all the pretty young girls, which was 
regarded by them as a special honor. A young staff- 
officer relates that on the occasion of a general review^ 
many ladies turned out in carriages to witness the im- 
posing spectacle. He heard one young lady call out 
to another from her carriage : '• General Lee kissed me 
tvnce r The exultant reply came back from another 
carriage : " General Lee kissed me four times /" 

General Jackson did not permit the presence of his 
familv to interfere in any way with his military du- 
ties. The greater part of each day he spent at his 
headquarters, but returned as early as he could get off 
from his labors, and devoted all of his leisure time to 
his visitors — little Julia sharinir his chief attention and 


care. His devotion to his ciiild was remarked upon 
by all Avbo beheld the happy pair together, for she 
soon learned to delight in his caresses as much as he 
loved to play with her. An officer's wife who saw 
him often during this time wrote to a friend in Eich- 
mond that " tlie general spent all his leisure time in 
playing with the baby." 

One morning he rode over from headquarters upon 
his handsome bay horse, " Superior," wishing to show 
me his fine present ; and after bringing him up to the 
steps of the house and showing him off, he remounted 
him, and galloped away at such a John Gilpin speed 
that his cap was soon borne off by the velocity ; but 
he did not stop to pick it up, leaving this to his order- 
ly behind him, who found great difficulty in keeping 
even in sight of him. As far as he could be seen, he 
was flying like the wind — the impersonation of fear- 
lessness and manly vigor. 

It was during these last happ}^ days that he sat for 
the last picture that was taken of him — the three-quar- 
ters view of his face and head — the favorite picture 
with his old soldiers, as it is the most soldierly-look- 
ing ; but, to my mind, not so pleasing as the full-face 
view which was taken in the spring of 1862, at Win- 
chester, and which has more of the beaming sunlight 
of his home-looh. The last picture was taken by an 
artist who came to Mr. Yerby's and asked permission 
to photograph him, which he at first declined ; but as 
he never presented a finer appearance in health and 
dress (wearing the handsome suit given him by Gen- 
eral Stuart), I persuaded him to sit for his picture. 
After arranging his hair myself, which was unusually 
long for him, and curled in large ringlets, he sat in 


the hall of the house, where a strong wind blew in his 
face, causing hira to frown, and giving a sternness to 
his countenance that was not natural ; but in spite of 
this, some tine copies have been produced from the 
original. The very best is Elder's grand portrait — 
painted for the late Mr. W. W. Corcoran, of Wash- 
incrton. Durino: a visit of ray dauo^hter and myself to 
Mr. Corcoran, a few years since, he asked us to walk 
with him into his salon, saying he had there some- 
thing to show us. Without another word, he led us 
up in front of this portrait, and as the child stood 
transfixed before the splendid representation of the 
father, whose memory she so revered, the dear old 
man stepped forward, and, lifting up the pathetic young 
face, tenderly kissed her. This portrait, together with 
a companion picture of General Lee, was given by 
Mr. Corcoran to the Art Gallery in Washington, which 
was founded by him and bears his honored name. 

Our military leaders had diligently employed the 
winter months in preparing their troops for the great- 
est efficiency in the approaching campaign. When 
the spring opened, General Lee found himself at the 
head of an army unsurpassed in discipline and all the 
hardy virtues of the soldier, strengthened by the addi- 
tions of the winter, reinvigorated by the compactness 
and order which had been given to its organization, 
Avith an enthusiasm acquired by a long series of vic- 
tories, and ready to add to that series a triumph more 
remarkable and illustrious than any of its predeces- 
sors. . . . General Jackson's corps grew in three months 
from twenty -five to thirty -three thousand muskets. 
. . . The splendid morale of this army did not need 
improvement, but it enabled it to bear, without in- 


jur}^, the privations and hardships of the winter. In- 
sufficient clothing and scanty rations produced no 
effect upon it." 

Their leader manifested less reserve than formerly 
in expressing his opinion of the general principles 
which should govern the Confederate side in the 
continuance of the war. AYith great decision and 
emphasis he said : " We must make this campaign an 
exceedingly active one. Only thus can a weaker 
country cope Avith a stronger ; it must make up in 
activity what it lacks in strength. A defensive cam- 
paign can only be made successful by taking the ag- 
gressive at the proper time. N^apoleon never wait- 
ed for his adversary to become fully prepared, but 
struck him the first blow." 

But as the campaign drew on apace, my delightful 
visit was destined to come to an end. My husband 
had loved to dwell with devout thankfulness upon 
the happy winter we had spent together in Winches- 
ter ; but this last visit exceeded that in happiness, for 
it had the additional charm and the attraction of the 
lovely child that God had given us, and this greatly 
intensified his delight and enjoyment. 

My visit had lasted only nine days, when early on 
the morning of the 29th of April we were aroused 
by a messenger at our door saying, " General Early's 
adjutant wishes to see General Jackson." As he 
arose, he said, " That looks as if Hooker were cross- 
ing." He hurried down-stairs, and, soon returning, 
told me that his surmise was correct — Hooker was 
crossing the river, and that he must gQ immediately 
to the scene of action. From the indications he 
thought a battle was imminent, and under the cir- 


cumstances he was unwilling for us to remain in so 
exposed a situation as Mr. Yerby's. He therefore 
directed me to prepare to start for Richmond at a 
moment's notice, promising to return himself to see 
us off if possible, and if not, he would send my broth- 
er Joseph. After a tender and hasty good-by, he 
hurried off without breakfast. Scarcely had he gone, 
when the roar of cannons began — volley after volley- 
following in quick succession — the house shaking and 
windows rattlino^ from the reverberations, throwin^: 
the family into great panic, and causing the wildest 
excitement among all the occupants of the place. My 
hasty preparations for leaving were hardly completed 
when Mr. Lacy, the chaplain, came with an ambu- 
lance, saying he had been sent by General Jackson to 
convey his family to the railroad station as speedily 
as possible, in order to catch the morning train to 
Richmond. My brother Joseph, seeing General Jack- 
son's need of his services, had requested that Mr. 
Lacy should be sent in his stead as my escort. He 
brought a cheerful note from my husband, explaining 
why he could not leave his post, and invoking God's 
care and blessing upon us in our sudden departure, 
and especially was he tender and loving in his men- 
tion of the baby. 

A ra])id and continuous rattle of musketry showed 
that the battle was now under way, and before we 
left Mr. Yerby's yard we saw several wounded sol- 
diers brought in and placed in the out-houses, which 
the surgeons were arranging as temporary hospitals. 
This was my nearest and only glimpse of the actual 
horrors of the battle-field, and the reader can imagine 
how sad and harrowing \vas my chive to the station 


on that terrible morning ! The distance was several 
miles, and as we journeyed along over a newly cut 
road, filled with stumps and roots, we could hear the 
sounds of battle, and my heart was heavy Avith fore- 
boding and dread. We were in good time for the 
train, and but few passengers were aboard — only two 
that made any impression upon me, and these were a 
pretty, young Creole mother and a little boy from 
Kew Orleans, who, like myself, had been paying a 
visit to a soldier husband and father, and were now flee- 
ing for safety. In a few hours we Avere in Eichmond, 
among kind friends, for all Southern hearts w^ere 
bound by a strong tie in the common cause for which 
so many brave hearts were battling. 

But we must now return to General Jackson. 
Hastening to his command, his first order was to de- 
spatch one of his aides to inform General Lee of the 
movements of the enemy. The commander-in-chief 
was found sitting in his tent, and replied with his ac- 
customed pleasantry to the message, saying : " Well, 
I heard firing, and I was beginning to think it was 
time some of you lazy young fellows w^ere coming to 
tell me what it was all about. Say to General Jack- 
son that he knows just as well what to do with the 
enemy as I do." 

Thus left to his own responsibility, Jackson had 
his corps under arms as speedily as possible, but soon 
ascertained from the cavalry pickets of General Stuart 
that the crossing of the enemy below Fredericksburg, 
which was now engaging his attention, was only a 
feint to cover the movements of still larger forces, 
which were effecting passages higher up the Rappa- 
hannock, and some miles west of Fredericksburg. 


These forces marched down towards Chancellorsville, 
fifteen miles west of Fredericksburg, where General 
Hooker was himself in command, and was massing 
his vast army. 

On the opening of this campaign, when General 
Jackson broke up his quarters, it was observed that 
a wondrous change came over him. From the quiet, 
patient, but arduous laborer over his daily tasks, he 
seemed transformed into a thunder-bolt of war. So 
instinct with animation, energy, and indomitable will 
did he appear that even his figure assumed more 
erectness, his step a quicker firmness, and his whole 
bearing realized the ideal of a soldier, as one inspired 
by the consciousness of power. His mind was clear 
and his action prompt : nothing did he overlook or 
neglect which could add to the efficiency of his corps. 

Before orderii>g his tents to be struck, his last act 
was to dismount from his horse and seek the ])rivacy 
of his own tent. His servant Jim, to whom he had 
thrown the reins, raised his hand to the bustling crowd 
around, as a warning gesture, and in a loud whisper 
said : " Hush ! . . . The general is praying I'' Silence 
immediately fell upon the camp, and was maintained 
until the curtain was withdrawn and the Christian 
warrior came forth from his closet, where he had drunk 
of the inspiration that comes only from above, which 
makes a man " strong in the Lord, and in the power 
of His might." 

Proceeding to the field. General Jackson managed, 
with his usual skill, to escape the notice of the enemy, 
and put his column in motion at three o'clock on the 
morning of the 30th, in obedience to General Lee's 
order to go to the support of two divisions which had 


already been sent to arrest the advance of the enemy, 
which he accomphshed by threatening their flank, upon 
which they fell back to Chancellorsville, where, accord- 
ing to the report of General Lee, they " had assumed 
a position of great natural strength, surrounded on 
all sides by a dense forest, filled with a tangled under- 
growth, in the midst of which breastworks of logs had 
been constructed,, with trees felled in front, so as to 
form an almost impenetrable abatis. Their artillery 
swept the few narrow roads by which the position 
could be approached from the front, and commanded 
the adjacent woods." 

To attack this stronghold would cost a fruitless 
waste of life, and the Confederates attempted nothing 
that day beyond some skirmishing along the lines. 
That night, the 1st of May, Generals Lee and Jackson 
bivouacked upon a knoll covered with pine-trees, the 
fallen leaves aifording them the only means of repose ; 
but little did they think of sleep, and long and earnest 
were their consultations, for the situation of affairs 
was of the gravest and most serious aspect. 

Longstreet, with a part of his corps, was absent ; 
Early had been left at Fredericksburg to conceal Jack- 
son's departure, and to dispute the heights of that 
place with Sedgwick ; and Lee's army, thus diminished, 
was left with only forty-three thousand men to battle 
against Hooker with sixty thousand. The Federal 
cavalry, in large force, had also broken through the 
Confederate lines, and was making a raid southward, 
with the object of cutting off General Lee's commu- 
nications with Eichmond. General Stuart now joined 
them, and reported that, while Hooker's situation was 
seemingly impregnable, with his whole force massed 


around Chancellors ville. vet his encampments were 
open upon the west and nortliwest, and the greater 
part of his cavalry were absent on the southern raid. 
Long and anxiously did the two Confederate leaders 
consult on that memorable night, and they both agreed 
that Hooker must be attacked at once, or all would 
be lost. Finally they laid themselves down upon the 
pine leaves to take a few hours of mjach-needed repose. 
Jackson's mind seemed to have been upon everything 
more than himself, and he had neglected to provide 
a covering or wrap of any kind. lie was urged by 
young Pendleton of his staff to accept his overcoat, 
but was unwilling to deprive him of it, and declined. 
The thoughtful young man then detached the large 
cape of the garment and spread it over his general ; 
but as soon as Pendleton fell asleep, Jackson rose 
and carefully placed the cape over him, preferring to 
endure the cold himself to depriving a friend of his 
comfort. The next morning he awoke with a cold, 
but he did not speak of it. In the gray light of dawn 
his chaplain found him sitting on a cracker-box, and 
shivering over a little fire. He invited ]\Ir. Lacy to 
take a seat by him, and asked him to give him all the 
information he could about the by-roads of that region 
— the minister being acquainted with the country, as 
he once had a charge in that vicinity. He took a pen- 
cil and an outline map out of his pocket, and requested 
Mr. Lacy to mark down all the roads for him. He also 
sent his topographical engineer, ^lajor Jed. Ilotchkiss, 
now of Staunton, Virginia, to inspect the country, and 
procured the services of a guide from the neighborhood 
to find out some avenue by which he might pass s^viftly 
and unobserved around the flank of Hooker's army. 


The needed information was soon obtained. Seat- 
ed upon two cracker-boxes, the debris of an issue 
of Federal rations the day before, the Confederate 
leaders held their consultation. With a map before 
him, Jackson suggested making a long circuit, sweep- 
ing clear round Hooker's right, and so making the 
attack on his rear. Lee inquired with what force he 
would do this ? Jackson replied, " With my whole 
corps present." Lee then asked what would be left 
to him with which to resist an advance of the enemy 
towards Fredericksburg? '' The divisions of Anderson 
and McLaws," said Jackson. For a moment Lee re- 
flected on the audacity of this plan in the face of 
Hooker's superior numbers. To divide his army into 
two parts and place the whole Federal force between 
them was extremely hazardous. But it was impos- 
sible to attack their position in front without terrible 
loss. The very boldness of the proposed movement, 
if executed with secrecy and despatch, was an earnest 
of success. Jackson was directed to carry out the 

Soon after the dawn of day he began the march 
with his corps, who, comprehending intuitively that 
their leader was engaged in one of his masterly flank 
movements, and catching their inspiration from his 
own eagerness and enthusiasm, pressed rapidly for- 
ward, over the narrow country roads. This move- 
ment was not altogether un perceived by the Federals, 
but they interpreted so early a march southward as 
a retreat towards Richmond. Some slight skirmish- 
ing of artillery and riflemen was attempted, but did 
not last long, and Hooker seemed to be awaiting fur- 
ther developments. By three o'clock in the afternoon 


Jackson bad marched fifteen miles, and was six miles 
west of Cliancellorsville, occupying precisely the op- 
posite side of the enemy to that held by General Lee. 
It was here that he addressed his last official note to 
his commander, which was as follows: 

'' Near 3 p.m., May 2d, 1803. 
^' General, — The enemy has made a stand at Chan- 
cellor s, which is about two miles from Chancellors- 
ville. I hope, so soon as practicable, to attack. 

'* I trust that an ever-kind Providence will bless us 
with success. 

'' Eespect fully, 

'' T. J. Jackson, Lieutenant-Genei'al. 
" General Robekt E. Lee. 

up g^ — Tiie leading division is up, and the next 
two appear to be well closed. T. J. J." 

Stuart was covering this flank movement with his 
vigilant cavalry, and from his outposts Jackson 
was able to gain a glimpse of the enemy's position, 
which satisfied him that he had obtained the desired 
vantage-ground from which to attack. 

The country around Chancellorsville is densely 
wooded with scrub oak and pine, which, with tan- 
o-led undergrowth, form almost impenetrable depths 
from which it is appropriately called " The AVildei'- 
ness." But in the open fields near the old Wilder- 
ness Tavern, General Jackson found space in which 
to draw up his troops. He formed them in three par- 
allel lines, and selected two picked batteries to move 
down the turnpike, which marked the centre of his 
lilies — the thick forests into which he was about to 


plunge affording no possible position for the rest of 
his artillerj^ By six o'clock all was in readiness for 
the advance, and at the ^yord of command the three 
lines charged forward, rushing with all the speed it 
was possible to make through the forests and dense 
brushwood, which almost tore the clothing of the 
soldiers from their bodies, and compelled them to 
creep through many places; but still they pressed 
on, as best they could. The following description of 
what followed is taken from -'The Battle-Fields of 
Virginia :" 

" The forest was full of game, which, startled from 
their hiding-places by the unusual presence of man, 
ran in numbers to and over the Federal lines. Deer 
leaped over the works at Talley's, and dashed into 
the wood behind. The Federal troops had in most 
eases their arms stacked, and were eating supper. 
All danger was thought to be over for the night. 
The startled game gave the first intimation of Jack- 
son's approach. But so little was it suspected or 
beheved that the suggestion was treated as a jest. 
Presently the bugles were heard through which 
orders were passed along the Confederate lines. This 
excited still more remark. Ere it had been long 
discussed, however, there came the sound of a few 
straggling shots from the skirmishers, then a mighty 
cheer, and in a moment more Jackson was upon them. 
A terrible volley from his line of battle poured among 
the Union troops ere they could recover from their 
surprise. Those in line returned a scattered fire; 
others seized their arms and attempted to form. 
Officers tried to steady their men and lead them to 


meet the attack. All was in vain. . . . Like a tor- 
nado the Confederate lines pass over the ground, 
breaking, crushing, crumbling Howard's corps. Artil- 
lery, wagons, ambulances, are driven in frantic panic 
to the rear, and double the confusion. The rout is 
utter and hopeless. The mass of pursuers and pur- 
sued roll on until the position of Melzi Chancellor's 
is reached. Here a strong line of works had been 
constructed across the road, which, having a shal- 
low ditch, could be made to face in either direction. 
. . . Some of Schurz's men rally on Buschbeck, 
and for a short time the Confederate advance is ar- 
rested. But Jackson cannot long be held back. Col- 
ston's division has eagerly pressed on, and is already 
commingled with Kodes's. Together they charge 
with a yell ; and in a few moments the works are 
taken. Pell-mell now rush the Eleventh Corps, the 
last semblance of organization gone, through the 
forest, towards Chancellorsville. Onward sweep the 
Confederates in hot pursuit. The arms, knapsacks, 
and accoutrements of the fugitives fill the woods. 
Artillerv carriagfes are to be seen overturned in the 
narrow roads, or hopelessly jammed in the impene- 
trable jungle. The wounded and dying, with their 
groans, fill the forest on every side. The day is rai> 
idly drawing to a close ; night comes to add confu- 
sion to the scene. It had been impossible in the broad 
daylight, owing to the intricacy of the forest, to pre- 
vent a commingling of regiments and brigades along 
the Confederate lines. The confusion thus produced 
is greatly increased by the darkness. In a brush- 
wood so dense that it is impossible, under favorable 
circumstances, to see thirtv yards in anv direction. 


companies, regiments, brigades, become inextricably 
intermixed. Colston's division, forming the second 
line, has already become merged Avith Kodes's. Both 
move on in one confused mass. The right of the 
Confederate line soon reaches an abatis which has 
been felled to protect the approach to some woods 
on the opposite heights. The troops, already disor- 
dered, become still more so among the felled timber. 
Behind this abatis some troops and artillery have 
been gathered to make a stand. Rodes finds it im- 
possible to push farther until the lines can be re- 
formed. The right is first halted, and then the whole 
Confederate fine. Rodes sends word at once to Jack- 
son, requesting that the third line (A. P. Hill's divi- 
sion) be sent forward to take the advance until the 
first and second can be reformed. 

" While this was being done, there was a lull in the 
storm of battle. Jackson had paused for a time in 
his pursuit ; Hooker was attempting to stop and 
reform his flying legions." 

During this splendid charge Jackson was the im- 
personation of military enthusiasm, dashing on at the 
head of his men, with the words of command, " For- 
ward !" " Press on !" continually ringing from his 
lips. He leaned forward upon his horse, and waved 
his hand, as though by its single strength he were 
trying to impel his men onward. As cheer after 
cheer rose from the Confederate line, announcing 
new successes, his flashing eyes and glowing cheeks 
showed how deeply he w^as moved, and he was ob- 
served frequently to look upwards and lift his right 
hand to heaven in prayer and thanksgiving. 


Thus far liis most sanguine hopes had been real- 
ized. His flank movement Avas a brilliant success — 
the enemy had been . surprised, and their right flank 
been driven back in confusion. But he knew that 
much had 3^et to be done before the victory could be 
complete. The first blow must be followed by others. 
He therefore deeply regretted the disorder in Avhich 
his own lines had fallen. After marching twenty 
miles, and fighting over three miles of difficult ground, 
it was no wonder that the men, feeling assured of 
victory, halted from weariness and broke ranks, as 
though the day's work were done. But though the 
enemy had been driven from an important defence, 
which might be reoccupied at any moment if the Con- 
federates failed to seize it, Jackson saw that every- 
thing depended on immediately reforming his lines. 
He despatched his staff in every direction to order 
the officers to get the men back into ranks and press 
forward. Dashing along the lines himself, almost 
unattended, he kept saying: " Men, get into line I get 
into line! Whose regiment is this? Colonel, get 
your men instantly into line." Turning to an officer 
who came up to report, he said : " Find General 
Eodes, and tell him to occupy that barricade at once 
with his troops." He then added: " I need your help 
for a time ; this disorder must be corrected. As you 
go along the right, tell the troops, from me, to get 
into line, and preserve their order." 

After this strenuous effort to restore order to his 
lines, he rode forward to make a reconnoissance him- 
self, and found that Hooker was indeed advancing a 
powerful body of fresh troops in his direction. Being 
pressed in front by General Lee, the Federal com- 


mander turned upon the foe in the rear, and endeav- 
ored to recapture the all-important barricade. General 
Jackson, accompanied by a part of his staff and sev- 
eral couriers, advanced on the turnpike in the direc- 
tion of the enemy about a hundred yards, when he 
was fired upon by a volley of musketry from his 
right front. The bullets whistled among the party, 
and struck several horses. This fire was evidently 
from the enemy, and one of his men caught his bridle- 
rein and said to him : '' General Jackson, you should 
not expose yourself so much." " There is no danger," 
he replied, " the enemy is routed. Go back and tell 
General Hill to press on." But in order to screen 
himself from the flying bullets, he rode from the road 
to the left and rear. The small trees and brushwood 
being very dense, it was difficult to effect a passage 
on horseback. While riding as rapidly as possible to 
the rear, he came in front of his own line of battle, 
who, having no idea that he, or any one but the enemy, 
was in their front, and mistaking the party for a body 
of Federal cavalry, opened a sharp fire upon them. 
From this volley General Jackson received his mortal 
wounds. His right hand was pierced by a bullet, his 
left arm was shattered by two balls, one above and 
one below the elbow, breaking the bones and sever- 
ing the main artery. His horse, " Little Sorrel," ter- 
rified by the nearness and suddenness of the fire, 
dashed off in the direction of the enemy, and it was 
with great difficulty that he could control him — his 
bridle hand being helpless, and the tangled brush- 
wood, through which he Avas borne, almost drag- 
ging him from his seat. But he seized the reins with 
his right hand, and, arresting the flight of his horse, 


brought him back into his own lines, where, ahnost 
fainting, he was assisted to the ground by Captain 
AVilbourne, his signal officer. By this lire several of 
his escort were killed and wounded, among the former 
was the gallant Captain Boswell, and every horse 
which was not shot down wheeled back in terror, 
bearing his rider towards the advancing enemy. The 
firing was arrested by Lieutenant Morrison, who, 
after his horse was killed under him, ran to the front 
of the firing line, and with much difficulty in making 
himself heard, told them they were firing into their 
own men. As soon as this was effected, he returned 
to find his general lying prostrate upon the ground, 
with Captain "Wilbourne and Mr. Winn by his side. 
He was wearing at the time an india-rubber over- 
coat over his uniform, as a protection from the damp- 
ness of the night. This Wilbourne was ripping up 
with a penknife to get at the wounded arm and 
stanch its bleeding. General A. P. Hill, who was 
near by, was speedily informed of the disaster and 
came at once. Dismounting from his horse, he bent 
down and asked, " General', are you much hurt V He 
replied, " Yes, general, I think I am ; and all my 
wounds were from my own men. I believe my arm 
is broken ; it gives me severe pain." " Are you hurt 
elsewhere, general ?" he was asked. " Yes, in my right 
hand." But when asked afterwards if it should be 
bound up, he said : " No, never mind ; it is a trifle."' 
And yet two of the bones were broken, and the palm 
was almost pierced through ! Amidst all his suffer- 
ings he uttered no complaint, and answered all ques- 
tions in a perfectly calm and self-possessed tone. He 
asked for Dr. McGuire, but when told that he was 


engaged in his duties far in the rear, he said to Cap- 
tain AVilbourne : " Then I wish you to get me a skil- 
ful surgeon." General Hill stated that a Dr. Barr 
was near at hand, and he was immediately summoned. 
Upon his arrival, General Jafckson whispered to Gen- 
eral Hill : '' Is he a skilful surgeon ?" The answer 
was that he stood high in his brigade, and all that 
would be required of him would be to take precau- 
tionary measures until Dr. McGuire could arrive. To 
this General Jackson answered, ''Yery good." His 
field-glass and haversack were removed from his per- 
son, and the latter was found to contam only a few 
official papers and two rehgious tracts. "While the 
sufferer was still lying prostrate, with a circle of 
his ministering attendants around him, two Federal 
soldiers, with muskets cocked, walked out from the 
brushwood, and approached within a few feet of the 
group. General Hill, in a perfectly quiet tone and 
manner, turned and said : '' Take charge of those men." 
In an instant two orderlies sprang forward and seized 
their guns, which the astonished soldiers yielded with- 
out any resistance. Lieutenant Morrison, hearing 
voices in the direction of the enemy, stepped to the 
edge of the wood to reconnoitre, and in the moon- 
light saw a section of artillery being unlimbered not 
over a hundred yards distant. Eeturning with all 
haste, he reported the fact, when General Hill gave 
orders that General Jackson should immediately be 
carried to the rear, and that no one should tell the 
troops that he was wounded. Eemounting his 
horse, he returned to his own command, and was 
soon afterwards himself disabled by a wound. Lieu- 
tenants Smith and Morrison, Captain Leigh, of Gen- 


eral Hill's staff, with a courier, now took General 
Jackson up in their arms, but after bearing him a 
short distance, he told them that he suffered so much 
pain from being carried that he would try to walk, 
and after they assisted him to his feet, he did walk 
as far as the turnpike. 

Just as the}' reached the road, the battery which 
had been seen to unlimber swept over them a volley 
of canister-shot — the balls hissing through the air, 
and crashing through the trees, but fortunately pass- 
ing over their heads. The whole party then lay down 
on the side of the road, shielding the general, as far 
as possible, by placing him on the lowest ground. 
While lying here, the earth around them was torn 
up by shot, covering them with dust, and a hurricane 
of lead and canister dashed ao^ainst the flintv o^ravel 
and stones of the road, making it literally glow with 
flashes and streaks of fire. So furious and deadly 
was the tempest, that the escape of any of the party 
seemed miraculous. Once General Jackson attempted 
to rise, but was restrained by his attendants, who 
sought to protect him with their own bodies. Lieu- 
tenant Smith threw his arm over him, holding him 
down and saying : " General, you must be still; it will 
cost you your life if you rise." With such fidelity 
did these young soldiers stand over the prostrate form 
of their beloved chief, trying to save his life, though 
it should be by the sacrifice of their own. 

The enemy soon changed from canister to shell and 
elevated their range, when the young men renewed 
their efforts to get General Jackson to the rear, sup- 
porting him with their strong arms, as he slowly and 
painfully dragged himself along. As the Confederate 


troops were hurrying to the front, they met the party, 
and the question came from the lips of ahnost every 
passer-b}^ " Whom have you there T' The general, 
not wishing his troops to recognize him, gave orders 
to leave the road and diverge into the woods. He 
said to his attendants : " Don't tell them who it is, 
but simply say it is a Confederate officer." Despite 
these precautions, he did not escape recognition by 
some of his men, who exclaimed with grief and dis- 
may : " Great God ! it is General Jackson !" General 
Pender, of North Carolina, was one of those who rec- 
ognized him, and after approaching and expressing 
his deep regret at his wounding, said to him : " The 
troops have suffered severely from the enemy's artil- 
lery, and are somewhat disorganized ; I fear we can- 
not maintain our position." Faint and exhausted as 
he was, a gleam of the old battle-fire flashed from his 
eyes, and instantlv he replied : " You must hold your 
ground. General Pender ; you must hold your ground, 
sir." This was the last order given by the hero of so 
many battle-fields. 

Growing more faint after this, he asked to be per- 
mitted to sit down and rest, but the dangers from the 
enemy's fire and from capture Avere too imminent, 
and a litter having now been procured from an ambu- 
lance corps, he was placed upon it, and the bearers 
hurried forward, still keeping out of the road to 
avoid the fire of the enemy. As they struggled 
through the dense thickets, his face was scratched 
and his clothing torn ; but this was nothing in com- 
parison with the agony caused by a fall from the 
litter. One of the bearers was shot in the arm, 
and, letting go his hold, the general fell violently 



to the ground, upon his wounded side, causing such 
pain that for the first time he was heard to utter 
a groan. His attendants quickly raised him up, 
and, finding the blood again flowing, and a look of 
deathly pallor upon his face, feared he might be expir- 
ing. Lieutenant Smith cried out, " Oh, general, are 
you seriously hurt ^"' '* No, Mr. Smith, don't trouble 
yourself about me," he replied, and presently added 
something about winning the battle first, and attend- 
ing to the wounded afterwards. He was again placed 
upon the litter, and carried a few hundred yards, 
under a continuous fire, when the party was met by 
Dr. McGuire with an ambulance. We will let him 
tell the rest of the harrowing story, until my arrival 
at his bedside. 




On meeting the wounded general, sajs Dr. Mc- 
Gaire : " I knelt down by him and said, ' I hope you 
are not badly hurt, general V He replied very calmly, 
but feebly, ' I am badly injured, doctor ; I fear I am 
dying.' After a pause he continued, ' I am glad you 
have come. I think the wound in my shoulder is still 
bleeding.' His clothe^ were saturated with blood, and 
hemorrhage was still going on from the wound. Com- 
pression of the artery with the finger arrested it, until, 
lio-hts being procured from the ambulance, the hand- 
kerchief, which had slipped a httle, was readjusted. 
His calmness amid the dangers that surrounded him, 
and at the supposed presence of death, and his uni- 
form politeness did not forsake him even under these 
most trying circumstances. His complete control, too, 
over his mind, enfeebled as it was by loss of blood 
and pain, was wonderful. His suffering at this time 
was intense ; his hands were cold, his skin clammy, 
his face pale, and his hps compressed and bloodless ; 
not a groan escaped him — not a sign of suffering, 
except the slight corrugation of his brow, the fixed, 
rigid face, and the thin lips, so tightly compressed 
that the impression of the teeth could be seen 
through them. Except these, he controlled by his 
iron will all evidences of emotion, and, more difficult 


than this even, he controlled that disposition to rest- 
lessness, which many of us have observed upon the 
field of battle, attending great loss of blood. Some 
whiskey and morphia were administered to him, and, 
placing him in the ambulance, it was started for the 
Corps Field Infirmary, at the Wilderness Tavern. 
Colonel Crutchfield, his chief of artillery, was also in 
the ambulance. He had been Avounded very seriously 
in the leg, and was suffering intensely. The general 
expressed very feelingly his sympathy for Crutchfield, 
and once, when the latter groaned aloud, he directed 
the ambulance to stop, and requested me to see if 
somethinof could not be done for his relief. Torches 
had been provided, and every means taken to carry 
them to the hospital as safely and easily as possible. 
I sat in the front part of the ambulance, with my fin- 
ger resting upon the artery above the wound to arrest 
bleeding if it should occur. When I was recognized 
by acquaintances and asked who was wounded, the 
general would tell me to say, ' A Confederate officer.' 
At one time he put his hand upon my head, and, pull- 
ing me down to him, asked if Crutchfield was seriously 
wounded. When answered, ' Xo, onh^ painfully hurt J 
he I'eplied, ' I am glad it is no worse.' In a few inin- 
utes afterwards Crutchfield did the same thing, and 
when told that the general w^as very seriously wound- 
ed, he groaned out, ' Oh, my God !' It was for this 
that the general directed the ambulance to be halted, 
and requested that something should be done for 
Crutchfield's relief. 

" After reaching the hospital he Avas placed in ))e(l, 
covered with blankets, and another drink of whiskey 
and water given him. Two hours and a half elapsed 


before sufficient reaction took place to warrant an 

"At two o'clock Sunday morning, Surgeons Black, 
Walls, and Coleman being present, I informed him 
that chloroform would be given him, and his wounds 
examined. I told him that amputation would proba- 
bly be required, and asked, if it was found necessary, 
whether it should be done at once. He replied prompt- 
ly, ' Yes, certainly, Dr. McGuire, do for me whatever 
you think best.' Chloroform was then administered, 
and as he began to feel its effects and its relief to 
the pain he was suffering, he exclaimed, 'What an 
infinite blessing!' and continued to repeat the word 
' blessing ' until he became insensible. The round ball 
(such as is used in a smooth-bore Springfield musket), 
which had lodged under the skin, upon the back of 
the right hand, was first extracted. It had entered 
the palm about the middle of the hand, and fractured 
two bones. The left arm was then amputated about 
two inches below the shoulder, very rapidly, and with 
slight loss of blood, the ordinary circular operation 
having been made. There were two wounds in this 
arm, the first and most serious was about three inches 
below the shoulder-joint, the ball dividing the mam 
artery, and fracturing the bone. The second was sev- 
eral inches in length — a ball having entered the out- 
side of the forearm, an inch below the elbow, came 
out upon the opposite side, just above the wrist. 
Throughout the whole of the operation, and until all 
the dressings were appUed, he continued insensible. 
Two or three slight wounds of the skin of his face, 
received from the branches of trees, when his horse 
dashed through the woods, were dressed simply with 


isinglass plaster. About half-past three o'clock Colo- 
nel (then Major) Pendleton, the assistant adjutant-gen- 
eral, arrived at the hospital and asked to see General 
Jackson. He stated that General Hill had been wound- 
ed, and that the troops were in great disorder. Gen- 
eral Stuart Avas in command, and had sent him to see 
the general. At first I declined to permit the inter- 
view, but the colonel urged that the safety of the army 
and the success of the cause depended upon his seeing 
him. When he entered the tent the general said : 
' Well, major, I am glad to see you. I thought you 
were killed.' Pendleton briefly explained the condi- 
tion of affairs, gave Stuart's message, and asked what 
should be done ? General Jackson was at once inter- 
ested, and asked, in his quick, rapid way, several ques- 
tions. When they were answered, he remained silent 
for a moment, evidently trying to think ; he contract- 
ed his brow, set his mouth, and for some moments was 
evidently trying to concentrate his thoughts. For a 
moment it was believed he had succeeded, for his nos- 
trils dilated, and his eye flashed its old fire, but it was 
only for a moment ; his face relaxed again, and pres- 
ently he answered, very feebly and sadly, ' I don't 
know, I can't tell ; say to General Stuart he must do 
what he thinks best.' Soon after this he slept for sev- 
eral hours and seemed to be doing well. The next 
morning he was free from pain, and expressed himself 
sanguine of recovery. He sent his aide-de-camp, Mor- 
rison, to inform his Avife of his injuries, and to bring 
her at once to him. The following note from General 
Lee was read to him that morning by Lieutenant 
Smith : ' I have just received your note, informing me 
that you were wounded. I cannot express my regret 


at the occurrence. Could I have directed events, I 
should have chosen, for the good of the country, to 
have been disabled in your stead. I congratulate you 
upon the victory which is due to your skill and ener- 
gy.' He replied, ' General Lee should give the praise 
to God.' About ten o'clock his right side began to 
pain him so much that he asked me to examine it. He 
said he had injured it in falling from the litter the 
night before, and believed he had struck it against a 
stump or a stone or a sapling. Xo evidence of injury 
could be discovered by examination ; the skin was not 
broken or bruised, and the lung performed, so far as I 
could tell, its proper function. Some simple appli- 
cation was recommended in the belief that the pam 
would soon disappear. 

'' At this time the battle was raging fearfully, and 
the sound of the cannon and musketry could be dis- 
tinctly heard at the hospital. The general's attention 
was attracted to it from the first, and when the noise 
was at its height, and indicated how fiercely the con- 
flict was being carried on, he directed all of his attend- 
ants, except Lieutenant Smith to return to the battle- 
field, and attend to their different duties. By eight 
o'clock, Sunday night, the pain in his side had disap- 
peared, and in all respects he seemed to be doing well. 
He inquired minutely about the battle and the differ- 
ent troops engaged, and his face would light up with 
enthusiasm and interest when told how this brigade 
acted, or that officer displayed conspicuous courage, 
and his head gave the peculiar shake from side to side, 
and he uttered his usual ' Good, good !' with unwonted 
energy when the gallant behavior of the Stonewall 
Brigade was alluded to. He said : ' The men of the 


brigade will be, some day, proud to say to their chil- 
dren, *' I Avas one of the Stonewall Brigade." ' He 
disclaimed any right of his own to the name Stone- 
wall. ' It belongs to the brigade, and not to me, for 
it was their steadfast heroism which earned it at First 
Manassas. They are a noble body of men.' This 
night he slept well, and was free from pain. A mes- 
sage was received from General Lee the next morn- 
ino\ directini^: me to remove the s^eneral to Guinev's 
Station as soon as his condition should justify it, as 
there was danger of capture by the Federals, who were 
threatening to cross Ely's Ford. In the meantime, to 
protect the hospital, some troops were sent to this 
point. The general objected to being moved, if, in my 
opinion, it would do him any injury. He said he had 
no objection to staying in the tent, and would prefer 
it, if his wife, when she came, could find lodging in a 
neighboring house. 'And if the enemy does come,' 
he added, ' I am not afraid of them ; I have always 
been kind to their wounded, and I am sure they will 
be kind to me.' General Lee sent word again, late 
that evening, that he must be moved, if possible, and 
preparations were made to leave the next morning. 
I was directed to accompany and remain with him, 
and my duties with the corps, as medical director, 
were turned over to the surgeon next in rank. Gen- 
eral Jackson had previously declined to permit me to 
go with him to Guiney's, because complaints had been 
so frequently made of general officers, when wounded, 
carrying off with them the surgeons belonging to their 
commands. AVhen informed of this order of the com- 
manding general, he said, ' General Lee has always 
been verv kind to me, and I tliank him.' Very early 


Tuesday morning he was placed in the ambulance, and 
started for Guiney's Station, and about eight o'clock 
that evening we arrived at the Chandler House, where 
we remained till he died. Captain Hotchkiss, with a 
party of engineers, was sent in front to clear the road 
of weed and stone, etc., and to order the wagons out 
of the track to let the ambulance pass. The rough 
teamsters sometimes refused to move their loaded 
wagons out of the way for an ambulance, until told 
that it contained Jackson, and then, with all possible 
speed, they gave the way, and stood with their hats 
oif, and weeping, as he went by. At Spottsylvania 
Court -House, and along the whole route, men and 
women rushed to the ambulance, bringing all the poor 
delicacies they had, and with tearful eyes they blessed 
him, and prayed for his recovery. He bore the jour- 
ney well, and was cheerful throughout the day. He 
talked freely about the late battle, and among other 
things said that he had intenfled to endeavor to cut 
the Federals off from the United States Ford, and, 
taking a position between them and the river, oblige 
them to attack him ; and he added, with a smile, ' My 
men sometimes fail to drive the enemy from their posi- 
tion, but they always fail to drive us away.' He spoke 
of Eodes, and alluded in high terms to his magnificent 
behavior on the field Saturday evening. He hoped he 
would be promoted. He thought promotions for gal- 
lantry should be made at once, upon the field, and they 
would be great incentives to gallantry in others. He 
spoke of Colonel Willis, who commanded the skirmish- 
ers of Rodes's Division, and praised him very highly, 
and referred to the deaths of Paxton and Bos well 
very feelingly. He alluded to them as officers of great 


merit and promise. The day was quite warm, and at 
one time he suffered with slight nausea. At his sug- 
gestion I placed over his stomach a wet towel, and he 
expressed great relief from it. After he arrived at 
the Chandler House, he ate some bread and tea with 
evident relish, and slept well throughout the entire 
night. "Wednesday he was thought to be doing re- 
markably well. He ate heartily for one in his condi- 
tion, and was uniformly cheerful. 

'' I found his Avounds to be doing very Avell to-day. 
Union by the first intention had taken place, to some 
extent in the stump, and the rest of the surface of the 
wound was covered with healthy granulations. The 
wound in his hand gave him little pain, and the dis- 
charge was healthy. . . . He expressed great satis- 
faction when told that his Avounds Avere healing, and 
asked if I could tell from their appearance hoAv long 
he Avould probably be kept from the field. Convers- 
ino- AA^ith Lieutenant Smith a few moments afterwards, 
he alluded to his injuries, and said, ' Many Avould re- 
gard them as a great misfortune, but I regard thein 
as one of the blessings of my life.' Smith replied, 
' All things Avork together for the good of them that 
love God.' ' Yes,' he answered, ' that's it, that's it.' 

" About one o'clock Thursday morning, Avhile I Avas 
asleep upon a lounge in his room, he directed his ser- 
vant, Jim, to apply a Avet toAvel to his stomach, to 
relieve an attack of nausea, Avith Avhich he Avas again 
troubled. The servant asked permission to first con- 
sult me, but the general, knowing that I had slept 
none for nearly three nights, refused to allow me to 
be disturbed, and demanded the toAvel. About day- 
light I Avas aroused, and found him suffering great 


pain. An examination disclosed plenro-pneumonia of 
the right side. I believed, and the consulting physi- 
cians concurred in the opinion, that it was attributable 
to the fall from the litter the night he was wounded. 
The general himself referred to this accident. I think 
the disease came on too soon after the application of 
the wet cloths to admit of the supposition, once be- 
lieved, that it was induced by them. The nausea, for 
which the cloths were applied that night, may have 
been the result of inflammation already begun. Con- 
tusion of the lung with extravasation of blood in his 
chest was probably produced by the fall referred to, 
and shock and loss of blood prevented any ill effects 
until reaction had been well established, and then 
inflammation ensued. . . . Towards the evening he 
became better, and hopes were again entertained of 
his recovery. 

" Mrs. Jackson arrived to-day, and nursed him faith- 
fully to the end. . . . The general's joy at the presence 
of his wife and child was very great, and for him 
unusually demonstrative." 

After recovering from the effects of chloroform, Gen- 
eral Jackson asked Lieutenant Smith whether he said 
anything when under its power, and he continued : " I 
have always thought it wrong to administer chloroform 
where there is a probability of immediate death. But 
it was, I think, the most delightful physical sensation 
I ever enjoyed. I had enough consciousness to know 
what was doing ; and at one time thought I heard the 
most delightful music that ever greeted my ears. I 
believe it was the sawing of the bone. But I should 
dislike, above all things, to enter eternity in such a con- 


dition." He afterwards said to other friends, '' What 
an inestimable blessing is chloroform to the sufferer!" 

After the operation, when Mr. Lacy was admitted 
to the tent, he exclaimed with deep feeling, "Oh, 
general, what a calamity I'' General Jackson, with 
his accustomed politeness, first thanked him for his 
sympathy, and then said : " You see me severely 
wounded, but not dej)ressed ; not unhappy. I believe 
it has been done according to God's holy will, and I 
acquiesce entirely in it. You may think it strange ; 
but you never saw me more perfectly contented than 
I am to-day ; for I am sure that my Heavenly Father 
designs this affliction for my good. I am perfectly 
satisfied that, either in this life, or in that which is 
to come, I shall discover that what is now regarded 
as a calamity is a blessing. And if it appears a great 
calamity, as it surely will be a great inconvenience, 
to be deprived of my arm, it will result in a great 
blessing. I can wait until God, in His own time, 
shall make known to me the object He has in thus 
afflicting me. But why should I not rather rejoice 
in it as a blessing, and not look on it as a calamity 
at all ? If it were in my power to replace my arm, I 
would not dare to do it, unless I could know it was 
the will of my Heavenly Father." 

In the course of this conversation he stated that, 
when he fell from the litter, he thought he should die 
upon the field, and gave himself up into the hands of 
God, without a fear, and in the possession of perfect 
peace. " It has been," he said, " a precious experience 
to me, that I was brought face to face with death, 
and found all was w^ell. I then learned an important 
lesson, that one who has been the subject of convert- 


ing grace, and is the child of God, can, in the midst 
of the severest sufferings, fix the thoughts upon God 
and heavenly things, and derive great comfort and 
peace ; but that one who had never made his peace 
with God would be unable to control his mind, under 
such sufferings, so as to understand properly the way 
of salvation, and repent and believe on Christ. I felt 
that if I had neglected the salvation of my soul be- 
fore, it would have been too late then." 

When General Lee was first informed of the vic- 
tory gained by General Jackson's flank movement, 
and almost in the same breath the great catastrophe 
of the fall of his lieutenant was announced to him, he 
exclaimed with deep emotion, "Ah, any victory is 
dearly bought wliich deprives us of the services of 
Jackson, even for a short time." He was then told 
that Jackson had said, " The enemy should be pressed 
in the morning." '' Those people shall be immedi- 
ately pressed," he replied, and forthwith addressed 
himself to the work. 

General Stuart was placed in command of Jack- 
son's corps, and as he led them to battle he gave the 
order, •' Charge ! and remember Jackson !" an ap- 
peal which was answered by their courage on the 
second day of the battle of Chancellorsville. 

Jackson was asked what he thought of Hooker's 
plan of campaign, and his reply was : " It was, in the 
main, a good conception, sir; an excellent plan. But 
he should not have sent away his cavalry ; that was 
his great blunder. It was that which enabled me to 
turn him without his being aware of it, and to take 
him by his rear. Had he kept his cavalry with him, 
his plan would have been a very good one.'' In speak- 


ing of this flank movement, he said : " Our movement 
yesterday was a great success ; I think the most suc- 
cessful mihtary movement of my life. But I expect 
to receive far more credit for it than I deserve. Most 
men "will think that I had planned it all from the first; 
but it was not so. I simply took advantage of cir- 
cumstances as they were presented to me in the provi- 
dence of God. I feel that His hand led me — let us 
give Him all the glory." 

On Tuesday he was told that Hooker was in- 
trenched north of Chancellorsville, when he said, 
'' That is bad ; very bad." Afterwards, upon awaken- 
ing from a disturbed sleep from the influence of opi- 
ates, he exclaimed, "Major Pendleton, send in and 
see if there is higher ground back of Chancellorsville." 

During the fe\v days succeeding his fall, when he 
and his friends were buoyed up by the hope of his 
recovery, he conversed freely and cheerfully, and ex- 
pressed a desire to be taken, as soon as he was able, 
to his beloved home at Lexington, where, he said, 
the pure, bracing mountain air would soon heal his 
wounds and renew his strength and health. 

He requested Mr. Lacy to come every morning at 
ten o'clock and read the Bible, and have prayers at 
his bedside. During these morning hours he greatly 
enjoyed religious conversation, and expressed his un- 
varying and steadfast love and hope in his Eedeemer. 
Although he had avowed his perfect willingness to 
die whenever God called him, he believed that his 
time was not yet come, and that God still had a Avork 
for him to do in defence of his country. 

" He delighted to enlarge on his favorite topics of 


practical religion, which were such as these : The 
Christian should carry his religion into everything. 
Christianity makes a man better in any lawful call- 
ing; it makes the general a better commander, and 
the shoemaker a better workman. In the case of a 
cobbler, or the tailor, for instance, religion will pro- 
duce more care in promising Avork, more punctuality, 
and more fidelit}^ in executing it, from conscientious 
motives ; and these homely examples were fair illus- 
trations of its value in more exalted functions. So, 
prayer aids any man, in any lawful business, not only 
by bringing down the divine blessing, Avhich is its 
direct and primary object, but bv harmonizing his 
own mind and heart. In the commander of an army 
at the critical hour, it calms his perplexities, moder- 
ates his anxieties, steadies the scales of judgment, 
and thus preserves him from exaggerated and rash 
conclusions. Again he urged that every act of man's 
life should be a religious act. He recited with much 
pleasure the ideas of Doddridge, where he pictured 
liimself as spiritualizing every act of his daily life; 
as thinking, when he washed himself, of the cleans- 
ing blood of Calvary ; as praying, while he put on his 
garments, that he might be clothed with the robe of 
Christ's righteousness ; as endeavoring, while he was 
eating, to feed upon tli^ Bread of Heaven. So Jack- 
son was wont to say that the Bible furnished men 
with rules for everything. If they would search, he 
said, they would find a precept, an example, or a gen- 
eral principle, applicable to every possible emergency 
of duty, no matter what was a man's calling. There 
the military man might find guidance for every 
exigency. Then, turning to Lieutenant Smith, he 


asked him. smiling: 'Can you tell me where the 
Bible gives generals a model for their official reports 
of battles f The lieutenant answered, laughing, that 
it never entered his mind to think of looking for such 
a thing in the Scriptures. 'Nevertheless,' said the 
general, 'there are such; and excellent models, too. 
Look, for instance, at the narrative of Joshua's bat- 
tle with the Amalekites; there you have one. It 
has clearness, brevity, fairness, modesty ; and it traces 
the victory to its right source — the blessing of God." 

One day he asked Dr. McGuire whether he sup- 
posed the diseased persons healed by the miraculous 
touch of the Saviour ever suffered again from the 
same malady. He did not believe they did ; that the 
healing virtue of Christ was too potent, and that the 
poor paralytic to whom He had once said, '^ I will : 
be thou healed," never shook again with palsy. And 
then, as though invoking the same aid, he exclaimed : 
'^Oh for infinite power!" After quietly reflecting 
awhile, he inquired of Mr. Smith : '' What were the 
headquarters of Christianity after the crucifixion?" 
He rephed that Jerusalem was at first the chief seat ; 
but after the dispersion of the disciples thence by 
persecution, there was none for a time, until Antioch, 
Iconium, Eome, and Alexandria, were finally estab- 
lished as centres of influence. The general inter- 
rupted him: "Why do you say 'centres of influence ;' 
is not headquarters a better term ?" After some fur- 
ther explanations by Mr. Smith (who Avas a theo- 
loo-ical student), in which General Jackson was much 
interested, he said : •' Mr. Smith, I wish you would 
get the map, and show me precisely Avhere Iconium 


was." He replied that he did not think he coiikl find 
a map, when the general said, " Yes, sir ; you will 
find an atlas in my old trunk." After a fruitless 
search, Mr. Smith suggested that it was probably left 
in his portable desk. He said, '' Yes, you are right, I 
left it in my desk " (naming the shelf). Then after con- 
sidering a moment, he added : " Mr. Smith, I wish you 
Avould examine into that matter, and report to meP 

After the bright promise of his recovery began to 
diminish, and his physicians were trying every known 
remedy, one of them aroused him from a troubled 
sleep to administer some draught, saying, '^ Will you 
take this, general ?" He looked up steadily into his 
face, and resolutely said, "Do your duty." He re- 
peated the command, " Do your duty " — his mind 
evidently wandering back to the camps and battle- 
fields, on which he had so often and so faithfully urged 
this injunction. 

In resuming my sad story it will be explained why 
I was not able to reach my husband for five days 
after he was wounded, but no tongue or pen can 
express the torturing suspense and distress of mind 
which I endured during this period of enforced ab- 
sence from him. As I have before stated, kind friends 
took me to their hospitable homes in Eichmond. 
After spending a few days with Mrs. Letcher in the 
governor's mansion, I was invited by Mrs. Hoge and 
Mrs. William Brown (who lived together) to the resi- 
dence of the Kev. Dr. Moses D. Hoge, who was at 
that time in Europe, on a mission from the Confeder- 
ate States government, to procure Bibles for the sol- 
diers. These two ladies were lovely and pleasant in 
their lives, which ^vere redolent with Christian graces 


and usefulness, and much of their time was devoted to 
ministering to the soldiers. For five days I heard not 
one word directly from my husband, but despatches 
from the battle-field were constantly received by the 
government, representing all as going well, and victory 
was confidently expected. 

On Sunday morning, May 3d, as we arose from 
family worship in Dr. Hoge's parlor, Dr. Brown very 
sadly and feelingly informed me that the news had 
come that General Jackson had been wounded — se- 
verely, but it was hoped not dangerously. This pain- 
ful shock can be better imagined than described. 
Although I had never for one moment since the war 
began lost my solicitude for his safety, still God had 
so often covered his head in the day of battle, had 
brought him through so many dangers, that I felt 
that his precious life would still be spared. With all 
my agonizing distress now, I could not entertain any 
other thought or belief than this. Despatches were 
sent at once inquiring into his condition, and asking 
if I could go to him. He was reported as doing well, 
but the Avay was not open for me to come yet. The 
raiding - parties of the enemy were operating all 
through the intervening country — all passenger trains 
were stopped, and to go through the country in pri- 
vate conveyance exposed travellers to capture. So 
great was my impatience to go that I was willing to 
risk this danger, but the railroad authorities were so 
confident of opening the way from day to day that 
friends urged me to wait until this could be done. 
On Tuesday my brother Joseph arrived, to my great 
relief, to take me to my husband, but my disappoint- 
ment was only increased by his report that it had 


taken him nearly three days to ride through the coun- 
try and elude the raiding enemy, and this confirmed 
the conviction of my friends that I should await the 
opening of the railroad. From Joseph were learned 
the particulars of the wounds of General Jackson and 
the amputation of his arm, but he w\as thought to be 
doing as well as possible under the circumstances, and 
was brave and cheerful in spirit. E very thin o- was 
said and done to cheer and encourage me, but oh the 
harrowing agony of that long waiting, day after day ! 
for it was not until Thursday morning that the block- 
ade was broken, and we went up on an armed train 
prepared to fight its way through. During all this 
long period of anxiety and suspense, my unconscious 
little nestling was all sweetness and sunshine, shed- 
ding the only brightness and comfort over my dark- 
ened pathway. 

A few hours of unmolested travel brought us to 
Guiney-s Station, and we were taken at once to the 
residence of Mr. Chandler, w^iich was a large country- 
house, and very near it, in the yard, was a small, 
humble abode, in which lay my precious, suffering 
husband. The Chandlers were extremely kind— the 
good hostess expressing great regret that General 
Jackson was not in her own dwelhng, and receiving 
the very best of everything she had to give ; but the 
house was occupied by sick and wounded soldiers, 
some of whom were suffering with erysipelas, and it 
was the surgeons who had selected the out-house for 
the general's own safety. Upon my arrival I was 
met by a member of his staff, who, in answer to my 
anxious inquiry, said the general w^as doing " pretty 
well ;" but from his tone and manner I knew some- 


thing was Avrong, and my heart sank hke lead. He 
said the doctor was then engaged in dressing his 
wounds, and I could not be admitted to his room un- 
til this was over. The time could not have been long, 
but it seemed to me hours, so sorely had I already 
been tried by '' hope deferred that maketh the heart 
sick." While I was walking off my impatience on 
the piazza, my attention was attracted by a party of 
soldiers within a stone's-throw of the house, digging 
a ffrave, but soon I was horrified to see them exhum- 
ing a coffin, and placing it above the ground. Upon 
inquirv it proved to be that of General E. F. Paxton, 
of Lexington, who had fallen in the late battle, whose 
body was to be taken to his former Jiome for its final 
interment. My husband's own neighbor and friend ! 
and I knew the young wife, and remembered how I 
had seen her weeping bitterly as she watched his de- 
parture from her in those first days of the war, when 
all our hearts Avere well-nigh bursting with foreboding 
and dread. iSiow the cruel war had done its worst 
for he/\ and she was left widowed, and her children 
fatherless I 

My own heart almost stood still under the weight 
of horror and apprehension which then oppressed 
me. This ghastly spectacle Avas a most unfitting 
preparation for my entrance into the presence of my 
stricken husband ; but when I Avas soon afterwards 
summoned to his cliamber, the sight Avhicli there 
met my eyes Avas far more appalling, and sent such 
a thrill of agony and heart-sinking through me as I 
had never known before ! Oh, the fearful change 
since last I had seen him ! It required the strongest 
effort of which I Avas capable to maintain my self-con- 


trol. When he left me on the morning of the 29th, 
going forth so cheerfully and bravely to the call of 
duty, he was in the full flush of vigorous manhood, 
and during that last, blessed visit, I never saw him 
look so handsome, so happy, and so noble. JSfow, his 
fearful wounds, his mutilated arm, the scratches 
upon his face, and, above all, the desperate pneumo- 
nia, which was flushing his cheeks, oppressing his 
breathing, and benumbing his senses, wrung my soul 
with such grief and anguish as it had never before ex- 
perienced. He had to be aroused to speak to me, and 
expressed much joy and thankfulness at seeing me; 
but he was too much afi^ected by morphia to resist 
stupor, and soon seemed to lose the consciousness of 
my presence, except Avhen I spoke or ministered to 
him. From the time I reached him he was too ill to 
notice or talk much, and he lay most of the time in a 
semi-conscious state ; but when aroused, he recognized 
those about him and consciousness would return. 
Soon after I entered his room he was impressed by 
the woful anxiety and sadness betrayed in my face, 
and said : " My darling, you must cheer up, and not 
wear a long face. I love cheerfulness and brightness 
in a sick-room." And he requested me to speak dis- 
tinctly, as he wished to hear every w^ord I said. 
Whenever he awakened from his stupor, he always 
had some endearing words to say to me, such as, " My 
darling, you are very much loved ;" " You are one of 
the most precious little waives in the world." He told 
me he knew I would be glad to take his place, but 
God knew what Avas best for us. Thinking it would 
cheer him more than anything else to see the baby in 
whom he had so delighted, I proposed several times 


to brinof her to his bedside, but he always said, " Not 
yet ; wait till I feel better." He was invariably pa- 
tient, never uttering a murmur or complaint. Some- 
times, in slight delirium, he talked, and liis mind was 
then generally upon his military duties — caring for 
his soldiers, and giving such directions as these : 
'• Tell Major Hawkes to send forward provisions to 
the men ;'' '' Order A. P. Hill to prepare for action ;'' 
" Pass the infantry to the front," etc. Our friends 
around us, seeing how critical was his condition, and 
how my whole time was given up to him, determined 
to send to Richmond for Mrs. Hoge to come to my re- 
lief, and assist in taking care of my baby. Hetty had 
been faithful to her little charge, but the presence of 
Mrs. Hoge, who was of a singular!}^ bright, affection- 
ate, and sympathetic nature, and her loving ministra- 
tions in this time of sorest trial, were of inestimable 
value and comfort. 

Friday and Saturday passed in much the same way 
— bringing no favorable change to the dear sufferer ; 
indeed, his fever and restlessness increased, and, al- 
though everything was done for his relief and benefit, 
he was growing perceptibly weaker. On Saturday 
evening, in the hope of soothing him, I proposed read- 
ing some selections from the Psalms. At first he re- 
plied that he was suffering too much to listen, but 
very soon he added : " Yes, we must never refuse 
that. Get the Bible and read them." 

As night approached, and he grew more Avearied, 
he requested me to sing to him — asking that the songs 
should be the most spiritual that could be selected. 
My brother Joseph assisted me in singing a few 
hymns, and at my husband's request we concluded 
with the 51st Psalm in verse : 


" Show pity, Lord ; O Lord, forgive." 

The singing had a quieting effect, and he seemed 
to rest in perfect peace. 

Dr. S. B. Morrison, a relative of mine, and Dr. 
David Tucker, of Riciimond, had both been called in 
consultation by Dr. McGuire. As Dr. Morrison was 
examining the patient, he looked up pleasantly at 
him, and said, " That's an old familiar face." 

On Saturday afternoon he asked to see his chaplain, 
Mr. Lacy, but his respiration being now very difficult, 
it was not thought prudent for him to converse, and 
an attempt was made to dissuade him. But he was 
so persistent that it was deemed best to gratify him. 
When Mr. Lacy entered he inquired of him if he was 
trying to further those views of Sabbath observance 
of which he had spoken to him. Upon being assured 
that this was being done, he expressed much gratifica- 
tion, and talked for some time upon that subject — his 
last care and effort for the church of Christ being to 
secure the sanctification of the Lord's day. 

Apprehending the nearness of his end, Mr. Lacy 
wished to remain with him on Sunday, but he insisted 
that he should go, as usual, and preach to the soldiers. 
When Major Pendleton came to his bedside about 
noon, he inquired of him, " Who is preaching at 
headquarters to-day ?" When told that Mr. Lacy 
was, and that the whole army was praying for him, 
he said, " Thank God ; they are very kind." As soon 
as the chaplain appeared at headquarters that morn- 
ing. General Lee anxiously inquired after General 
Jackson's condition, and upon hearing how hopeless 
it was, he exclaimed, with deep feeling : " Surely 
General Jackson must recover. God will not take him 


from us, now that we need him so much. Surely he 
will be spared to us. in answer to the many prayers 
which are offered for him/' And upon Mr. Lacy's 
leaving, he said : " AVhen you return, I trust a^ou 
will find him better. AYhen a suitable occasion offers, 
give him my love, and tell him that I wrestled in 
prayer for him last night as I never prayed, I believe, 
for m3'self ." Here his voice became choked with emo- 
tion, and he turned away to hide his intense feeling. 

Shortly after the general's fall, and before his situa- 
tion had grown so critical, General Lee sent him, by 
a friend, the following message : " Give him my af- 
fectionate reo-ards, and tell him to make haste and wt 
well, and come back to me as soon as he can. He has 
lost his left arm, but I have lost my right arm." 

Mr. Lacy was truly a spiritual comforter and help 
to me in those dark and agonizing days. Often when 
I was called out of the sick-chamber to my little nurs- 
ling, before returning we would meet together, and. 
bowing down before the throne of grace, pour out 
our hearts to God to spare that precious, useful life, 
if consistent loitli His laill ; for w^ithout this condi- 
tion, which the Saviour himself enjoins, we dared not 
plead for that life, infinitely dearer, as it was, than 
my own. 

In order to stimulate his fast-faihng powers, he 
was offered some brandy and water, but he showed 
great repugnance to it. saying excitedly, '' It tastes 
like fire, and cannot do me any good." Early on 
Sunday morning, the lOtli of iMay, I was called out 
of the sick-room by Dr. Morrison, who told me that 
the doctors, having done everything tliat human skill 
could devise to stav the hand of death, had lost all 


hope, and that my precious, brave, noble husband 
could not live ! Indeed, life was fast ebbing awa}^ and 
they felt that they must prepare me for the inevi- 
table event, which was now a question of only a few^ 
short hours. As soon as I could arise from this stun- 
ning blow, I told Dr. Morrison that my husband must 
be informed of his condition. I well knew that death 
to him was but the opening of the gates of pearl into 
the inneffable glories of heaven ; but I had lieard him 
say that, although he was willing and ready to die at 
any moment that God might call him, still he would 
prefer to have a few hours' preparation before entering 
into the presence of his Maker and Redeemer. 

I therefore felt it to be my duty to gratify his 
desire. He now appeared to be fast sinking into un- 
consciousness, but he heard my voice and understood 
me better than others, and God o^ave me the streno^th 
and composure to hold a last sacred interview with 
him, in which I tried to impress upon him his situa- 
tion, and learn his dying wishes. This was all the 
harder, because he had never, from the time that he 
first rallied from his wounds, thought he would die, 
and had expressed the belief that God still had 
work for him to do, and would raise him up to do 
it. "When I told him the doctors thought he would 
soon be in heaven, he did not seem to comprehend 
it, and showed no surprise or concern. But upon 
repeating it, and asking him if he was willing for 
God to do with him according to His own will, he 
looked at me calmly and intelligentl}^, and said, 
" Yes, I jprefer it^ I jprefer UP I then told him that 
before that day was over he would be with the 
blessed Saviour in His glory. With perfect distinct- 


ness and intelligence, he said, '-I will he an infinite 
gainer to be translated." I then asked him if it was 
his wish that I should return, with our infant, to 
niv father's home in North Carohna. He answered, 
'' Yes, you have a kind, good father ; but no one is 
so kind and good as your Heavenly Father." He 
said he had many things to sa}^ to me, but he was 
then too weak. Preferring to know his own desire 
as to the place of his burial, I asked him the ques- 
tion, but his mind w^as now o^rowing- clouded as^ain. 
and at first he replied, "Charlotte," and afterwards 
" Charlottesville.'' I then asked him if he did not 
wish to be buried in Lexington, and he answered at 
once, " Yes, Lexington, and in my own jplotP He 
had bought this plot himself, when our first child 
died, as a burial pla(^e for his family. 

Mrs. Hoge now came in, bearing little Julia in her 
arms, with Hetty following, and although he had al- 
most ceased to notice anything, as soon as they entered 
the door he looked up, his countenance brightened 
with delight, and he never smiled more sweetly as he 
exclaimed, " Little darling ! sweet one !" She was 
seated on the bed by his side, and after w-atching her 
intently, with radiant smiles, for a few moments, he 
closed his eyes, as if in prayer. Though she was suf- 
fering the pangs of extreme hunger, from long absence 
from her mother, she seemed to forget her discomfort 
in the joy of seeing that loving face beam on her once 
more, and she looked at him and smiled as long as he 
continued to notice her. Tears were shed over that 
dying bed by strong men who were unused to weep, 
and it was touching to see the genuine grief of his 
servant, Jim, who nursed him faithfully to the end. 


He now sank rapidly into unconsciousness, murmur- 
ing disconnected words occasionally, but all at once 
he spoke out very cheerfully and distinctly the beau- 
tiful sentence which has become immortal as his last : 
" Let us cross over the river, and rest under the shade 
of the trees." 

"Was his soul wandering back in dreams to the 
river of his beloved Valley, the Shenandoah (the ' river 
of sparkling waters '), whose verdant meads and groves 
he had redeemed from the invader, and across whose 
floods he had so often won his passage through the 
toils of battle? Or was he reaching forward across 
the Eiver of Death, to the golden streets of the Celes- 
tial City, and the trees whose leaves are for the heal- 
ing of the nations ? It was to these that God was bring- 
ing him, through his last battle and victory ; and un- 
der their shade he walks, with the blessed company of 
the redeemed." 

General Jackson had expressed the desire, when in 
health, that he might enter into the rest that remains 
for God's people on the Lord's day. His wish was 
now gratified, and his Heavenly Father translated him 
from the toils and trials of earth, soon after the noon 
of as beautiful and perfect a May day as ever shed its 
splendor upon this world, to those realms of everlast- 
ing rest and bliss where 

" Sabbaths have no end, 
And the noontide of glory eternally reigns." 

Never shall I forget Mr. Lacy's ministrations of con- 
solation to my bleeding heart on that holiest of Sab- 
bath afternoons. Seated by my bedside, he talked so 
of Heaven, giving such glowing descriptions of its 


blessedness, and following in imagination the ran- 
somed, glorified spirit, through the gates into the city, 
that at last peace, the " peace of God," came into my 
soul, and I felt that it was selfish to wish to bring 
back to this sorrowful earth, for mij happiness, one 
who had made such a bhssful exchange. But this 
frame of mind did not last, and many were the sub- 
sequent conflicts to attain and keep this spirit. 

The remains were carefully prepared by the loving 
hands of the staff-ofiicers, the body being embalmed 
and clothed in an ordinary dress, and then wrapped 
in a dark-blue military overcoat. Ilis Confederate 
uniform had been cut almost to pieces by his attend- 
ants, in their endeavor to reach and bind up his wounds, 
on the night of his fall. Late in the evening I went 
into Mr. Chandler's parlor to see all tliat Avas left of 
the one who had been to me the truest, tenderest, and 
dearest of all the relations of earth — the husband of 
whom I had been so proud, and for whom I thought 
no honors or distinctions too great ; but above all this 
I prized and revered his exalted Christian character, 
and knew that God had now given him ''a crown of 

Yet how unspeakable and incalculable was his loss 
to me and that fatherless baby ! Dead ! in the merid- 
ian of his grand life, before he had attained the age 
of forty years ! But " alive in C/rrist;^ for evermore ! 

All traces of suffering had disappeared from the 
noble face, and, although somewhat emaciated, the 
expression was serene and elevated, and he looked far 
more natural than I had dared to hope. 

That night, after a few hours' sleep from sheer ex- 
haustion, I awoke, when all in my chamber was per- 


feet stillness, and the full moon poured a flood of light 
through the windows, glorious enough to lift my soul 
heavenwards ; but oh ! the agony and anguish of those 
silent midnight hours, when the terrible reality of my 
loss and the desolation of widowhood forced itself 
upon me, and took possession of my whole being ! 
My unconscious little one lay sweetly sleeping by my 
side, and my kind friend, Mrs. Hoge, w^as near ; but I 
strove not to awaken them, and all alone I stemmed 
the torrent of grief which seemed insupportable, nntil 
prayer to Him, who alone can comfort, again brought 
peace and quietness to my heart. 

The next morning I went once more to see the re- 
mains, which were now in the casket, and were cov- 
ered with spring flowers. His dear face w^as wreathed 
with the lovely lily of the valley — the emblem of hu- 
mility — his own predominating grace, and it seemed to 
me no flowers could have been so appropriate for him. 
Since then, I never see a lily of the valley without its 
recalling the tenderest and most sacred associations. 

On Monda}^ morning began the sad journey to 
Eichmond. A special car had been set apart for us, in 
which were Mr. Lacy and the staff-officers, while Mrs. 
Hoge and Mrs. Chandler were my attendants, and 
proved themselves the kindest of friends and comfort- 
ers. Upon reaching the suburbs of the city, the train 
stopped, and we were met by Mrs. Governor Letcher 
and other ladies, with several carriages, and driven 
through the most retired streets to the governor's 
mansion. Kind friends had also in readiness for me 
a mourning outfit. These were indeed most thought- 
ful considerations on their part, and could not have 
been more gratefully appreciated. 


The funeral cortege then proceeded on its way into 
the citv, and was followed for two miles bv thrones 
of people. 

" Business had been suspended, and the whole city 
came forth to meet the dead chieftain. Amidst a sol- 
emn silence, only broken by the boom of the minute- 
guns and the wails of a military dirge, the coffin was 
borne into the governor's gates, and hidden for a time 
from the eyes of the multitude, that were wet with 

The casket, enveloped in the Confederate flag, and 
laden with spring flowers, was placed in the centre of 
the reception-room in the Executive Mansion. It was 
here that I looked upon the face of my husband for 
the last time. Xo change had taken place, but, the 
coffin having been sealed, the beloved face could only 
be seen through the glass plate, which was disappoint- 
ing and unsatisfactory. In honor of the dead, the 
next day a great civic and military procession took 
place. The body was carried through the main streets 
of the city, the pall-bearers being six major and brig- 
adier generals, dressed in full uniform. The hearse, 
draped in mourning, and drawn by four white horses, 
was followed by his horse, led by a groom ; next by 
his staff-officers ; regiments of infantry and artillery ; 
then a vast array of officials — the President, Cabinet, 
and all the general officers in Richmond — after whom 
came a multitude of dignitaries and citizens ; and then 
all returned to the Capitol. 

'' Every place of business was closed, and every ave- 
nue thronged with solemn and tearful spectators, while 
a silence more impressive than that of the Sabbath 
brooded over the whole town. "When the hearse 


reached the steps of the Capitol, the pall-bearers, 
headed by General Longstreet, the great comrade of 
the departed, bore the corpse into the lower house of 
the Congress, where it was placed on a kind of altar, 
draped with snowy white, before the speaker's chair. 
The coffin was still enfolded with the white, blue, and 
red of the Confederate flag. 

" The Congress of the Confederate States had a short 
time before adopted a design for their flag, and a large 
and elegant model had just been completed, the first 
ever made, which was intended to l)e unfurled from 
the roof of the Capitol. This flag the President had 
sent, as the gift of the countrj^, to be the winding- 
sheet of General Jackson.'- 

During the remainder of the day the body lay in 
state, and was visited by fully twenty thousand per- 
sons—the women bringing flowers, until not only the 
bier was covered, but the table on which it rested over- 
flowed with piles of these numerous tributes of afl'ec- 

At the hour appointed for closing the doors the 
multitude was still streaming in, and an old wounded 
soldier was seen pressing forward to take his last look 
at the face of his loved commander. He was told that 
he was too late — the casket was then being closed for 
the last time, and the order had been given to clear 
the hall. He still endeavored to advance, when one 
of the marshals threatened to arrest him if he did not 
obey orders. The old soldier hereupon lifted up the 
stump of his mutilated arm, and with tears streaming 
from his eyes, exclaimed : " By this arm which I lost 
for my country, I demand the privilege of seeing 
my general once more." The kind heart of Governor 


Letcher was so touched b}^ this a])peal that at his 
intercession the old soldier's petition was granted. 

The tears which were dropped over his bier by strong 
men and gentle women were the most true and hon- 
orable tributes that could be paid him, and even little 
children were held up by their parents that they might 
reverently behold his face and stamp his name upon 
their memories. 

While all these public demonstrations were taking 
place in the Capitol, how different was the scene in 
my darkened chamber, near by ! A few loving friends 
came to mingle their tears with mine, among whom 
was my motherly friend, Mrs. William X. Page, and 
my eldest brother, Major W. "W. Morrison, arrived 
that day from Korth Carolina. Both of these dear 
ones accompanied me on the remainder of the sad pil- 
grimage to Lexington. I also received a precious visit 
from the Kev. Dr. T. Y. Moore, whom I had never 
met before, but his winning gentleness of face, his 
selections of the most comforting passages of Script- 
ure — such as the l-ith chapter of John, beginning, 
" Let not your heart be troubled ; ye believe in God, 
believe also in me '• — and his fervent, touching prayer 
could not have been more grateful and soothing — 
proving balm, indeed, to my wounded, crushed heart. 
I never saw him again, but he, too, has long since 
joined that " army of the living God,'' 

'• Part of -whose host have crossed the flood, 
And part are crossing now." 

Little Julia was an object of great interest to her 
father's friends and admirers, and so numerous were 
the requests to see her that Hetty, finding the child 


gro\Ying worried at so much notice and handling, 
sought a refuge beyond the reach of the crowd. She 
ensconced herself, with her little charge, close to the 
wall of the house, underneath my window in the back 
yard, and there I heard her crooning, and bewailing 
that " people would give her baby no rest." 

On Wednesday morning we again set out on our 
protracted funeral journey, going by the way of 
Gordonsville to Lynchburg, and all along the route, 
at every station at which a stop was made, were as- 
sembled crowds of people, and many were the floral 
offerings handed in for the bier. His child was often 
called for, and, on several occasions, was handed in 
and out of the car windows to be kissed. 

Xo stop was made at Lynchburg, but a vast throng 
was there to attest their interest and affection, and to 
present flowers. Here we took the canal-boat which 
was to convey us to Lexington, and on Thursda}^ even- 
ing, with our precious burden, we reached the little 
village which had been so dear to him, and where his 
body was now to repose until " the last trump shall 
sound " and " this mortal shall have put on immortal- 

At Lexington our pastor. Dr. White, and our 
friends and neighbors met us in tears and sorrow. 
The remains were taken in charge by the corps of 
cadets of the Virginia Military Institute, and carried 
to the lecture -room where General Jackson, while 
professor, had taught for ten years, and were guarded 
during the night by his former pupils. 

On Friday, May 15th, the body was again escorted 
by the officers and cadets of the Institute, together 
with the citizens, to the Presbyterian Church, in 


which he had so loved to worship, where the services 
were conducted in the simplest manner by the pas- 
tor and other visiting ministers. Conspicuous among 
these was General Jackson's valued friend. Dr. Ram- 
sey, of L3mchburg, who offered a prayer of wonder- 
ful pathos. The hymn " How blest the righteous 
when he dies !" was sung, after which Dr. White read 
the 15th chapter of I. Corinthians — that sublime 
description of the resurrection of Christ and of the 
believer; and then delivered an address, which was 
as just and appropriate as it was heartfelt and affect- 
ing. The casket, followed by a long procession of 
people, from far and near, was borne to the cemetery, 
and. with military honors, was at last committed to 
the grave. 

The spot where he rests is " beautiful for situa- 
tion '' — the gentle eminence commanding the loveliest 
views of peaceful, picturesque valleys, beyond which, 
like faithful sentinels, rise the everlasting hills. 

My pastor took me to his own home, and never 
could the loving-kindness and sympathy of true 
hearts be exceeded by that of himself, his family, 
and the good people of Lexington to me, in this hour 
of deepest affliction and bereavement. When the 
time came for my sad departure from my once happy, 
married home, the noble people of Virginia extended 
to me every kindness. I was provided with two 
escorts to convey me to my father's home in North 
Carolina ; one of General Jackson's staff being de- 
tailed by the military authorities to attend me; and 
the Virginia Military Institute, wishing to do honor 
to the name of its late professor, also sent one of his 
colleagues upon the same mission. 1 mention these 




facts simply in token of gratitude, and realizing that 
these and all the tributes paid to my hero-husband 
are but evidences of the love and veneration in which 
his name and memory are enshrined in the hearts of 
his countrymen, and of the good and noble of all 

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